logo Drosophila genes listed by biochemical function
Intracellular signaling proteins A - L || M - Z
Abelson Interacting Protein
regulates WASP-/WAVE mediated F-actin formation and modulates the activity of the Abelson tyrosine kinase -
recruits EGFR to the membrane to promote SOP development
Abl oncogene
non receptor tyrosine kinase with SH2 and SH3 domains
activated Cdc42 kinase - an evolutionarily conserved non-receptor tyrosine kinases - anti-apoptotic - interacts with Drk (Grb2 homolog)
and Yorkie for pro-survival activity and promotion of tissue growth respectively - cooperates with Dpp to regulate myosin levels
during dorsal closure - targets the sorting nexin DSH3PX1 to regulate axonal guidance
act up (preferred name: capulet)
cyclase-associate protein homolog
Actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1 (common alternative name: Suppressor of profilin 2)
A component of the Arp2/3 complex - involved in catalyzing actin filament nucleation - essential to cap expansion and pseudocleavage furrow during cellularization -
required for ring canal expansion during oogenesis
ADP ribosylation factor at 79F
a small GTPase - necessary for the formation of clathrin-coated pits and participates in the dynamin-dependent release of coated vesicles from the membrane surface
as a prelude to vesicle recycling - acts downstream of Numb in the determination of alternative cell fates in asymmetric cell division
α Catenin
linker between the cadherin-β-catenin complex and the actin cytoskeleton - adherens junction - tension sensor
Adenomatous polypopsis coli tumor suppressor homolog 2
involved in the wingless pathway
Adherens junction protein p120
Armadillo/beta-catenin-like repeat protein - a componenet of the adherens junction that plays a supporting role in cell adhesion -
protects epithelial integrity - involved in retinal patterning and dendritic morphogenesis
ahuizotl (common alternative name: Azot)
calcium dependent protein that ensures the elimination of less fit cells, fitness-based cell culling is naturally used
to maintain tissue health, delay aging, and extend lifespan
A kinase anchor protein 200
Involved in Protein kinase A localization - PKA in turn regulates the function of specialized actin structures during oogenesis
S/T kinase with Src homology 2 domain - promotes cell survival
regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase - regulation of cellular energy homeostasis - maintainance
of integrity of mature neurons under conditions of increased activity - regulation of developmental and stress-induced autophagy
altered disjunction (common alternative name: Mps1)
kinase - regulation of mitotic spindle checkpoint - required for cell cycle arrest in response to hypoxia - ensures the proper segregation of achiasmatic chromosomes
during meiosis - required for cell cycle arrest of the three haploid products of female meiosis that are not used as the female pronucleus
AMP-activated protein kinase alpha subunit
adenosine 5'monophosphate-activated kinase - coordinates epithelial polarity and proliferation with cellular energy status
SH3 domain protein that functions in membrane morphogenesis - involved in cellularization and plays a role in establisment of proper localization of postsynaptic proteins
anastral spindle 2
centrosomal protein, regulates spindle orientation during neuroblast asymmetical division, tumor suppressor
Ankyrin-repeat, SH3-domain, and Proline-rich-region containing Protein
adherins junction protein that acts as a positive regulator of C-terminal Src kinase - fine tunes cell-cell adhesion during development by directing Csk and Src activity
Ankyrin 2
a membrane-cytoskeleton linker - a target of G-protein signaling required for neuromuscular
junction formation - regulation of presynaptic microtubules and transsynaptic cell adhesion
CED-4 domain protein that links mitochondrial events to activation of caspases during programmed cell death
adenomatous polyposis coli homolog involved in the wingless pathway
F box component of an SCF-ubiquitin ligase - negatively regulates the levels and activity of Drosophila Myc by linking Myc to a protein degradation pathway -
also negatively regulates Cyclin E and Notch
plakoglobin - beta catenin
armless (preferred name: GDI interacting protein 3)
ubiquitin-like protein that functions in protein degradation - required for Wingless target gene expression
Arrestin 2
a protein that interacts stoichiometrically with activated rhodopsin, inhibiting its ability to interact with the G protein, transducin, thus terminating the visual response
aurora (alternative name: aurora A)
kinase required for centrosome separation - functions in asymmetric protein localization during mitosis
aurora B (preferred name: IplI-aurora-like kinase)
signaling protein involved in chromatin condensation during mitosis
Autophagy-specific gene 1
autophagy-specific protein kinase - induces a coordinated autophagic response that can lead to caspase induced cell death
Autophagy-related 8a
ubiquitin-like protein - regulates autophagy in the midgut and eye - conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine - this lipid
modification anchors Atg8a into the membrane of forming and completed autophagosomes - involved in autophagosome
formation, maintaining neuromuscular function and normal lifespan - mediates activation of cap-n-collar resulting in protein homeostasis
Autophagy-specific gene 9
a vesicular transmembrane protein that is a constituent of autophagic vesicles and is required for oxidative stress-induced JNK activation
scaffolding protein
BACK (BTB and C-terminal Kelch) domain protein - a mediator of axon death - axed mutants suppress axon death - acts in glia
downstream of sarm - pro-degenerative pathways activated by Sarm signaling or Nmnat elimination ultimately
converge on Axed - possibly involved in recruitment of substrates to Cullin Ring Ubiquitin Ligase complexes
barrier-to-autointegration factor
regulation of nuclear envelope dynamics during mitosis - nuclear lamina structure - represses endoreplication in
Drosophila myofibers - NHK-1 phosphorylates BAF and suppress its activity in linking chromosomes to nuclear envelope protein
MAP kinase homolog - Jun amino terminal kinase
as a componenet of the chromosomal passenger complex, Borealin-related is a key regulator of mitosis -
functions to control assembly and stability of bipolar spindles and faithful chromosome segregation into daughter cells
conserved protein required for the activation of Aurora-A at the onset of mitosis -
activation of Cdc2 initiates the release of Bora into the cytoplasm where it can bind and activate Aurora-A
Breast cancer 2, early onset homolog (alternative name: Brca2)
Brca2 homolog - plays a dual role in the repair of meiotic double-stranded breaks and the efficient activation
of the meiotic recombination checkpoint
a large protein that contains an N-terminal baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) and a C-terminal ubiquitin conjugation domain -
participates in regulation of apoptosis and autophagy
Btk family kinase at 29A (common alternative name: Tec29)
protein-tyrosine kinase - necessary for maintaining the equilibrium between monomeric actin and filamentous actin during invagination of the salivary placodes -
functions during oogenesis as a key downstream effector of Src64 during ring canal growth
protein serine/threonine kinase - mitotic checkpoint control protein - inhibits ubiquitin ligase activity of anaphase promoting complex (APC) preventing mitosis
until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle
mitotic checkpoint protein that serves as an essential protein required during normal mitotic progression to prevent premature sister chromatid separation, missegreation and aneuploidy
pro-survival homolog of the apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 - also regulates cell cycle
signaling protein - IkappaB homolog - binds Dorsal, the NFkappaB homolog
Calcineurin (preferred name: Protein phosphatase 2B at 14D)
Calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase - negatively regulates Egf receptor signaling
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
Caki can act synaptically as a gain controller on the transition to calcium-independence -
affects activity-dependent autophosphorylation of CaMKII
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1
CaM kinase II - ATP binding motif
calcium ion binding signaling protein
Calmodulin-binding protein related to a Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein
signaling protein that organizes epithelial architecture by regulating the polarized secretion of basement membrane proteins
cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (common alternative names: Protein kinase A and PKA)
catalytic subunit of PKA
Drosophila's Cbl-associated protein - interacts with Vinculin (which functions in actin-mediated organization of cellular morphology) -
regulates assembly and function of tension-sensing structures - involved in muscle and sensory organ development and function -
binds to Axin and Arrow through SH3 domains leading to a potential role in insulin-mediated glucose transport
cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (common alternative names: Protein kinase A and PKA)
catalytic subunit of PKA
Formin domain protein that interacts with Spire to facilitate actin filament capping and nucleation
capulet (Common alternative name: act up)
cyclase-associate protein homolog
CAS/CSE1 segregation protein
