logo Alphabetical list of genes

Genes L - M - N - O - P - Q - R -- [Genes A-D -- Genes E-K -- Genes S-Z]

transcription factor - homeodomain - Antp class - involved in head and brain morphogenesis - in the midgut Labial plays a role in determination and differentiation of copper cells

immunoglobulin domain cell adhesion molecule required for the proper morphogenesis of the tracheal system

ladybird early and ladybird late
transcription factors - homeodomain proteins -overlaps expression of wingless in the epidermis - ladybird genes contribute
to the segmentation process and are considered as segment polarity genes

lame duck
zinc finger transcription factor - has an essential regulatory role in the specification and function of fusion-competent myoblasts

an intermediate filament protein - chromatin associated protein - Lamin binds to scaffold/matrix-associated regions, DNA sequences that are held responsible
for mediating the interaction between the nuclear matrix and chromatin.

Laminin A
laminin - extracellular matrix protein - plays a role in the pathfinding process of ocellar axons

Laminin B1
extracellular matrix protein - required for normal accumulation of basement membrane components -
involved in morphogenesis of gut, trachea, muscles and nervous system

large tumor suppressor (lats) (preferred name: warts)
kinase - regulates cell cycle - loss of gene function leads to the cell-autonomous formation of epithelial tumors in the adult integumentary structures derived from imaginal discs.

lateral muscles scarcer
homeodomain transcription factor - identity factor for lateral transverse muscles

ORC3 homolog - regulates DNA replication - also, a presynaptic protein with a role in the Ca2+-dependent synaptic modulation mechanisms necessary for behavioral plasticity

Latrotoxin receptor (preferred name: Calcium-independent receptor for α-latrotoxin)
G-protein coupled receptor - involved in the perception of tactile, proprioceptive, and auditory stimuli through chordotonal neurons of the PNS -
sensitizes these neurons for the detection of mechanical stimulation by amplifying their input-output function

lava lamp
coiled-coil cytoskeletal component involved in cellularization - analysis shows that active Golgi-derived membrane vesicle secretion is essential for cytokinesis

lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase that functions during phototransduction - along with rdgA
regulates amplification and response termination during phototransduction

leak (common alternative name: robo2)
transmembrane receptor that regulates heart cell and tracheal branch migration and axon guidance

a scaffold protein that physically links Pygopus to ß-catenin - the recruitement of Pygopus permits ß-catenin to activate Wnt target genes

leonardo (preferred name: 14-3-3zeta)
a 14-3-3zeta isoform - a phosphoserine/threonine interacting protein - modifies ras pathway signaling and facilitating olfactory learning

lesswright (common alternative names: Ubc9 and Semushi)
SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme - stabilizes proteins against ubiquitinization and subsequent degradation -
regulates hematopoiesis - holds the Toll pathway in check

let-7 (preferred name: microRNA encoding gene let-7)
encodes an RNA species involved in translational silencing of target mRNAs

lethal (2) giant discs 1 (common alternative name: lethal giant discs)
tumor suppressor - required to restrict the activity of Notch to the D/V boundary of the wing imaginal disc - endosomal transport protein

lethal (2) giant larvae (common alternative name: lethal giant larvae)
novel conserved cytoskeletal element - functions with other tumor suppressors to regulate cell polarity and growth

lethal (3) malignant brain tumor
a chromatin compactor - tumor suppressor - targets Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway - inactivator of germline genes - mutation result in the formation of brain tumors

lethal of scute
transcription factor - basic HLH - proneural gene that is also involved in specification of muscle progenitors

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 3
receptor for Drosophila Insulin-like peptide 8 - regulation of growth - attenuation growth and maturation - neurosecretory cell-rich pars intercerebralis

Leucine-rich repeat kinase
a cytoplasmic protein that controls synaptic morphogenesis at the neuromuscular junction targeting distinct downstream effectors
at the presynaptic and postsynaptic compartments

Leucokinin receptor
G-protein coupled receptor expressed in brain neurons - regulation of meal size and meal frequency - regulation of fluid balance in Malpighian tubules

Leukocyte-antigen-related-like (common alternative name: Dlar)
transmembrane - receptor tyrosine kinase functioning to regulate axon guidance

a MAP kinase kinase targeting p38 MAP kinase - licorne mutations provoke polarity defects in the eggshell and embryo, as a result of reduced activity
of two localized determinants: Oskar and Gurken

transcription factor - Fragile X mental retardation 2 (Fmr2) family - Functions in MAPK and Dpp signaling pathways - affects growth, a function associated
with the insulin pathway - affects the cytoskeleton early in development.

Lim domain and lim homeodomain protein - expressed in the head primordia, the brain lobes, and in distinct sets of motorneurons and interneurons within
the ventral nerve cord - Lim1 larval mutants have abnormal motor coordination

serine/threonine kinase - functions via cytoskeleton to confer the added synapse-stabilizing activity of the BMP receptor Wishful thinking

secreted hormone, regulates insulin pathway, suppresses insulin secretion by insulin-producing cells following starvation,
localized to glucose-sensing, endocrine corpora cardiaca (CC) cells associated with the gut

Lin-7 (preferred name: veli)
scaffolding protein that acts downstream of Discs large, in conjunction with its binding partner Metro, to control neuromuscular
junction expansion and proper establishment of synaptic boutons

lin-19-like (common alternative name: Cullin1)
a major component of a series of multimeric ubiquitin ligases that control the degradation of a broad range of proteins

cold shock and RNA-binding protein - regulator of developmental timing - regulator of microRNA maturation

novel segment polarity gene - Lines is crucial for completing Wg signal transduction, acting downstream or in parallel to Armadillo

Lipid storage droplet-1 & Lipid storage droplet-2
intracellular neutral lipid droplet storage protein - maintains energy homeostasis

phosphatidate phosphatase activity - transcriptional co-activator - downstream effector mediating effects of insulin and TORC1 signaling on lipid metabolism -
influences fat body development and function - affects cellular growth

Lipophorin (preferred name: Retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein)
bears lipid-linked morphogens on its surface - required for long-range signaling activity of Wingless and Hedgehog