signaling protein - functions in axonal fasciculation and pathfinding - functions with integrins to specify axon guidance -
functions in nuclear transport in the Notch pathway
Casein kinase II alpha subunit and beta subunit
CkII catalytic and regulatory subunits
docking protein
Cdc27 (common alternative name makos)
subunit of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) - involved in regulating cell cycle
co-chaperone for Hsp83 - tests the proper substrates and establishes stable connection with the client protein to create a Cdc37-client protein
binary complex - the binary complex binds to Hsp90 to form a ternary complex - facilitates client protein loading onto the Hsp90 chaperone
machinery - maintains the stability of the JNK pathway< kinases - physically associates with Insulin receptor to promote neural stem
cell reactivation - facilitates signaling in the Wnt and Hedgehog pathways - Aurora B interacts with and requires the Cdc37/Hsp90 complex for its stability
a Ras type GTPase - involved in epithelial cell elongation - facilitates nucleation of actin filaments
ELMO/CED-12 family protein that functions together with Myoblast city as a bipartite GEF to optimally activate Rac to mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells
and cell migration - functions in myoblast fusion and border cell migration
cooperates with centrosomin to organize embryonic cleavage furrows - mRNA is localized to centrosomes - RNA localization to centrosomes is regulated during
the cell cycle and developmentally - fragile-X mental retardation protein regulates centrocortin mRNA - convergently transcribed with ik2 as cis-natural
antisense transcripts with overlapping 3' UTRs - a normalized local concentration of cen mRNA is essential for normal cell division and genome stability
centrosomin's beautiful sister
a trans-Golgi protein that links Golgi inheritance to the cell cycle
profilin homolog - regulation of actin cytoskeleton
insulin receptor substrate family
Dbf4 homolog - regulatory subunit of Cdc7-Dbf4 dimer
CIN85 and CD2AP orthologue (common alternative name cindr)
adaptor protein that links cell surface junctions and adhesion proteins with multiple components of the actin cytoskeleton -
regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and eye patterning - cooperates with anillin to promote intercellular bridge stability
during cytokinesis - promotes endocytosis
citron (preferred name: sticky)
Rho effector kinase functioning downstream of pebble - required for cytokinesis
substrate of the product of Rho kinase, physically interacts with the planar cell polarity effector encoded by
multiple wing hairs, essential for sperm individualization, binds to the axonemal component Radial spoke protein 3
SNARE-complex-binding proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle release and consequently neurotransmitter release
Gα12/13 G-protein - necessary to trigger acto-myosin contractility during gastrulation - required for RhoGEF2 and
consequent MyosinII apical recruitment
connector enhancer of ksr (common alternative name: cnk)
signaling protein - a critical molecule functioning downstream of Alk - mutational loss genocopies the lack of visceral muscle founder cell
specification of Alk and jeb mutants - interacts with Steppke as part of a larger signaling scaffold coordinating receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent MAPK activation
COP9 complex homolog subunit 5
Component of COP9 signalsome - regulates ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation - Jab1/MPN domain metalloenzyme motif
protein 4.1 homolog - links transmembrane proteins to cytoskeleton
protein tyrosine phosphatase - SH2 domains
cytoskeletal component that acts as a link, via Src, between surface receptors and actin - interacts with F-actin
and can stimulate actin polymerization by direct interaction with the Arp2/3 complex
a meiosis-specific anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activator - functions together Fizzy to target mitotic cyclins for destruction in the egg
costa (common alternative name: costal2)
kinesin like protein - hedgehog signaling
cysteine-rich transmembrane BMP regulator - physically interacts with and inhibits BMP ligand glass bottom boat in motoneurons
thus permitting the muscle-derived Gbb pool to predominate at the NMJ and establishing the retrograde directionality of the pro-growth BMP pathway
crossover suppressor on 3 of Gowen
transverse element of the synaptonemal complex, a meiotic structure that regulates the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) into
crossovers or gene conversions - required for centromere separation in Pp1-87B RNAi oocytes
crossveinless c (common alternative name: RhoGAP88C)
required in tissues actively undergoing morphogenesis -- regulates GTPase function of Rho
to promote the coordinated organisation of the actin cytoskeleton
C-terminal Src kinase
tyrosine kinase acts as a tumor suppressor through Src pathway regulation -
loss of Csk activity leads to increased organ size, organismal lethality, and increased cell proliferation
CUB and LDLa domain
rhodopsin endocytic trafficking - photoreceptor desensitization and adaptation
cut up
cytoskeletal protein - Hippo pathway - subunit of the cytoplasmic Dynein & of Myosin V - involved in both dynein-dependent and
independent functions such as cell viability, axonal guidance, spermatid growth and individualization and regulation of spermatogonial
divisions - wing and eye imaginal discs - part of a protein complex that regulates spindle orientation in neuroblasts
cullin family protein that regulates cell cycle by controlling degradation of Dacapo and Cyclin E
Cyclin B3
an activator of the Cdk1 that is required for mitotic and meiotic anaphase - required for germline stem cell maintenance - required
for anaphase progression in meiosis I and in meiosis II - plays a redundant role with Cyclin A in preventing DNA replication during meiosis
Cyclin C
regulatory partner of CDK8 - mediator complex component - cofactor for EcR-dependent transcription - links nutrient intake to developmental transitions and fat metabolism -
negative regulator of the lipogenic pathway - regulation of Serpent-dependent transcription and innate immunity - involved in small nuclear RNA (snRNA) 3' end processing -
recruited to phosphorylate the Notch ICD and coordinate activation with turnover
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1
G2-M Cyclin dependent kinase - heterodimerizes with Cyclin A, Cyclin B and Cyclin B2
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
G1 cyclin dependent kinase - heterodimerizes with Cyclin D, Cyclin E and Cyclin J - regulates somatic cell proliferation,
germline stem cell proliferation maintenance, follicle stem cells and endocycle - target of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo -
regulates Double-parked and Retinoblastoma protein
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6
a Cdk involved in control of growth of cells - partners cyclin D
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5
a Cdk involved in control of cell differentiation and morphology
Cyclin-dependent kinase 7
a Cdk-activating kinase and general transcription factor
Cyclin-dependent kinase 8
functions together with its partner CycC as a component of the mediator complex to regulate gene expression during leg, eye and notum
specification/differentiation - phosphorylates C-terminal domain of PolII
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9
subunit of P-TEFb, targets RNA polymerase II
Cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 30A
Cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit required for progression through female meiosis and the mitotic divisions of the early embryo
through an interaction with Cdk1 (Cdc2)
Cyclin G
a transcriptional regulator that interacts with the chromatin factor Corto and controls expression of the homeotic gene Abdominal B -
controls developmental stability by ensuring compensatory processes between cell growth and cell proliferation
Cyclin J
regulates S phase early in embryonic development, partners Cdk2
Cyclin Y
cyclin that interacts with the cyclin dependent kinase Eip63E - has essential functions during embryogenesis, larval development, and metamorphosis - regulates wnt signaling
RhoGEF that maintains tissue polarity and integrity - together with RhoGEF4 plays roles to couple cytokinesis with de novo junction formation
- acts via Rho1, participating in the neighbor mechanosensing response, promoting daughter-daughter cell membrane juxtaposition in
preparation to de novo junction formation - Crumbs and its complex partner Cysts support myosin and apical constriction to ensure robust ingression
dynamics - recruited to the apico-lateral membrane through interactions with the Crumbs complex and Bazooka/Par3 - required for cell intercalation
in the extending ectoderm, where it activates Rho1 specifically at junctions - localization is restricted to adherens junctions and is under Gbeta13F/ Ggamma1
control - Myosin VI promotes recruitment of the heterotrimeric Galpha12 protein to E-cadherin, where it signals for p114 RhoGEF to activate RhoA
DC0 (Preferred name: cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1)
PKA catalytic subunit
cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor
Dachs ligand with SH3s (alternative name: Vamana)
planar cell polarity - a Dachs-binding SH3 protein - tethers Dachs to the subapical cell cortex - promotes the Fat-mediated degradation