Lipophorin receptor 1 & Lipophorin receptor 2
a secreted receptor that promotes the extracellular lipolysis of lipophorins - neutral lipid uptake - LpR1 facilitates uptake
of the serpin Necrotic in oocytes and cells of imaginal discs

scaffolding protein that physically interacts with LAR and is essential for R7 axon targeting

liquid facets
an epsin: a family of cargo-selective adapters that link mono-ubiquitinated cell-surface proteins with the endocytic machinery -
regulates Notch ligand Delta's subcellular localization and activity

liquid facets-Related
multi-modular proteins that stimulate clathrin-coated vesicle formation - functions in trans-Golgi network/endosome vesicle trafficking
transports specific cargo critical to one or more signaling pathways - required for egg chamber morphogenesis during oogenesis

component of Dynein complex, Beta-transducin family Trp-Asp repeats protein - required in the germline for synchronized cystocyte division and oocyte differentiation

little imaginal discs
trimethyl H3K4 demethylase - physically interacts with Myc to regulator Myc-induced cell growth

Lkb1 kinase
Par-4 kinase - required for the early A-P polarity of the oocyte and for the repolarization of the oocyte cytoskeleton that defines the embryonic A-P axis

Lk6 kinase
Serine/Threonine protein kinase that exerts a tight control on eIF4E phosphorylation and is necessary for normal growth and development

member of SH2B family of adaptor molecules - interacts with Chico to fulfill an independent but partially redundant function
in the activation of PI3K upon Insulin receptor stimulation - regulates lifespan, metabolism, and stress responses

PRAS40 ortholog required for eye cell survival - regulates eye development through the TOR pathway

locomotion defects (common alternative name: loco)
regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS) protein - a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) acting on alpha subunit of G-proteins - Mutant glial cells fail to properly ensheath
longitudinal axon tracts and do not form the normal glial-glial cell contacts, resulting in a disruption of the blood-brain barrier

loki (common alternative name: chk2)
homolog of mammalian Chk2 - a serine/threonine kinase required required for DNA damage-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

lola like
BTB/POZ domain protein - partner of Trithorax-like in maintaining gene repression

longitudinals lacking
transcription factor - zinc finger - btb domain - regulates axon guidance - expressed in both glia and neurons

a component of a functional pre-miRNA processing complex - stimulates and directs pre-microRNA processing activity

Lost PHDs of trr (alternative name: Cara mitad)
PHD zinc finger protein - cofactor for Trithorax-related - associates with EcR-USP receptor
and is required for hormone-dependent transcription - required for proper global trimethylation of H3K4

conserved protein - regulates Fat signaling - binds to the cytoplasmic domains Dachsous and the Dachsous receptor protein Fat

transcription factor - AML-1 homolog - involved in sensillogenesis in antenna - mutants lack basiconic sensilla and some trichoid sensilla

zinc finger transcription factor - maternally supplied - required during the syncytial stages for coupling of rapid mitotic cycles and centrosome cycles

olfactant-binding-protein, lipocalin family - mediates chemosensory responses to alcohols

zinc finger - target of proneural genes - expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors for proper proneural gene expression.


mitotic checkpoint protein that blocks mitotic exit by sequestering Cdc20/Fizzy - required to delay progression through early stages of prometaphase
so that cells have time to fully engage the spindle assembly checkpoint

HMG box protein - spindle class protein - potential regulator of RNA processing or subcellular localization

mago nashi
novel protein involved in oogenesis - mutation results from the failure of nuclear migration to the anterodorsal cortex during oogenesis

males absent on the first
histone acetyltransferase involved in dosage compensation

male-specific lethal-1
chromatin component - dosage compensation - basic motif, leucine zipper-like motif, glycine-rich motif protein that directly binds DNA

male-specific lethal-2
chromatin component - ring finger - metallothionein motif - involved in dosage compensation

male-specific lethal 3
chromatin component - dosage compensation - MRG family, chromo-barrel domain

DEAH-box subfamily ATP-dependent helicase - Mle plays an early role in dosage compensations, perhaps in packaging
roX2 RNA into growing dosage compensation protein complexes

MAP kinase (preferred name: rolled)
Component of Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway - involved in establishment of the dorsoventral polarity of the egg shell and the embryo -
acts in specification of terminal structures immediately after fertilization - Gain-of-function mutants produce extra R7 photoreceptors and extra wing veins

marelle (preferred name: STAT)
transcription factor - stat homolog - cytoplasmic signal transducing protein - regulates the even-skipped stripe 3 promoter
and the pair rule gene runt - central to the establishment of planar polarity during Drosophila eye development

microtubule-associated protein that mediates spatially controlled dephosphorylation of dTACC, which is critical for mitotic spindle stabilization

novel protein that physically interacts with Suppressor of Hairless and Notch functioning as a transcriptional activator for Notch signaling

maternal expression at 31B
A DEAD-box helicase, part of a ribonuclear protein complex, that restricts translation of oocyte-localizing RNAs -
in neurons Me31B acts to promote translational repression and/or mRNA degradation in response to miRNAs

signaling protein that interacts with Polo kinase and acts as a negative regulator of Polo during the later stages of G2 arrest

Matrix metalloproteinase 1 and Matrix metalloproteinase 2
enzymes required for several stereotyped motor axon pathfinding decisions and essential for axon fasciculation -
Mmp2 promotes dendrite reshaping through local degradation of the basement membrane - in trachea Mmp2 inhibits FGF
morphogenetic function - Mmp2 is essential for wing imaginal disc:trachea association and air sac tubulogenesis

Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-like
methyl-DNA binding protein involved in methylation dependent transcriptional repression

Smad family member - associates with Smad1 in response to BMP2/4 or with Smad2 in response to TGF-beta - dominant negative Smad4 blocks both BMP and activin responses