of Dachs - associates with the Dachsous intracellular domain and with the Fat intracellular domain that is essential for controlling Hippo signaling
daughter of sevenless
an adaptor protein that facilitates signal transduction as a downstream component of the receptor tyrosine kinases Sevenless, Egf receptor and Torso
Daughters against dpp
Smad family - inhibits Dpp signal transduction
Death-associated protein kinase related
regulation of myosin II dynamics - promotes proper morphogenesis of epithelial tissues during development - maintenance of
furrow canal structure and lateral plasma membrane integrity during cellularization - morphogenesis of retina,
functions during Myosin II-dependent cell constriction, subsequent multicellular alignment and adherens junction remodelling
E3-ubiquitin ligase - Deltex mediated accumulation of Notch in the late-endosome compartment is required for the Dx-mediated Su(H)-independent Notch signaling
ankyrin repeat protein involved in tissue polarity - helps promote polarized clustering of Flamingo
novel signaling protein
novel cytoplasmic protein - wingless pathway
casein kinase Iepsilon
SH2 and SH3 domain signal transduction protein
ArfGAP - induces the hydrolysis of GTP that is bound to Arf proteins - during oogenesis essential for the initial detachment of the border cell
cluster from the basal lamina - acts antagonistically to the guanine exchange factor Steppke - temporally controlled expression is
achieved by translational repression of drongo mRNA within P-bodies - requires Rab11 for proper localization at the oocyte's cortex during mid-oogenesis
cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase
coiled-coil domain protein required presynaptically for the retrograde, homeostatic modulation of neurotransmission
the postsynaptically localized scaffolding protein required for appropriate control of neuromuscular synaptic homeostasis
microtubule end-binding protein - controls the plus end of growing microtubules - targets other microtubule-associated
proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of microtubules with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores,
and different cellular organelles
Ecdysone-induced protein 63E
cyclin dependent kinase
Exchange factor for Arf 6
a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) that directly inhibits microtubule growth - a cortical collapse factor that regulates to axon growth - sustains
activation of Arf family GTPases - active in dynamic actin rearrangement during cell shapes changes as well as cell patterning within epithelia
a conserved microtubule-associated protein - promotes productive recruitment of kinesin to microtubules
E(spl) region transcript m4
Bearded family
Exchange factor for Arf 6
Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) that directly
inhibits microtubule growth - a cortical collapse factor that regulates to axon growth - sustains activation of Arf family GTPases - active in dynamic actin rearrangement during cell shape changes as well as cell patterning within epithelia
Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP
guanine nucleotide exchange factor - noncanonical cAMP sensor involved aversive odor learning - required for activity
of bacterial adenylate cyclase - stimulated fluid secretion in Malphigian tubules
exocyst complex 84-kDa subunit Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain protein - involved in apical polarity of epithelial tissue -
the exocyst complex functions in polarized exocytosis
Band 4.1 protein with three potential SH3-binding sites
phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase - controls vesicular trafficking but not silencing of endocytosed receptors, including Wingless and Notch -
functions in negative regulation of cell volume - regulates autophagy by being required for the maturation of autolysosomes
Protein Phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit - a key mediator specific for the localization of Miranda and associated cell fate determinants during both interphase and mitosis
FER ortholog (H. sapiens) (Fps oncogene analog)
Fes/Fer non-receptor tyrosine kinases - regulates cell adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganisation through the modification
of adherens junctions - regulates dorsal closure
WD40 domain protein - required for the activity of the anaphase promoting complex in mitosis - functions to
target the three mitotic cyclins A, B and B3 for destruction in the egg and drive anaphase progression during meiosis
fizzy related (preferred name: retina aberrant in pattern)
Trp-Asp repeat (WD-repeat) protein - negatively regulates the levels of cyclins A, B and B3 thus promoting mitosis
flap wing
Isoform of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 - regulates nonmuscle myosin by dephosphorylating the myosin II regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash)
Focal adhesion kinase-like
involved in integrin signaling
cGMP-dependent protein kinase - controls feeding behavior and locomotory behavior
type 2 transmembrane kinase - regulates tissue polarity - phosphorylates of the atypical cadherins Fat and Dachsous - regulates growth via the Hippo/Warts pathway
regulates the activity of cellular proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by binding as a dimer to phosphoserine/threonine-containing motifs -
acts as a cofactor for PAR-1 by binding to proteins that are phosphorylated by the PAR-1 kinase
serine/threonine kinase required for normal axonal ensheathment
s/t kinase - segment polarity gene
transcriptional corepressor - inhibits Dpp signaling acting by inhibiting Smad4 - acts within
a chromatin modifying complex in the differentiation of bitter gustatory neurons - acts within an Rpd3 dependent
chromatin modifying complex - ortholog of the human functional smad suppressing element 15 (fussel-15), also
known as SKOR1, Corl1 or LBXcor1 within a chromatin modifying complex - protooncogene that
retains the ability of Ski/Sno proteins to inhibit the antiproliferative effects of TGF-β signalling
conserved protein that is required for Tricornered activity in control of wing hair and bristle morphology -
controls dendritic branching and tiling in sensory neurons
exhibits a genetic interaction with JNK pathway affecting egg asymmetry in the oocyte; induced by wounding in embryos
protein kinase that promotes avoidance of the essential amino acid-deficient diet - blocks translation initiation
through eIF2a phosphorylation - required for infection-induced host translational blockage
GDI interacting protein 3 (common alternative name: Armless)
ubiquitin-like protein that functions in protein degradation - required for Wingless target gene expression
Casein kinase 1 γ homolog - interacts Arrow to modify Wingless signaling - mutants show a defect in spermatid individualization -
required to potentiate Wingless signaling in limb development - acts in the posterior region of the eye disc to prevent precocious glial cell migration
GTPase-activating protein 1 (preferred name: Ras GTPase activating protein 1)
Ras GTPase-activating protein with PH domain and C2-domain
serine protease that functions maternally to activate the Toll cascade and consequently to regulate dorsal/ventral polarity of the embryo
G protein α q subunit
splice variants play roles in phototransduction, retinal integrity and function in rhodopsin synthesis - regulation of wing growth - regulation of nociceptor
sensitivity in larvae - DAMB signals via Gq to mediate forgetting in Drosophila - regulation of dendritic growth - regulation of
sensitivity to ethanol - control of body fat storage - Regulates of dual oxidase activity in Drosophila gut immunity - modulation of axonal pathfinding
G protein β-subunit 13F
β subunit of heterotrimeric G protein complex - maternal expression involved in oogenesis - zygotic expression involved in regulating the Wnt pathway,
asymmetric cell division, wing maturation and maintaining cardiac integrity
Genghis Kahn
similar to myotonic dystrophy protein kinase
Rap1 GAP domain protein - tuberous sclerosis-2 homolog
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
Serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in a receptor-mediated signaling pathway that utilizes cAMP as a second messenger - involved in oogenesis and implicated in learning
G protein αi subunit 65A
G protein α subunit involved in regulating asymmetric cell division
G protein oα 47A
G protein α subunit
signaling protein that exhibits a dynamic association to the membrane of the early exocytic pathway and is involved building the Golgi stack
kinase - Chk1 homolog - cell cycle checkpoint protein
kinase that coordinates with Polo for mitotic progression - absence of Gwl during meiosis results in excessive and/or premature Polo activity
leading to premature loss of sister chromatid cohesion
pro-apoptotic protein whose N-terminus functions by disrupting IAP binding to caspases -
an additional mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic function carried out by a centrally located GH3 domain
Guanylyl cyclase at 76C
cGMP production - receptor-type protein possessing a single transmembrane domain - required for Semaphorin-1a-Plexin A directed repulsive axon guidance
Scaffolding and signaling protein - participates in the reception of an attractive signal that emanates from muscle epidermal attachment sites to direct the motility of developing muscles
a MAP4K3 that regulates TOR activity detected by phosphorylation of S6K and 4EBP - required for amino acids to stimulate TOR complex activity -
binds physically to the Rag GTPases - promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis
a kinase that associates with the cohesin complex in interphase - mediates Pds5 binding to chromatin - cooperates with Pds5-cohesin to modify Polycomb-dependent
homeotic transformations - asymmetric inheritance of centromeric proteins upon stem cell division - regulation of stem cell fate in asymmetric cell
division - phosphorylation at threonine 3 of H3 distinguishes pre-existing versus newly synthesized H3 distinguishing sister chromatids enriched with
distinct pools of H3 in order to coordinate asymmetric segregation of "old" H3 into GSCs - tight regulation of H3T3 phosphorylation is required for male germline activity
novel signal transduction protein functioning downstream of two FGF receptors
MapKK - JunKK involved in dorsal closure
synaptic protein - B-box zinc finger superfamily - a negative regular of synaptic growth
a serine/threonine kinase - acts in conjunction with Salvador and Warts to restrict cell growth - promotes cell death by decreasing the level of Thread, an inhibitor of apoptosis
homeodomain interacting protein kinase
serine/threonine kinase - homolog of mammalian Homeodomain interacting protein kinase - acts as a positive regulator of Wingless pathway
by stabilizing Armadillo - promotes Notch signal transduction in the eye by inhibition of the co-repressor Groucho
scaffolding protein required for the function of neural networks controlling locomotor activity and behavioral plasticity
janus family TK
the Cdc73 component of the Polymerase-Associated Factor 1 (PAF1) complex - required for nuclear transduction of the Wnt/Wg signal -
manifests its effects on transcription through modulating chromatin structure
hu-li tai shao
homolog of mammalian adducin - required for ring canal formation during oogenesis
forms a clamp-like 9-1-1 complex with Rad9 and Rad1 - plays a central role in the DNA-damage-induced checkpoint response - required for S-phase and meiotic checkpoints
ik2 (common alternative name: DmIKKε)
IKK-related kinase - a regulator of caspase activation in a nonapoptotic context - promotes degradation of DIAP1 (Thread)
through direct phosphorylation - required for proper sensory organ precursor development -
acts on the cytoskeleton to regulate egg DV and AP polarity
imaginal discs arrested
homolog of APC5, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/cyclosome) - required for proliferation of imaginal disc cells -
required for the localisation of Miranda and its associated cargo proteins to the neuroblast basal cortex
immune deficiency
a death domain protein involved in signal transduction during antibacterial immune response
immune response deficient 5 and kenny (common alternative names: IKKβ and IKKγ)
IkappaB kinase, respectively IKK catalytic and regulatory subunits - induction of antimicrobial peptide genes
importin alpha1
one of a family of proteins that mediates nuclear transport by linking nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins to importin beta1
Inner centromere protein
a component of the chromosome passenger complex - regulates activity of Aurora B kinase through a positive-feedback
loop - as a microtubule-binding protein Incenp has a well-defined centromere-targeting domain at its
N-terminus, suggesting a role in targeting the kinase to particular locations within the mitotic cell
inactivation no afterpotential D
scaffolding protein - PDZ domain protein - involved in visual signal transduction
Inhibitor of apoptosis 2
N-terminal baculovirus IAP repeat domain and C-terminal RING ubiquitin ligase domain protein - required for immune response to bacteria -
promotes cytoplasmic cleavage and nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB homolog Relish - controls the level of caspase activity by forming
a covalent adduct with the catalytic machinery of drICE
Integrin linked kinase
s/t kinase with ankyrin repeats - required for integrin-mediated adhesion - links the cytoskeleton via integrins to the plasma membrane
IplI-aurora-like kinase (alternative name: Aurora B)
signaling protein involved in chromatin condensation during mitosis
jak kinase (preferred name: hopscotch)
signaling protein involved in JAK-STAT pathway
an F-box protein with leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a putative component of a SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex -
essential for resetting the clock by transmitting light signals from Cryptochrome to Timeless resulting in the degredation of Timeless
protein serine/threonine kinase involved in dosage compensation
Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) (preferred name: basket)
MAP kinase homolog
karyopherin α1 (common alternative name: importin alpha1)
one of a family of proteins that mediates nuclear transport by linking nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins to importin beta1
kenny and immune response deficient 5 (common alternative names: IKKγ and IKKβ)
IkappaB kinase, respectively IKK regulatory and catalytic subunits - induction of antimicrobial peptide genes
ketel (preferred name: Female sterile (2) Ketel)
Importin-β - an essential component of nuclear protein import, spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly
kette (preferred name: HEM-protein)
alternatively a membrane associated and a cytosolic protein that transduces information to the neuronal cytoskeleton affecting axon guidance
signaling protein that functions together with Merlin and Expanded in a protein complex that regulates the Hippo kinase cascade
via direct binding to Hippo and Salvador
kinase suppressor of ras
Ras pathway scaffolding protein - Ksr associates independently with Raf and Mek, and these interactions facilitate formation of a RAF/MEK complex
thus promoting signaling through the Ras pathway
regulates Wnt signaling by antagonizing Kelch, a Cullin-3 E3 ligase adaptor that mediates Dishevelledpolyubiquitination
non-visual β-arrestin that functions in GPCR desensitization - regulates the Hedgehog pathway, the Notch pathway,
MAPK signaling and Toll signaling - modifies exploratory activity and olfactory sensitivity
large tumor suppressor (lats) (preferred name: warts)
kinase - regulates cell cycle
Leucine-rich repeat kinase
a cytoplasmic protein that controls synaptic morphogenesis at the neuromuscular junction targeting distinct downstream effectors
at the presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments
a MAP kinase kinase targeting p38 MAP kinase
serine/threonine kinase - functions via cytoskeleton to confer the added synapse-stabilizing activity of the BMP receptor Wishful thinking
liquid facets
an epsin: a family of cargo-selective adapters that link mono-ubiquitinated cell-surface proteins with the endocytic machinery -
regulates Notch ligand Delta's subcellular localization and activity
Par-4 kinase - required for the early A-P polarity of the oocyte and for the repolarization of the oocyte cytoskeleton that defines the embryonic A-P axis
Serine/Threonine protein kinase that exerts a tight control on eIF4E phosphorylation and is necessary for normal growth and development
member of SH2B family of adaptor molecules - interacts with Chico to fulfill an independent but partially redundant function
in the activation of PI3K upon Insulin receptor stimulation - regulates lifespan, metabolism, and stress responses
locomotion defects (common alternative name: loco)
regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS) protein - a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) acting on alpha subunit of G-proteins
loki (common alternative name: chk2)
conserved protein - regulates Fat signaling - binds to the cytoplasmic domains Dachsous and the Dachsous receptor protein Fat
conserved protein - regulates Fat signaling - binds to the cytoplasmic domains Dachsous and the Dachsous receptor protein Fat
mitotic checkpoint protein that blocks mitotic exit by sequestering Cdc20/Fizzy - required to delay progression through early stages of prometaphase
so that cells have time to fully engage the spindle assembly checkpoint
member of a family of proteins contains modular domains such as WW and PDZ domains necessary for scaffolding of membrane receptors and
intracellular signaling components - adherens junction - forms a complex with polarity proteins Par3/Bazooka and aPKC
mago nashi
novel - potential signal transduction protein
Map kinase (preferred name: rolled)
signaling - MAP kinase
marelle (Preferred name: STAT)
transcription factor - stat homolog - cytoplasmic signal transducing protein
signaling protein that interacts with Polo kinase and acts as a negative regulator of Polo during the later stages of G2 arrest
physically associates with cell cycle regulator Warts to stimulate its catalytic activity and associates with tissue polarity factor Tricornered to regulate denticle development
a counterpart of mammalian LYST - suppresses vesicle fusion events with lipid droplets during the formation of yolk granules,
the lysosome-related organelles of the syncytial embryo - opposes Rab5, which promotes fusion - localizes at spindle poles and
co-immunoprecipitates with the microtubule-associated protein Minispindles - suggests a role for endosomal trafficking in
the recruitment or maintenance of pericentriolar material components at centrosomes
calcium ion binding protein - maintenance of synapse structure - has a positive effect on retrograde trans-synaptic
BMP signaling - active in trans-Golgi network - orthologous to human SDF4 (stromal cell derived factor 4).