Mediator complex subunit 19
a subunit of the Mediator complex - directly binds Hox homeodomains, modulating Hox-directed developmental outcomes

signaling protein that promotes the recruitment of Mad2 and Mps1 to unattached kinetochores, mediating normal mitotic duration
and spindle assembly checkpoint response

meiotic 41
ATM/ATR kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase - essential for the DNA damage checkpoint in larval imaginal discs and neuroblasts -
required to delay mitosis in response to incomplete DNA replication in early nuclear divisions - monitors double-strand-break repair during meiotic crossing over

a conserved translational regulator that facilitate the switch from proliferation to differentiation - associates with miRNA
pathway components to represses the translation of target mRNAs - cooperates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl
to promote early germline development in the Drosophila ovary - a target of Vasa in promoting stem cell differentiation

mei-s332 (preferred name: meiotic from Salaria 282)
conserved protein - essential in meiosis for maintaining cohesion at centromeres until sister chromatids separate
at the metaphase II/anaphase II transition

evolutionarily conserved modulator of the insulin/PI3K signaling pathway - mutants mimic the effects of nutrient deprivation
producing adults with 40% less fat than normal

menage a trois
a MAGUK serving as a major binding partner of perisynaptic Dlg at larval neuromuscular junctions - stabilizes Dlg
in a complex with adaptor protein Lin-7 - controls NMJ expansion and proper establishment of synaptic boutons

Menin 1
conserved chromatin factor that modulates Jun activity in a manner dependent on the cellular context - tumor suppressor that functions
in maintenance of genomic integrity - controls stress responses

ERM family, protein 4.1 superfamily - functions to restrain cell proliferation - a junctional component also associated with endocytosis

transmembrane protein - component of smooth septate junctions, functions cooperates with Tetraspanin 2A and Snakeskin to organize
septate junctions - midgut - Malpighian tubules

metabotropic GABA-B receptor subtype 1
G-protein coupled receptor - expressed by pheromone-sensing olfactory receptor neurons which as a consequence exhibit strong presynaptic inhibition -
mediates inter-glomerular inhibition - responsible for decreased intracellular calcium of clock neurons blocking their calcium cycling

metabotropic glutamate receptor
G-protein coupled receptor - modulates presynaptic excitability properties and synaptic architecture -
acts in conjunction with FMRP to regulate presynaptic properties

Metal response element-binding Transcription Factor-1
zinc finger transcription factor known familiarly as metal transcription factor - controls heavy metal detoxification

bHLH-Pas domain transcription factor - involved in juvenile hormone (JH) action as
a likely component of a JH receptor

G-protein coupled receptor: mutants have increased longevity, are resistent to stress and have increased body weight

ATP dependent DNA helicase - Zinc finger, C4HC3 type (PHD finger) - involved in nucleosome mobilization

flavoprotein monooxygenase - large, multidomain protein expressed in axons - interacts with the neuronal Plexin A -
enzymatic function required for Semaphorin 1a/PlexA-mediated repulsive axon guidance

a conserved regulator of cell cycle, co-ordination of centrosome and nuclear division cycles, and maintenance of chromosome condensation

microRNA encoding gene let-7
encodes an RNA species involved in translational silencing of target mRNAs

microRNA encoding gene mir-14
a cell death suppressor - regulates fat metabolism

microtubule star
catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A - regulates asymmetric cell division, cell cycle, Hedgehog pathway, Notch signaling & visual signal transduction

midline and H15
T-box transcription factors that participate in cardiac fate specificity

scaffolding protein that along with Miro forms an essential protein complex that links kinesin heavy chain to mitochondria
for light chain-independent, anterograde transport of mitochondria - controls the early acquisition of
mitochondria by Drosophila oocytes - contributes to spermatid tail elongation

E3 ubiquitin ligase - regulates endocytosis of Delta and Serrate

mind the gap
secreted carbohydrate-binding protein involved in synapse assembly -
modifier of signaling by the ligand Jelly belly and its receptor Alk

ming (preferred name: castor)
transcription factor - zinc finger - regulates the development of late CNS sublineages

serine/threonine kinase - mutants show an inabillity to generate a sufficient number of optic lobe and central brain neurons during postembryonic development

Minichromosome maintenance 5
AAA+ ATPase family - required in the Mcm complex for licensing and initiating origins of replication - it acts during elongation
as a helicase at the replication forks - acts in meiosis in maturation of double-strand breaks into crossovers

minifly (preferred name: Nucleolar protein at 60B)
pseudouridylate synthase - enzymatically modifies ribosomal RNA - required for maintenance of germ-line stem cells

mini spindles
microtubule plus end binding protein - stimulates microtubule growth, microtubule destabilising activity, mitotic spindle

mir-8 stem loop
acts through U-shaped to activate PI3K, thereby promoting fat cell growth cell-autonomously and enhancing growth non-cell-autonomously -
antagonizes Wg signaling in part by directly targeting wntless, a gene required for Wg secretion

mir-9a stem loop
a microRNA that regulates maternal-to-zygotic transition, muscle-tendon attachments, production of sensory bristles and wing development

mir-124 stem loop
post-transcriptional regulation, gene silencing by miRNA, negative regulation of synaptic transmission; dendrite morphogenesis, neuroblast proliferation

a highly conserved microRNA that is expressed in the female germline and has assumed control over multiple steps
in oogenesis and early embryogenesis

mir-277 stem loop
microRNA that carries out post-transcriptional gene regulation, modulates rCGG repeat-mediated neurodegeneration
and the pathogenesis of FXTAS neurodegenerative disorder by post-transcriptionally regulating the expression of specific mRNAs involved in the disease

novel - required for subcellular localization of prospero - a target of the asymmetric cell division machinery - involved in the generation of cell diversity in the CNS

homeodomain - Pbx class - primary determiner of the border between dorsal and ventral halves of the eye

SPS1 family kinase - conveys Rac signals to Basket/Jnk during dorsal closure

missing oocyte
conserved novel protein that regulates nuclear architecture and meiotic progression
in early ovarian cysts - interacting partner of the conserved nucleoporin Seh1

miti-mere(preferred name: POU domain protein 2)
transcription factor - homeodomain and pou domain - collaborates with nubbin during specification of the RP2/sib lineage in Drosophila neurogenesis