Smad family member
signaling protein that promotes the recruitment of Mad2 and Mps1 to unattached kinetochores, mediating normal mitotic duration
and spindle assembly checkpoint response
meiotic 41
ATM/ATR kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase - essential for the DNA damage checkpoint in larval imaginal discs and neuroblasts -
required to delay mitosis in response to incomplete DNA replication in early nuclear divisions - monitors double-strand-break repair during meiotic crossing over
ERM family, protein 4.1 superfamily
scaffolding protein of the Ras association domain family - conserved signaling protein regulating apical-basal polarity and planar cell polarity
a conserved regulator of cell cycle, co-ordination of centrosome and nuclear division cycles, and maintenance of chromosome condensation
microtubule star
catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A - regulates asymmetric cell division, cell cycle, Hedgehog pathway, Notch signaling & visual signal transduction
serine/threonine kinase
SPS1 family kinase
Mitochondrial assembly regulatory factor
target of the Yorkie pathway - regulation of mitochondrial fusion, organ size, steroid synthesis in the ring gland and ovarian follicle cell differentiation -
modulates endoplasmic reticulum function, Reaper binds Marf to induce mitochondrial fragmentation
Mitochondrial Rho
transmembrane Rho GTPase required for controlling anterograde transport of mitochondria and their proper distribution within nerve terminals
the sole Drosophila ERM protein - functions to promote cortical actin assembly and apical-basal polarity
Importin 7 - functions in nuclear transport of MAPK - surface receptor signaling regulates MAPK localization through the adaptor protein Corkscrew
Mothers against dpp
novel transducer of DPP signals
p38a serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in response stress including heat shock, oxidative stress and starvation
multiple wing hairs
G protein binding-formin homology 3 (GBD-FH3) protein - frizzled pathway - tissue planar cell polarity - regulation of hair initiation - inhibits new hair initiation events
mushroom bodies tiny
PAK kinase - downstream effector of Cdc42 - regulates cell adhesion dependent processes during photoreceptor cell differentiation
Death domain protein - Encodes an essential component of the Toll pathway in dorsoventral pattern formation - involved in signal transduction in the immune response
signaling protein regulating receptor endocytosis, regulates integrin trafficking, Yorkie endosomal association
and protein levels, the Egfr pathway and the Toll pathway
Myosin binding subunit
regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase - involved in dorsal closure
Wee1-like kinase that specifically regulates Cdk1 (Cdc2) activity in the cytoplasm
naked cuticle
EF-hand calcium-binding domain protein involved in Wingless pathway
protein serine/threonine kinase involved in establishing epithelial planar polarity
nervous wreck
a member of a family of adaptor proteins - controls synapse morphology by interacting with Wasp - regulates actin dynamics
Neurofibromin 1
GAP-related domain protein functioning in the PKA pathway
cytoplasmic zinc finger signaling protein - neurogenic
Nijmegen breakage syndrome
encodes a multifunctional protein that plays critical roles in the response to DNA damage and telomere maintenance -
part of a protein complex, MRN, that senses DNA strand breaks and amplifies the signal and then conveys it to
downstream effectors, such as ATM and p53, that regulate cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair
Homologue of the yeast Tra1 and human TRRAP proteins - a key component of both the SAGA and Tip60 (NuA4) chromatin-modifying complexes -
required for Mastermind function during wing development
no circadian temperature entrainment
large glutamate-rich protein involved in temperature synchronization of behavioral activity
a target the Hh signaling pathway - related to the vertebrate Neuron Derived Neurotrophic
Factor (NDNF) - localizes to the extracellular matrix - binds to Decapentaplegic or the
heterodimer Dpp-Glass bottom boat (Gbb) to modulate their release and activity - a dosage-depend
BMP modulator, where low levels of Nord promote and high levels inhibit BMP signaling
no-on-and-no-off transient C
a regulatory kinase of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway - acts to regulate proper mRNA translation to safeguard synapse morphology
and maintain the efficacy of synaptic function
Nuak family kinase
serine/threonine kinase that biochemically and genetically interacts with the cochaperone Starvin in the autophagic clearance of protein aggregates in
larval muscles - Filamin/Cheerio is a target of NUAK kinase activity and abnormally accumulates upon loss of the Starvin-Hsc70-4 complex
nuclear fallout
pericentrosomal protein which, along with Rab11, is involved in membrane trafficking and actin remodeling
during membrane furrow formation during cellularization - involved in endosomal-mediated membrane delivery to the site of furrow formation
GTPase that acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and thus exert global growth control
Notch antagonist - functions during asymmetric cell division to determine alternative cell fates
Numb-associated kinase
A component of the endocytic pathway - regulates Neuroglian endocytosis during dendritic extension - regulates Discs large localization
in salivary gland cells - antagonizes the function of Numb and consequently regulates asymmetric cell division
Origin recognition complex subunit 1
A subunit of the Origin recognition complex, regulating the initiation of DNA replication - Orc1 is degraded by APC at the cell's exit from mitosis and reaccumulates at the end of G1
a nuclear lamin that is essential for germline stem cell maintenance - physically interacts with Medea/Smad4
at the bam silencer element to regulate GSC fate
p38a (preferred name: Mpk2)
p38a serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in response stress including heat shock, oxidative stress and starvation
a MAP kinase
p21-activated kinase
pancreatic eIF-2α kinase (common alternative name: Perk)
phosphorylates and inhibits the translation initiation factor 2 α, control of intestinal stem cell proliferation,
homeostatic regeneration, unfolded protein response of the ER, endoplasmic reticulum stress
pan gu
serine/threonine kinase - permits the accumulation of Cyclin B duuring early mitotic divisions
serine/threonine kinase involved in cell polarization
Rho GEF - regulates cytokinesis
s/t kinase - dorsal group
adaptor in the Ran-GTP nuclear transport cycle that binds a cargo protein to the nuclear import receptor Fs(2)Ket - Nanos inhibits translation of maternal
importin-α2 mRNA thus regulating the maternal-zygotic transition - regulates Piwi nuclear transport which in turn transcriptionally regulates transposons - involved in
centrosome duplication, mitotic spindle dynamics, nuclear envelope assembly, ring canal formation in the female germline, geotaxic behaviour and perception of pain
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LA
regulation of the immune deficiency pathway, non-cell-autonomous role for a JNK/PGRP-LA/Relish signaling axis in
mediating death of neighboring normal cells to facilitate tumor growth, functions in tracheae of larvae and adult gut
an evolutionarily conserved FERM domain protein containing a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domain - a binding partner of the upstream
Hippo signaling component Kibra - regulates midgut homeostasis
Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1
a master kinase that is crucial for the activation of AKT (PKB) and many kinases including PKC and S6K - contains pleckstrin homology (PH) domains
that interact with the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 second messenger - regulates cell growth - controls synaptic bouton size,
active zone number, and synaptic function - essential for neuronal differentiation
Phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase 59F
regulates intracellular vesicular transport of proteins at distinct membrane domains through production of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate -
interacts with Rabenosyn-5 which carries out a subset of Pi3K59 functions - promotes autophagy and endocytosis
Phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase 92E
signal transduction - influence cell growth functioning as a target of the insulin pathway
pickled eggs
Gas2-like protein functioning during oogenesis and mesodermal development -
acts downstream of Notch and restrict Notch activation to appropriate levels
signal transduction - molecular adaptor that links EGFR activation to mitogenic SRF signaling via changes in actin dynamics -
required for cell growth and proliferation
pole hole (common alternative name: raf)
serine/threonine-protein kinase - an effector of Ras - directs the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and survival
protein kinase - regulates mitosis
Protein Kinase A (preferred name: cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1 and DC0)
PKA catalytic subunit
Protein Kinase C
serine/threonine kinase, Diacylglycerol binding protein
atypical protein kinase C
kinase regulating asymmetic cell division
Protein phosphatase 2A at 85F (preferred name: twins)
B subunit of PP2A
Protein phosphatase 2B at 14D (alternative name: Calcineurin)
calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase - negatively regulates Egf receptor signaling
transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, destruction of larval midgut, larva-pupa transition, metamorphosis, axon guidance
lipid and protein phosphatase acting in insulin pathway
PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (commonly known as Pink1)
promotes mitochondrial fragmentation by targeting core components of the mitochondrial morphogenesis
machinery for ubiquitination - negatively regulates mitochondrial fusion - a fruitfly model for Parkinson's disease
multifunctional signaling protein involved in neurotransmitter release, a mitochondrial protein and a chromatin protein