Mitochondrial assembly regulatory factor
target of the Yorkie pathway - regulation of mitochondrial fusion, organ size, steroid synthesis in the ring gland and ovarian follicle cell differentiation -
modulates endoplasmic reticulum function, Reaper binds Marf to induce mitochondrial fragmentation

Mitochondrial Rho
transmembrane Rho GTPase required for controlling anterograde transport of mitochondria and their proper distribution within nerve terminals

bHLH-zipper transcription factor - Max-interacting transcriptional repressor - associates with the Sin3 corepressor

mob as tumor suppressor (common alternative name: mats)
physically associates with cell cycle regulator Warts to stimulate its catalytic activity and associates with tissue polarity factor Tricornered to regulate denticle development

modifier of mdg4
GAGA-like, BTB domain - interacts with suppressor of Hairy wing on gypsy insulator element

a novel protein enriched at telomeres that is required to prevent telomeric fusion -
forms a protein complex that is functionally analogous to shelterin

RRM-containing domain - modifier of PEV promoting chromatin compaction and inactivation - controls cellular growth rate downstream of dMYC

the sole Drosophila ERM protein - functions to promote cortical actin assembly and apical-basal polarity

Trithorax-complex protein - SWI3 homolog - chromatin remodeling protein - functions as the Swi3 component of the Brahma complex

Importin 7 - functions in nuclear transport of MAPK - surface receptor signaling regulates MAPK localization through the adaptor protein Corkscrew

a conserved Golgi/endosomal protein - essential factor in anchoring pole plasm components at the oocyte posterior cortex - couples Oskar-induced
endocytosis with actin remodeling for cortical anchorage of the germ plasm - physically interacts with Capuccino and Spire -
promotes the accumulation of the small GTPase Rho1 at the oocyte posterior.

Mondo (alternative names: Mio and mlx interactor)
bHLH leucine zipper transcription factor - coordinates feeding behavior with nutrient availability -
controls fat accumulation in fat body

G-protein coupled receptor - expressed in glia and required for blood-brain barrier formation

APC2 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex - regulates protein degradation and cell cycle

Mothers against dpp
novel protein - downstream of DPP - Smad family members convey TGFß signals from their receptors to the nucleus

p38a serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in response stress including heat shock, oxidative stress and starvation

multiple wing hairs
G protein binding-formin homology 3 (GBD-FH3) protein - frizzled pathway - tissue planar cell polarity - regulation of hair initiation - inhibits new hair initiation events

multi sex combs
chromatin factor involved in assembly of histone locus body, an essential histone mRNA processing factor,
hemocyte proliferation and differentiation

homolog of Collagen XV/XVIII, a matrix protein that can be proteolytically cleaved to release Endostatin, an antiangiogenesis signaling factor -
required for normal calcium channel abundance, presynaptic calcium influx, and neurotransmitter release - functions in motor axon pathfinding

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine diphosphorylase - functions in apical extracellular matrix formation by producing GlcNAc residues
needed for chitin synthesis and protein glycosylation - regulates cuticle production, tracheal morphogenesis, and axon guidance

RNA binding protein - Notch signaling regulate Msi activity as a translational repressor of Tramtrack in the generation of non-neuronal lineages in during bristle development

RNA splice factor involved in terminal muscle and eye differentiation - mutants model features of myotonic dystrophy

Muscle LIM protein at 60A
cytoskeletal LIM-domain protein, Cys-rich protein - promotes myogenic differentiation

muscle segment homeobox-1 (preferred name: Drop)
transcription factor - homeodomain - confers cell fate on the dorsal (lateral-most) column of neuroblasts during ventral cord development

muscle segment homeobox 2 (preferred name: tinman)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK2 class - required for heart development

Muscle-specific protein 300 kDa (common alternative name: Nesprin)
cytoskeletal protein - transports mRNAs from the nucleus to postsynaptic sites during synaptic maturation -
controls glutamate receptor density at the neuromuscular junction - promotesn myonuclear spacing

mushroom bodies tiny
PAK kinase - downstream effector of Cdc42 - regulates cell adhesion dependent processes during photoreceptor cell differentiation

mushroom body defect
involved in spindle orientation during asymmetric cell division - asymmetrically localized Partner
of inscuteable-Gαi complexes regulate spindle orientation by directly binding to Mud which in turn binds microtubules

mushroom body miniature
PHD finger superfamily protein - a nucleolar protein required for small ribosomal subunit biogenesis - transcriptionally
regulated by Myc which relays information from nutrient dependent signaling pathways to ribosomal gene expression -
part of the Myc and CK2 regulatory networks for coordination of neuroblast growth and proliferation

mutagen-sensitive 209 (preferred name name: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen)
Polymerase-delta/epsilon processivity factor - a sliding clamp that encircles DNA and tethers the DNA polymerase catalytic unit to the DNA template

Myb oncogene-like
transcription factor - Myb DNA-binding domain - required for mitosis and prevention of endoreduplication in wing cells

Myc (common alternative name name: diminutive)
bHLH - leucine zipper - controls cell cycle progression

Death domain protein - Encodes an essential component of the Toll pathway in dorsoventral pattern formation - involved in signal transduction in the immune response

Myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor
interacts with various factors involved in transcriptional regulation, regulates cell proliferation during eye morphogenesis,
Lozenge activity during hematopoetic development and assembly of the COP9 signalosome complex

myoblast city
a docking protein: DOCK180 homolog - essential for myoblast fusion

Myocardin-related transcription factor
conserved cofactor for serum response factor - required for border cell migration during oogenesis -
activation induced by cell stretching - regulates tracheal branching

myocyte enhancer factor 2
transcription factor - mads box - regulates muscle differentiation

secreted Transforming growth factor-beta family ligand - secreted by glial cells
during larval brain development - for neuronal expression of Ecdysone receptor

Myoinhibiting peptide precursor
ancestral ligand for the Sex peptide receptor - acts directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons -
regulation of polyamine attraction, stabilization of sleep

signaling protein regulating receptor endocytosis, regulates integrin trafficking, Yorkie endosomal association
and protein levels, the Egfr pathway and the Toll pathway

myosin II (preferred name: zipper)
non-muscle myosin - required for cell motility

Myosin binding subunit
regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase - involved in dorsal closure

Myosin 10A
cytoskeletal motor protein required during dorsal closure for the correct alignment of cells on opposing sides
of the fusing epithelial sheets and for adhesion of the cells during the final zippering/fusion phase

Myosin 31DF
cytoskeletal motor protein required in the hindgut epithelium and testes for normal embryonic handedness (left-right asymmetry)

Myosin 61F
motor protein present within the microvillus of the gut apical brush border where it forms lateral tethers
between the microvillus membrane and underlying actin filament core - maintains structural integrity of the brush border domain enterocyte -
provides resistance against oral infection by bacterial pathogens

transmembrane - integrin-beta subunit of PS1 & PS2 - Integrins are used to attach mesoderm to ectoderm and are required for the proper assembly
of the extracellular matrix and for muscle attachment

Wee1-like kinase that specifically regulates Cdk1 (Cdc2) activity in the cytoplasm


transcriptional cofactor - co-activator of Squeeze in CNS neurons - co-repressor of Rotund in wing

naked cuticle
EF-hand calcium-binding domain protein involved in Wingless pathway

translational repressor - zinc finger - targets Hunchback and Bicoid mRNAs to achieve posterior identity

Na pump α subunit
ion pump responsible for the cellular balance of sodium and potassium ions - regulation of neuronal excitability and auditory mechanosensation -
epithelial junction function - tracheal tube-size control - septate junction function - neurodegeneration - muscles - malpighian tubules

transcription factor - myo D homolog - myogenic bHLH factor

Nedd2-like caspase
cysteine protease - a functional homolog of CED-3/caspase-9 - involved in programmed cell death

Negative elongation factor E
RNA-binding protein - along with other factors, NELF causes polymerase to pause in the promoter proximal region of heat shock genes

neither inactivation nor afterpotential C (common alternative name: NinaC)
motor domain protein involved in adaptation during visual signal transduction - regulates of translocation
of Arrestin2 - required for stability of INAD and PKC

Neither inactivation nor afterpotential E (common alternative name: Rh1)
rhodopsin expressed in photoreceptors R1-R6, response to light intensity, phototransduction, thermotaxis

CBP, a transcriptional co-activator that interacts with a large number of developmentally important transcription factors

protein serine/threonine kinase involved in establishing epithelial planar polarity

NEM-sensitive fusion protein 2
developmentally regulated N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion (NSF) gene - mutants are defective in the synaptic growth and maturation that occurs during larval development

nervana 1 and nervana 2
β subunit of Na,K-ATPase, plays an ion-pump-independent role in junction formation and tracheal morphogenesis

nervous fingers 1
zinc finger transcription factor required for the proper development of CNS commissural and connective axon fascicles

nervous wreck
a member of a family of adaptor proteins - controls synapse morphology by interacting with Wasp - regulates actin dynamics

probable transcriptional co-repressor- described as an AKAP binding protein, zinc finger protein expressed in the CNS and involved in axon guidance

Nesprin (preferred name: Muscle-specific protein 300 kDa)
cytoskeletal protein - transports mRNAs from the nucleus to postsynaptic sites during synaptic maturation -
controls glutamate receptor density at the neuromuscular junction - promotesn myonuclear spacing

bHLH transcription factor - promotes vein production in the wing

Netrin-A and Netrin-B
secreted factors that provide instructive guidance cues in axonogenesis

cytoplasmic zinc finger signaling protein - neurogenic - promotes or modulates the Notch neurogenic signal at the receptor/ligand level

Neural Lazarillo
Lipocalin family member, a homologue of vertebrate Apolipoprotein D and Retinol Binding Protein 4, required for JNK-mediated stress and starvation tolerance,
negatively regulates Insulin signaling, disrupting glucose homeostasis, repressing growth, and extending lifespan

Neurexin 1
ligand of neuroligins involved in development and function of synaptic architecture in the brain and neuromuscular junction - glutamergic synapse

Neurexin IV
multifunctional protein required for structural integrity of septate junctions

Neurofibromin 1
GAP-related domain protein functioning in the PKA pathway - critical to the biochemical processes underlying olfactory learning

IG superfamily - NgCAM related - a cell aggregaton and signaling molecule that transmits the positional value of cell adhesion
to the cytoplasmic assembly of ankyrin and spectrin

neuroligin-1 and neuroligin-2
Postsynaptic receptor that interacts with presynaptic Neurexins - recruits scaffolding proteins for organization of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors -
mediates the precise apposition of presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes

neuropeptide F
peptide hormone - developmentally programmed to modify foraging and social behavior in Drosophila larvae

Neuropilin and tolloid-like (common alternative name: Neto)
transmembrane protein - auxiliary subunit of ionic Glutamate receptor required for clustering of ionotropic glutamate receptors
at the neuromuscular junction, for organization of postsynaptic densities and for synapse functionality

transmembrane serine esterase homolog - Mutations in Neurotactin frequently cause defasciculation of the normally tightly associated ocellar pioneer axons

neurotic (preferred name: O-fucosyltransferase 1)
modifies Notch by attaching fucose within EGF domains - positively required for Notch signaling,
essential for the physical interaction of Notch with its ligand Delta and for the ability of Fringe to modulate this interaction

Neurotrophin 1
secreted ligand that maintains neuronal survival - expression rescues naturally occurring cell death and enables targeting by motor neurons

component of a proteolytic complex, along with Presenilin, that targets Notch and ß amyloid protein - Zn-dependent exopeptidase

nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α5, nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α6 & nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7
neurotransmitter-gated ion-channels - cholinergic synapse formation and dendritic refinement - site of action of insecticides

Niemann-Pick Type C-1
a transmembrane protein related to the Hedgehog receptor Patched - mutants have a shortage of sterol, and, as a consequence, inadequate ecdysone synthesis

Niemann-Pick Type C-2
lysosomal cholesterol-binding protein that functions redundantly with npc2b in regulating sterol homeostasis and ecdysteroid biosynthesis