functioning as a protamine chaperone in nucleosome assembly during sperm chromatin remodeling
protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in neuronal circuit formation the central brain - regulates establishment
and the stabilization of axonal projection patterns
dual specificity phosphatase KH-1 subfamily
controls membrane trafficking and contractile ring constriction during cytokinesis - regulates ER-to-Golgi transport - essential
for dendrite pruning of ddaC neurons - promotes endocytosis and downregulation of the cell-adhesion molecule
Neuroglian and thereby dendrite pruning - controls material delivery from Golgi to the plasma membrane
a small GTPase that acts downstream of Rab 5 to facilitates endosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes -
required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion - regulates synaptic development
Rab family GTPase - autophagic clearance - endocytic lysosomal degradation - regulation of neuromuscular junction organization through the Rab2 effector ICA69
Ras-like ATPase, vesicular protein, regulates planar cellular polarity, cuticular hair, contributes to inhibition
of hair formation at positions outside of the distal vertex of cells
tissue polarity, an essential component of the contractile process that functions as a membrane ratchet to ensure unidirectional movement of intercalating
cells - gastrulation - mesoderm invagination - Whacked and Rab35 polarize dynein-motor-complex-dependent seamless tube growth
during tracheal development - Skywalker facilitates endosomal trafficking of synaptic vesicles at NMJ boutons by controlling Rab35 activity
required for endocytosis - a Rab5 effector that bridges an interaction between Rab5 and the Sec1/Munc18-family protein Vps45 -
required for vesicle fusion to form early endosomes
Rab-protein 3
Rab family GTPase necessary for the induction and expression of synaptic homeostasis - dynamically controls
the composition of the presynaptic release machinery
Rab-protein 4
Rab family GTPase endosomal recycling at synapses - maintains gap junctions upon elevated insulin in cultured human cells and in flies - wingless signaling - Pkaap regulates
Rab4/Rab11-dependent traffic and Rab11 exocytosis of innate immune cargo - epithelial morphogenesis of leg discs
Rab-protein 5
Rab family GTPase - required for fusion of endocytic vesicles with endosomes - required for endocytosis of vesicles at the synapse -
required for tracheal maturation - regulates JAK/STAT activity, functions in endosomal transport to promotes wingless signaling -
promotes F-actin reorganization in oogenesis
Rab-protein 6
small GTPase required for membrane trafficking - required for organization and growth of the egg chamber and the polarization of the microtubule cytoskeleton and
localization of oskar mRNA - involved in trafficking Notch protein during bristle development and rhodopsin the the eye
Rab-protein 11
Rab family GTPase - required in endocytic recycling and in the organization of posterior membrane compartments during oogenesis -
functions in membrane trafficking during furrow formation during cellularization -
functions in post-Golgi transport of rhodopsin to the rhabdomeric membranes of photoreceptors, and in analogous transport processes in other cells
GTPase of the Ras superfamily
Rad, Gem/Kir family member 1
small GTPase - intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive
memory and anesthesia-resistant memory - expressed in the mushroom body - physically interacts with cacaphony
rapidly evolving gene encoding a protein that contains multiple phosphorylation sites - required for anaesthesia resistent memory
raf (preferred name: pole hole)
serine/threonine-protein kinase - an effector of Ras - directs the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and survival
Ran GTPase activity required nucleo-cytoplasmic transport - also required for microtubule organization during mitosis and for alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate
Rap1 (common alternative names: Roughened and Dras3)
Ras-like GTPase - establishes of cell polarity by regulation of columnar cell shape - controls epithelial invagination via α-Catenin -
regulates cell morphology within the developing wing epithelium - regulates radial movement of mesodermal cells during
monolayer formation - regulates adhesive contacts necessary for maintenance of Egfr signaling between cells and differentiation of wing veins and photoreceptors
component of the TORC1 complex that includes Tor and LST8 - Hdc and Unk bind to the TORC1 component Raptor and preferentially regulate Tor
phosphorylation of S6k in a TORC1-dependent manner - regulates controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism
refractory to sigma P
adaptor protein for delivering cargo marked by polyubiquitin to autophagosomes - homolog of the sequestosome marker SQSTM1/p62 - together
with Dachs, continuously downregulated by autophagy in enterocytes, ensuring gut homeostasis in the non-infected state - a component of the
lysosomal-autophagic compartment - a chaperone that regulates tau solubility thereby preventing tau aggregation
rictor (preferred name: Rho GTPase activating protein at 100F)
component of TORC2 complex - regulation of cell growth, heat stress response, synaptic growth, dendritic tiling and consolidation of long-term memory
Ras GTPase activating protein 1
Ras GTPase-activating protein with PH domain and C2-domain
Ras oncogene at 85D (common alternative name: Ras1)
ras homolog
Ras-related GTP binding A/B and Ras-related GTP binding C/D
RagA-B forms a heterodimer with the product of RagC-D. The heterodimer localizes on the lysosome surface and functions to relay amino acid
signals to activate the product of Tor by recruiting it to the lysosome were TOR is activated by Rheb - regulation of cell growth - insulin pathway
Ras-related protein
Ras-like GTPase - counters apoptotic programs to support cell fate determination by acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity
and a positive activator of p38 MAP kinase
a novel gene product required to limit AP-1 activity to leading edge epidermal cells during embryonic dorsal closure
death domain protein functioning in apoptosis
Regulator of cyclin A1
a novel signaling protein that prevents cyclin degredation in G2 by interacting with Fizzy-related
- inhibits Fizzy-related's activation of protein degradation machinery - mutants exhibit premature cyclin destruction
Ras superfamily of G-proteins - functions downstream of the tumor suppressors Tsc1 and Tsc2 (Gigas in Drosophila),
with Tsc2 functioning as a GAP for Rheb - signals to the growth regulator known as Target of rapamycin (TOR)
rho-subfamily GTPase
rho-associated kinase
Rho-kinase - plays a role in planar cell polarity
part of an axon retraction pathway from Rho to myosin in mature neurons - inactivation of RhoGAP leads to axon retraction
induces contractile cell shape changes by stimulating myosin II via the Rho1 pathway - location at the actin cortex
regulated by interaction with the microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1
Rho GTPase activating protein at 19D
the only high-probability Cdc42GAP required for polarity in the follicular epithelium - recruited by α-catenin to lateral
E-cadherin adhesion complexes, resulting in exclusion of active Cdc42 from the lateral domain - couples lateral cadherin adhesion to
the apical localization of active Cdc42, thereby suppressing epithelial invasion - controls Rac and Rho GTPases during the
dorsal closure and genetically regulates the elmo-mbc complex - RhoGAP19D-depleted embryos displayed complex epidermal cell phenotypes
Rho GTPase activating protein at 100F (common alternative name: Syd-1)
master organizer of active zone assembly, regulates pre- and postsynaptic maturation, neuromuscular junction
rho-type guanine exchange factor
RhoGEF - homolog of mammalian Pix - regulates postsynaptic structure and protein localization at the glutamatergic neuromuscular junction
guanine nucleotide-exchange factor - regulates Gαi cortical localization to promote Gαi-dependent planar orientation of the mitotic spindle
during asymmetric cell division - regulates cortical tension during gastrulation -
essential for plasma-membrane localization of heterotrimeric G proteins
rictor (preferred name: Rho GTPase activating protein at 100F)
component of TORC2 complex - regulation of cell growth, heat stress response, synaptic growth, dendritic tiling and consolidation of long-term memory
Ret oncogene
regulates dendrite patterning, adhesion and stability - rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Pink1 mutants
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase II (common alternative name: dRSK)
negatively regulates ERK-mediated developmental processes and gene expressions by blocking the nuclear localization of ERK
a member of a conserved family of proteins that serve as substrate adaptors for Cullin3-mediated ubiquitylation -
regulates Cubitus interruptus levels by targeting it for degradation
rolled (common alternative name: MAP kinase)
signaling - MAP kinase
rolling pebbles
RING-finger motif, ankyrin repeat and TR repeat protein - a signaling protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of Dumbfounded and with Myoblast city -
functions to integrate initial myoblast fusion with myotube structural organization
Roughened (common alternative names: Rap1 and Dras3)
Ras-like GTPase - establishes of cell polarity by regulation of columnar cell shape - controls epithelial invagination via α-Catenin -
regulates cell morphology within the developing wing epithelium - regulates radial movement of mesodermal cells during
monolayer formation - regulates adhesive contacts necessary for maintenance of Egfr signaling between cells and differentiation of wing veins and photoreceptors
RPS6-p70-protein kinase (common alternative name: S6k)
signaling - growth response - targets ribosomal protein S6
protein kinase A anchor protein - required for correct retinal pattern formation through its interactions with Egfr and Notch pathways
Ca++/Calmodulin dependent adenyl cyclase
S-adenosylmethionine sensor upstream of TORC1 (common alternative name: Samtor)