Nijmegen breakage syndrome
encodes a multifunctional protein that plays critical roles in the response to DNA damage and telomere maintenance -
part of a protein complex, MRN, that senses DNA strand breaks and amplifies the signal and then conveys it to
downstream effectors, such as ATM and p53, that regulate cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair

Nimrod C1
EGF-like repeat transmembrane protein located on phagocytic cells - mediates resistence to bacteria

Homologue of the yeast Tra1 and human TRRAP proteins - a key component of both the SAGA and Tip60 (NuA4) chromatin-modifying complexes -
required for Mastermind function during wing development

a DNA-binding transcription factor regulates gene expression by controlling cohesin dynamics - regulates of sister chromatid cohesion

Nitric oxide synthase
Ca++/Calmodulin sensitive enzyme - ectopic expression of NOS at the late stages of larval development results in a decrease in cell proliferation
and a reduction in the size of the adult fly's structures

NK1 (preferred name: slouch, common alternative name: S59)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK-1 class - maintenance of slouch is directly involved in the control of late aspects of muscle development,
such as muscle differentiation and morphogenesis, and possibly also innervation

NK2 (preferred name: ventral nervous system defective)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK2 class - required for the formation of a subset of segmental neuroblasts, and possibly as a neuroectodermal committment gene
- upstream of proneural achaete-scute complex.

Nkx6 (preferred name: HGTX)
homeobox, NK decapeptide domain transcription factor - acts within a subclass of early born neurons to link
neuronal subtype identity to neuronal morphology and connectivity

NMDA receptor 1 and NMDA receptor 2
voltage/Mg2+-dependent Ca2+ channels activated by glutamate - required for olfactory learning

no circadian temperature entrainment
large glutamate-rich protein involved in temperature synchronization of behavioral activity

no mechanoreceptor potential C
a mechanosensitive Ca2+ TRP family channel, mediates locomotion related proprioception (touch sensation)
in PNS localized neurons - mediates sound detection in Johnston's organ

non-claret disjunctional
cytoskeletal motor protein - minus end directed kinesin - involved in spindle dynamics during meiosis and mitosis

ubiquitin-specific protease involved in glial development - effects axon guidance

no-on-and-no-off transient C
a regulatory kinase of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway - acts to regulate proper mRNA translation to safeguard synapse morphology and
maintain the efficacy of synaptic function

no poles
E3 ubiquitin ligase required for the preservation of genomic integrity during early embryogenesis

no receptor potential A
phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C used in visual and odor signal transduction

Nostrin & Cdc42-interacting protein 4
F-BAR proteins involved in regulation of membrane curvature and dynamics - regulation of dynamin-dependent endocytosis of E-cadherin
during oogenesis - Cip4 acts downstream of Cdc42 to activate the WASP-WAVE-Arp2/3 pathway in the notum and the wing epithelium -
Nostrin makes contact with microtubules through the kinesin Khc-73 for trafficking of recycling endosomes

transmembrane receptor - neurogenic - responsible for lateral inhibition and cell fate choices

not enough muscle (preferred name: inscuteable)
novel protein - SH3 binding domain, ankyrin repeats and cytoskeletal attachment domain - controller of cell fate during asymmetric cell division

Notum (common alternative name: wingful)
alpha/ß-hydrolase - Wingless antagonist - acts to induce cleavage of the Dlp glypican at the level of its GPI anchor leading to shedding of Dlp -
spatially regulated modification of Dlp by Notum employs the ligand binding activity of Dlp to promote or inhibit signaling in a context-dependent manner

a v-SNARE - a vesicular protein that plays a key role during synaptic vesicle exocytosis - involved in a neuron-specific
sort-and-degrade mechanism that protects neurons from degeneration

nubbin (preferred name: POU domain protein 1)
transcription factor - homeodomain and pou domain - involved in cell fate determination of a subset of temporally determined neural subtypes

nuclear fallout
pericentrosomal protein which, along with Rab11, is involved in membrane trafficking and actin remodeling
during membrane furrow formation during cellularization - involved in endosomal-mediated membrane delivery to the site of furrow formation

nuclear untranslated RNA gene iab-4 (common alternative name: infraabdominal)
directly inhibits Ubx activity in vivo - ectopic expression induces a classical homeotic mutant phenotype,
the transformation of halteres into wings

Nucleolar protein at 60B (common alternative name: minifly)
pseudouridylate synthase - enzymatically modifies ribosomal RNA - required for maintenance of germ-line stem cells

Nucleoporin 44A (alternative name: Seh1)
component of a nucleoporin subcomplex - a binding parter of Missing oocyte; regulates nuclear architecture and meiotic progression in early ovarian cysts

Nucleoporin 98-96kD
transcriptional regulator - viral-induced primary response gene - lymph gland hematopoietic development

Nucleosome assembly protein 1
Histone chaperone - chromatin assembly

GTPase that acts in serotonergic neurons to regulate insulin signaling and thus exert global growth control

serine protease - docking protein - dorsal group - part of a signaling cascade that determines dorsal/ventral polarity of the embryo

novel myristoylprotein with a cluster of basic amino acids present in the basal junction and required for its formation at the onset of cellularization

signaling protein - targeted by Notch signaling - involved in determination of alternate cell fates

Numb-associated kinase
A component of the endocytic pathway - regulates Neuroglian endocytosis during dendritic extension - regulates Discs large localization
in salivary gland cells - antagonizes the function of Numb and consequently regulates asymmetric cell division

NURF301 (preferred name: Enhancer of bithorax)
major subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (nurf) - multiple domain protein with HMGI/Y and bromodomain motifs


transcription factor - homeodomain - paired-like - acts in a combinatorial fashion with the cephalic gap genes empty spiracles and buttonhead to assign
segmental identities in the head and brain

Octopamine β receptor
G-protein coupled receptor - inhibitory regulation of synaptic and behavioral plasticity at excitatory synapses

Octopamine β3 receptor
G-protein coupled receptor, monoaminergic autocrine signaling, body size checkpoint, nutrient dependence of metamorphosis

Octopamine β 2R receptor
G-protein coupled receptor - autoregulatory control of synaptic and behavioral plasticity at excitatory synapses - control of appetitive motivation

Octopamine receptor in mushroom bodies
G-protein coupled receptor - activated in mated females and functions during ovulation
in the oviduct epithelium to facilitate egg-laying - expressed in mushroom bodies

transcription factor - zinc finger - pair rule gene - mutants associated with cuticle defects that are limited to alternate--odd-numbered--segments

transcription factor - zinc finger - pair rule gene - required for the timely activation of engrailed and wingless during segmentation

Odorant receptor co-receptor (Common alternative name: Odorant receptor 83b)
7 TM odorant receptor - broadly expressed receptor of unknown function - required for dendritic localization of conventional odorant receptors -
mutation disrupts behavioral and electorphysiological responses to many odorants

Odorant receptor 22a and Odorant receptor 22b
7 TM odorant receptor - Or22a responds to ethyl butyrate - localized to dendritic membranes of 22 cells of the basomedial region of the antenna

Odorant receptor 56a
7 TM odorant receptor - a receptor for a microbial odorant (geosmin) that alerts flies to the presence of harmful microbes -
regulates feeding and breeding behavior

Odorant receptor 65a
7 TM odorant receptor - courtship behavior - confers aversive response to cis-vaccenyl acetate

Odorant receptor 67d
7 TM odorant receptor - courtship behavior - the male-specific pheromone 11-cVA acts through Or67d to regulate both male and female mating behavior

Odorant receptor 71a, Odorant receptor 94a and Odorant receptor 94a
detection of yeast-produced ethylphenols, induction of positive chemotaxis, oviposition, and increased feeding

functions as translation initiation factor eIF4G during spermatogenesis to coordinate the initiation of meiotic division and differentiation

CCK-4 family of 'dead' receptor tyrosine kinases, Ig-domains - required for lamina-specific targeting of R1-R6 axons -
associates with Plexin, the receptor for Semaphorin ligand

O-fucosyltransferase 1 (alternative name: neurotic)
modifies Notch by attaching fucose within EGF domains - positively required for Notch signaling,
essential for the physical interaction of Notch with its ligand Delta and for the ability of Fringe to modulate this interaction

DNA helicase involved in DNA repair - required for meiosis - the Drosophila homolog of the yeast DNA-repair protein Rad54

olf186-F (common alternative name: Orai)
store-operated Ca2+ channel involved in rhythmic firing of the flight motoneurons - physically interacts with
the Ca2+ store sensor Stim (Stromal interaction molecule) to form the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel

Olig family
HLH transcription factor expressed in the brain and CNS - motor neuron identify factor - regulates axon guidance

homeodomain and cut domain - regulates some aspects of neural differentiation or maintenance

optic ganglion reduced (common alternative names: Ogre and Inx-1)
gap junction protein functioning in blood-brain barrier glia - mediate the influence
of metabolic changes on stem cell behavior; response of glia to nutritional signals

homeodomain and Six domain - involved in eye morphogenesis by an eyeless-independent mechanism

transcription factor - brachyury T homolog - involved in differentiation of the brain, the CNS, the wing and in patterning of adult abdominal segments

T-box transcription factor - involved in the combinatorial activation of somatic muscle lineage-specific targets -
visceral mesoderm - gain of function causes antenna-to-leg transformations and shortened leg

Ora transientless
histamine-gated chloride channel required for synaptic transmission at the photoreceptor-large monopolar cells synapse and
for orientation and motion vision - responsible for synaptic transients in electroretinograms -
modulates temperature preference and controls tolerance of low and high temperature

RRM - RNA binding protein - Drosophila's cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) -
functions in the transport of mRNAs coding for two essential proteins that govern polarity in the egg:
Oskar, an anterior/posterior determinate and Gurken, a dorsal/ventral determinant

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein - RNA binding protein - forms amyloid-like oligomers enriched in the synaptic membrane - critical for the persistence of long-term memory

Orbit (preferred name: Chromosome bows)
microtubule-associated protein that plays an essential role facilitating the kinetochore-microtubule interaction -
maternially it facilitates multiple interactions of the fusome with mitotic spindles and ring canals -
zygotically it mediates the action of Slit and its receptors acting as a partner of the Abelson tyrosine kinase

orientation disrupter
rapidly evolving gene - involved in meiotic cohesion, chromosome core maintenance and homologous recombination

Origin recognition complex subunit 1
A subunit of the Origin recognition complex, regulating the initiation of DNA replication - Orc1 is degraded by APC
at the cell's exit from mitosis and reaccumulates at the end of G1

Origin recognition complex 2
A subunit of the Origin recognition complex, involved in initiation of DNA replication

Origin recognition complex subunit 6
A DNA-binding protein that functions as subunit of the Origin recognition complex - involved in initiation of DNA replication -
facilitates GTPase activity and filament formation of the septin complex

Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (common alternative name: gutfeeling)
modifies the activity of Ornithine decarboxylase - regulates the nuclear entry and overall levels of Sex-lethal in early germ cells.

transcription factor - homeodomain - paired-like - acts in a combinatorial fashion with the cephalic gap genes empty spiracles and buttonhead to assign
segmental identities in the head and brain

osa (common alternative name: eyelid)
transcription factor - Bright family - associates with the Brahma chromatin remodeling complex - antagonizes Wingless signaling
during Drosophila development and affects patterning of the eye imaginal disc

novel - assembles germ plasm - a anterior/posterior determinant regulating embryonic development

a nuclear lamin that is essential for germline stem cell maintenance - physically interacts with Medea/Smad4
at the bam silencer element to regulate GSC fate

ovarian tumor
novel protein required in oogenesis - ensures the survival of female germ cells in pupae, cyst formation in germ-line cells, the attainment
of mature chromosome structure in nurse cells and egg maturation.

zinc finger transcription factor - involved in ovarian maturation, sex determination, segment polarity