an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) sensor, which regulates the mTORC1 activity through its interaction with the GTPase-activating protein activity toward Rags-1
SAK (common alternative name: Plk4)
member of the polo-like kinase family - required for centriole duplication and for formation of basal bodies and flagella
Salt-inducible kinase 3
cooperates with Mondo-Mlx to maintain organismal sugar tolerance through the regulation of NADPH/NADP+ redox balance - expression in clock neurons-morning oscillators
(M cells) regulates male sex drive - feeding and fasting signals converge on the LKB1-SIK3 pathway to regulate lipid metabolism -regulates growth through the Hippo signalling pathway
restricts cell numbers in vivo by functioning as a dual regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis - physically interacts with Warts
regulates female meiosis by controlling calcineurin activity in the germline
promotes actin polymerization via Arp2/3 protein complex
pseudosubstrate inhibitor of a Cullin-3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex required for caspase activation during Drosophila spermatid terminal differentiation
promotes vesicular trafficking involved in cell growth and membrane protein insertion -
required for membrane traffic and polarity in the oocyte
component of the exocyst which tethers secretory vesicles to specific plasma membrane sites - a Rab11 effector
that facilitates protein transport to the apical rhabdomere in Drosophila photoreceptor cells -
regulates E-Cadherin trafficking from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane
functions in polarized exocytosis/secretion - involved in targeting photoreceptor axons that involves localization of specific cell adhesion and signaling molecules
conserved proteins that accumulate in cells exposed to stress, potentiate adenosine monophosphate-activated
protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibit activation of TOR - prevents pathologies caused by chronic TOR activation
shaggy (common alternative name: zeste white 3)
glycogen synthase kinase - segment polarity
SHC-adaptor protein
phosphotyrosine-binding domain protein - interacts with and regulates Torso and Egfr signaling conferring specificity to receptor function
GTPase involved in scission of clathrin-coated vesicles at the synapse and other sites of vesicle invagination
vacuolar sorting protein - required for Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery -
ESCRT III component - regulation of dendritic branching - completion of membrane abscission during female germline stem cell division
memory suppressor gene - functions in a single dopamine neuron by supporting the process of active forgetting - controls dopamine activity
for forgetting by modulating the presynaptic AZ structure - RNAi knockdown of sickie enhances memory through effects
in dopaminergic neurons - regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth in mushroom body neurons via
the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway - required for activation of Relish in the innate immune response
1- phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate kinase - alteration of Skittles levels results in structural defects in sensory bristles,
providing genetic evidence for the involvement of PIP5KIs in cytoskeletal regulation
a RabGAP that activates GTPase activity of the product of Rab35 - neuromuscular junction - restricts the ability of synaptic vesicles
to fuse into a synaptic endosomal compartment - genetically interacts with components of the ESCRT and HOPS complexes
phosphatase - plays a pivotal role in actin dynamic by reactivating the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin
mixed lineage kinase - signal transduction protein conveying information about changes in cytoskeleton to the nucleus
Smad anchor for receptor activation
binds the PP1c phosphatase and its regulator Sds22 - both Notch and Delta traffic through Sara endosomes - involved in signalling bias between the pIIa-pIIb
sibling cells - Sara endosomes are specifically targeted to the pIIa cell during sensory organ precursor division, mediating the transport of a
pool of Notch and Delta that contribute to the activation of Notch in the pIIa - Uninflatable controls the asymmetric dispatch of the Sara endosomes
Smad on X
Dpp signaling pathway - Smad2 and Smad3 homolog
small wing
phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma, Src homology 2 and 3 domain protein
smt3 (common alternative name: Sumo)
a low molecular weight protein modifier that is vital for multicellular development - over 140 SUMO conjugates have been identified in the early embryo
including Dorsal, Tramtrack, Vestigial, SoxNeuro, Medea, Mod(mdg4) and CP190 and the bi-functional tRNA charging enzyme glutamylprolyl-tRNA synthetase
SNF1A/AMP-activated protein kinase
adenosine 5'monophosphate-activated kinase - cellular energy sensor - coordinates epithelial polarity and proliferation with cellular energy status
mediator of Baboon signaling - antagonizes Dpp signaling -
physically interacts with Medea - inhibits growth when overexpressed
Son of sevenless
a dual specificity GEF that regulates both Ras and Rho family GTPases - integrates signals that affect gene expression and cytoskeletal reorganization
spaghetti squash
EF-hand, calcium binding motif protein that serves as the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin II
ortholog of proteins that are defective in hereditary spastic paraplegia and ichthyin - transmembrane protein found on early endosomes -
antagonizes BMP signaling by interacting with BMP receptors and promoting their internalization from the plasma membrane
conserved mitotic checkpoint protein - regulator of mitotic dynein - functions to target dynein to kinetochores
Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) homology domain 2 (WH2) family
member of the Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) scaffolding family - regulates actin filament polymerization and/or depolymerization and are
GEF proteins, which contribute to cellular signaling events by activating small G proteins - a Drosophila counterpart to mammalian DOCK3/DOCK4 -
plays a role in embryonic cellularization, central nervous system development, R7 photoreceptor cell differentiation, and adult thorax development
Src homology 2, ankyrin repeat, tyrosine kinase
Known as Shark kinase this signaling protein is required for dorsal closure upstream of Dpp - also required during oogenesis for dorsal-appendage morphogenesis
Src oncogene at 42A
Src homolog - a protein tyrosine kinase with SH3 and SH2 domains - essential for cell-cell matching during dorsal closure -
involved in adherins junction stabilization
Src oncogene at 64B
Src homolog - a protein tyrosine kinase with SH3 and SH2 domains
STAT (common alternative name: marelle)
transcription factor - STAT homolog
a cytohesin Arf-guanine nucleotide exchange factor that promotes local endocytic events - regulates membrane dynamics in cellularization and insulin and Egf receptor signaling
Sterile20-like kinase
links actin and microtubule filaments at the plasma membrane to regulate cell morphogenesis - crucial for proper talin recruitment and maintenance
of muscle attachment - phosphorylates and activates Moesin in developing epithelial tissues - p-Moesin asymmetric distribution is determined by components
of the apical polarity complex and Slik kinase - Slik promotes epithelial cell proliferation and tissue growth - Slik is necessary for the activation
of Moesin at the tracheal luminal membrane - Slik co-regulates Merlin or Moesin activity whereby phosphorylation inactivates Merlin, but activates Moesin
sticky (alternative name: citron)
Rho effector kinase functioning downstream of pebble - required for cytokinesis
still life
Drosophila ortholog of TIAM1 - a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho family GTPases - localized to
periactive zone of presynaptic terminals in both the central nervous system and neuromuscular junction - regulates
synaptic growth at NMJs - a model for pathogenic TIAM-1 in mutation in humans - Loss of function reduces
the survival rate, and the surviving adults exhibit climbing defects, are prone to severe seizures, and have a short lifespan
RabGEF - basal restriction of basement membrane proteins - establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity - polarized ovarian follicular epithelium
Striatin interacting protein
a component of the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex that regulates axon elongation, cytoskeletal stability,
and cell signaling - required to ensure the proper development of synaptic boutons at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction - a molecular
platform for the early endosome organization that has important roles in neuronal morphogenesis - negatively regulates the Hippo and clock pathways
protein tyrosine phosphatase - activates cyclin dependent kinase for mitotic entry
Stromal interaction molecule
ER-Ca2+ sensor required for store-operated Ca2+ entry - dimerizes and undergoes structural rearrangements facilitating binding Orai - regulates
the release of neuropeptides - regulates lipid mobilization in response to Adipokinetic hormone and insulin signaling in fat body - regulates
synaptic release from pupal dopaminergic neurons allowing for sustained flight
controls the homeostasis of Polycomb protein via proteasomal degradation through an ubiquitin-independent
pathway - modulates octopamine effect on sleep through a Stuxnet-Polycomb-Octbeta2R cascade
Sumo (preferred name: Smt3)
a low molecular weight protein modifier that is vital for multicellular development - over 140 SUMO conjugates have been identified in the early embryo
including Dorsal, Tramtrack, Vestigial, SoxNeuro, Medea, Mod(mdg4) and CP190 and the bi-functional tRNA charging enzyme glutamylprolyl-tRNA synthetase
Suppressor of cytokine signaling at 36E
inhibitor of JAK/STAT pathway, works vie a protein degradation pathway, cooperates with EGFR to regulate oncogenic transformation,
optimizes motile cell specification in the ovary, regulator of niche competition in the testis, regulated by Histone demethylase
Suppressor of fused
novel protein with PEST sequence - Hedgehog signaling pathway
Suppressor of profilin 2 (preferred name: Actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1)
A component of the Arp2/3 complex - involved in catalyzing actin filament nucleation - essential to cap expansion and pseudocleavage furrow during cellularization -
required for ring canal expansion during oogenesis
non-neuronal synaptobrevin - SNARE protein - part of the cellular machinery required for the fusion of constitutive secretory vesicles with the
plasma membrane - SNARE-mediated membrane trafficking is an important component of wing margin development - expressed in the gut and Malpighian tubules
Synaptosomal-associated protein 29kDa (Common alternative name: Snap29) required for protein trafficking and for proper Golgi apparatus morphology - promotes kinetochore assembly
during mitosis - Snap29 mutant imaginal discs exhibit impairment of a late step of autophagy
Synaptotagmin 4
a postsynaptic Ca2+ sensor acting at the neuromuscular junction to release retrograde signals that stimulate enhanced presynaptic function -
acts throught activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway
synaptotagmin 7
neuromuscular junction - a calcium sensor that suppresses vesicle release - loss of Syt7
converts the normally observed synaptic facilitation response during repetitive stimulation into synaptic depression
Syntaxin 4
postsynaptic t-SNARE that regulates retrograde signaling - negatively regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter
release through a retrograde signaling mechanism - regulates synaptic growth and plasticity
Syntaxin 18 (common alternative name: Gtaxin)
Discs-Large-interacting t-SNARE, postsynaptic in type I synapses, Akt influences subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) assembly by regulation of Syt18
Sterile 20 family kinase - a component of the Hippo pathway - restricts cell proliferation in imaginal discs -
controls of epithelial morphogenesis by promoting Fasciclin 2 endocytosis - negative regulator of microtubule
plus-end growth - regulation of apoptosis in pole cells
Target of rapamycin
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase - involved in perception of nutrient status - pivotal member of the TOR pathway involved in regulation of growth and cell proliferation
Tec29 (preferred name: Btk family kinase at 29A)
protein-tyrosine kinase - necessary for maintaining the equilibrium between monomeric actin and filamentous actin during invagination of the salivary placodes -
functions during oogenesis as a key downstream effector of Src64 during ring canal growth
TGF-ß activated kinase 1
serine/threonine kinase required for morphogenetic changes that take place during the fusion of the epithelial wing disc cell layers (thoracic closure),
acting in the context of JNK signaling - required for Relish cleavage and antibacterial immunity
negative regulation of lipid storage - negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion concentration - adaptive thermogenesis - negative
regulation of calcium-transporting ATPase activity - binds the sarco/ER Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) and acts on it as an uncoupler
Thor (common alternative name: d4E-BP)
messenger RNA 5' cap binding protein - regulates translation during environmental stress
thread (common alternative name: Diap1)
ubiquitin ligase that functions as an inhibitor of apoptosis - Thread inhibition of caspase function is counteracted by proapoptotic proteins Hid, Grim and Reaper
TNF-receptor-associated factor 1
Traf domain protein - involved in signal transduction in the JNK pathway
neuromuscular junction - SNARE binding protein - potently inhibits exocytosis by sequestering SNARE proteins
in nonfusogenic complexes - a decoy snare - enables tonic release in Ib motoneurons by reducing SNARE complex
formation and suppressing probability of release to generate decreased levels of synaptic vesicle fusion and enhanced
resistance to synaptic fatigue - involved in a specific component of late associative memory
Translationally controlled tumor protein
guanine nucleotide exchange for Rheb - functions in the TSC pathway to control growth
transforming acidic coiled-coil protein (common name: tacc)
centrosomal protein that stabilizes microtubules during mitosis by recruiting the microtubule plus end binding protein Minispindles
Transportin-Serine/Arginine rich
an importin-ß family member responsible for transporting SR protein splice factors into the nucleus
serine/threonine kinase-like domain - regulates cell cycle
Ndr serine/threonine kinase - required for the normal morphogenesis of epidermal hairs, bristles, laterals, and dendrites
Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor
acts in conjunction with TSC2 to suppress cell growth by inhibiting Tor, a central controller of cell growth - TSC1/TSC2 has GAP activity
toward the Rheb small GTPase which acts upstream of and stimulates TOR - TSC2 is the catalytic GAP subunit,
while TSC1 enhances TSC2 function by stabilizing TSC2
cofactor with pelle to activate Dorsal
tumor suppressor protein 101 (common alternative name: erupted)
binds monoubiquitinated substrates predicted to be ubiquitinated cytoplasmic tails of membrane bound proteins;
this interaction delivers cargos to the lysosome via multivesicular bodies
cdc25 phosphatase - dephosphorylation of cdc2 by Twine controls entry into meiosis in both males and females
Protein phosphatase 2A - B subunit
extraproteasomal ubiquitin receptor that targets ubiquitylated proteins for degradation - interacts with the dHP1c complex, localizes at promoters
of developmental genes and is required for transcription - interacts with monoubiquitylated H2B - regulation of postsynaptic growth
at the NMJ - binds and delivers ubiquitinated misfolded or no longer functionally required proteins to the ubiquitin-proteasome system
a scaffold protein with a C1 lipid-binding motif and two C2 calcium-binding motifs - mediates signals to control synaptic vesicle exocytosis
UV-resistance associated gene (common alternative name: Vps38)
subunit of the PI3K-cIII complex - autophagy - endosomal-lysosomal pathway - axon pruning tumor suppressor -
receptor downregulation through endolysosomal degradation - the establishment of proper cell polarity
in the developing wing - UV-induced DNA damage repair
Vav ortholog
a signal transducing protein that participates in EGF receptor pathways and functions as a GEF for Rac
Verprolin 1
facilitator of myoblast fusion - homolog of the conserved Verprolin/WASp Interacting Protein family of WASp-binding proteins -
recruits the actin-polymerization machinery to sites of myoblast attachment and fusion
von Hippel-Lindau
E3 ubiquitin ligase - functions in follicular epithelial morphogenesis to stabilize microtubule bundles and aPKC -
in trachea controls the HIF-1 α/sima hypoxia response pathway
a component of the ESCRT machinery that regulates endocytic sorting of signaling receptors
MapKKK member of the JNK pathway - influences axonal transport by functioning as a kinesin-cargo dissociation factor -
suppresses autophagy-induced neuromuscular junction overgrowth - required for normal axon degeneration
kinase - regulates cell cycle
cytoskeletal protein - acts upstream of Arp2/3 which in turn mediates actin nucleation activity - functions downstream of Rho1
and the formin Cappuccino to control actin and microtubule dynamics during oogenesis - bundles and crosslinks F-actin and microtubules
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein: regulates actin polymerization
WD repeat domain 62
controls brain growth through lineage-specific interactions with master mitotic signaling kinase Aurora A - glial lineage-specific WDR62 depletion
significantly decreases brain volume - JNK interacts with Wdr62 at the spindle and transcriptionally represses the kinesin Kif1a to promote planar
spindle orientation - required to maintain centrosome asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts by directly or indirectly stabilizing the interphase MTs
necessary to accumulate and maintain pericentriolar matrix-associated Polo - control of intestinal cell fate
protein tyrosine kinase that targets Cdc2 thus preventing premature activation of the mitotic program
actin polymerase - promotes fast actin filament elongation - functions in membrane protrusions and cell migration in macrophages -
functions in myoblast fusion - sensory cell fate specification
visceral mesodermal armadillo-repeats (common alternative name: Vimar)
guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Miro - involved in mitochondrial fusion - functional targets of miR-277 that modulates rCGG
repeat-mediated neurodegeneration - expressed embryonically in the midgut and hindgut visceral
mesoderm, as well as in the CNS and PNS - mutation causes shortened rhabdomere length in the eye
wide awake (common alternative name Banderuola)
a multi-domain signaling protein that regulates asymmetric cell division, cell polarization, spindle orientation,
and asymmetric protein localization, regulation of circadian timing of sleep onset
protein phosphatase PP2A-B' regulatory subunit - regulates insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling through interaction with Akt
ERM junctional protein involved in regulating apical-basal polarity - tracheal development
zeste white 3 (preferred name: shaggy)
cytoplasmic - segment polarity
Zeste-white 10
a subunit of the RZZ complex located at the kinetochores of chromosomes - the RZZ complex plays an essential role in the spindle assembly checkpoint that ensures
proper connections between chromosomes and the mitotic spindle. - found on the Golgi stacks and endoplasmic reticulum where it functions in membrane formation and trafficking
Lim domain signaling protein involved in cytoskeletal regulation of growth - regulates Hippo pathway - transduction of mechanical tension -
component of adherens and focal adhesion junctions junctions

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Drosophila genes listed by biochemical function

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