Ovulin (preferred name: Accessory gland peptide 26aa)
male ejaculate accessory gland protein - increases ovulation through octopamine based neuronal signaling


p38a MAP kinase
p38a serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in response stress including heat shock, oxidative stress and starvation

p38b MAP kinase
a MAP kinase involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis

DNA repair pathway and apoptosis transcription factor

poly(A) binding protein - functions in nuclear polyadenylation - cytoplasmic PABP2 acts to shorten the poly(A) tails of specific mRNAs

Part of a protein complex that directs the histone methyltransferase activity and links active transcription and modifications of chromatin structure.

calcium channel - nociceptor - mutant is pain response defective

Painting of fourth
RNA-binding protein that increases transcription output from chromosome 4, targets specific loci on the X chromosome

transcription factor - homeodomain - paired domain - plays a decisive role in the progression of a regulatory hierarchy from pair-rule directed segmentation of the embryo
to the subdivision carried out by segment polarity genes specifying positional information within segments

Paired box neuro
transcription factor - paired domain - induces production of poly-innervated external sense organs

p21-activated kinase - signal transduction protein functioning downstream of rac - required for growth cone guidance

tyrosine hydroxylase - catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in catecholamine biosynthesis - mediates the oxidation of tyrosine to L-DOPA -
DOPA decarboxylase may then metabolize L-DOPA to dopamine

multi-domain protein that acts during oogenesis to coordinate assembly of the vitelline membrane -
required for functional properties of the eggshell

pancreatic eIF-2α kinase (common alternative name: Perk)
phosphorylates and inhibits the translation initiation factor 2 α, control of intestinal stem cell proliferation,
homeostatic regeneration, unfolded protein response of the ER, endoplasmic reticulum stress

transcription factor - HMG domain - segment polarity - acts to transduce the Wingless signal

pan gu
serine/threonine kinase - inhibits DNA replication in the unfertilized egg and permits the accumulation of Cyclin B during early mitotic divisions

pannier (common alternative name: dGATAa)
transcription factor - zinc finger - GATA family - a local repressor of achaete and scute - required for the normal pattern
of sensory bristles in those parts of the dorsal epithelium

serine/threonine kinase involved in cell polarization during asymmetric cell division

PDZ domain protein required for asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts and for the maintenance of oocyte cell fate

PAR-domain protein 1
PAR-domain bZIP transcription factor - controls skeletal muscle genes during differentiation - regulates expression of the Tropomyosin I gene
in somatic body-wall and pharyngeal muscles

ubiquitin protein ligase - degrades proteins with aberrant conformations - mutants exhibit muscle degeneration, male sterility, and defects in brain dopaminergic cells

partner of drosha
double-stranded RNA-binding protein - essential for the biogenesis of canonical miRNAs - required for imaginal disc growth

partner of inscuteable
involved in asymmetric cell divisions and establishment of cell polarity

partner of numb
adaptor protein that physically associates with and regulates Numb - Polo can inhibit progenitor self-renewal by directly phosphorylating Partner of numb

a component of the tripartite IPP complex that maintains the integrin-actin link at embryonic muscle attachment sites -
affects the organization of actin cytoskeleton in both wing and eye epithelia

Pasiflora1 and Pasiflora2
tetraspan proteins - core components of septate junctions - blood-brain and tracheal barriers

transmembrane - segment polarity gene - receptor for Hedgehog

PDZ-domain junctional protein involved in assembling a protein complex that functions in planar cell polarity

a kinesin motor protein - required both to establish the structure of the telophase spindle to provide a framework for assembly of the contractile ring
and to mobilize mitotic regulator proteins

cytoskeletal adaptor that couples integrins to the actin cytoskeleton in focal adhesions - positively regulates Rac
and negatively regulating Rho - regulates actin dynamics and cell adhesion during muscle fusion -
targeted by JNK in the regulation of border-cell cluster integrity during oogenesis

PAX transcription activation domain interacting protein
BRCT (BRCA1 carboxy terminal) domain protein that can bind to phosphorylated serine residues - chromatin-binding protein implicated in epigenetic control
of development and differentiation - potential trithorax gene cofactor - potential interactor with transcription factors that also serves as a modifier of histones

Pcaf (preferred name: Gcn5 ortholog)
a major histone H3 acetylase in Drosophila that plays a key role in the control
of specific morphogenetic cascades during developmental transitions

Pcf11 (preferred name: Inverse regulator a)
RNA binding motif protein - dismantles elongation complexes by a RNA Polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) dependent mechanism
- forms a bridge between the CTD and RNA

conserved AAA+ ATPase that participates in a double strand break independent meiotic prophase checkpoint

pco (preferred name: Enhancer of zeste)
transcription factor - polycomb group with trithorax homology - chromatin associated

PDGF- and VEGF-receptor related
Ig C-2 type domain receptor tyrosine kinase - required for border cell migration

PDGF- and VEGF-related factor 1
ligands that orchestrate migratory patterns of hemocytes at the embryonic ventral midline - essential cell autonomously
for proper positioning of the salivary glands - border cell migration

PDGF- and VEGF-related factor 2 and PDGF- and VEGF-related factor 3
ligands that orchestrate migratory patterns of hemocytes at the embryonic ventral midline -
essential cell autonomously for proper positioning of the salivary glands

pdm-1 (preferred name: POU domain protein 1)
transcription factor - homeodomain and pou domain - controls cell fate of a subset of temporally born neurons

pdm-2 (preferred name: POU domain protein 2)
transcription factor - homeodomain and pou domain - collaborates with nubbin/pdm-1 during specification of the RP2/sib lineage in Drosophila neurogenesis

a septin functioning in organizing the cytoskeleton during cytokinesis and septum formation

a Rho GEF required for the formation of the contractile ring and the initiation of cytokinesis

multiple zinc finger transcription factor - plays a permissive role facilitating the process of germ band retraction

a component of the Notch signaling pathway - a transmembrane protein required for ER function - potentially required in Notch
signal-receiving cells for processing of Notch protein

mechanically activated cation channel - stretch-activated mechanotransduction - mechanical nociceptor

s/t kinase - dorsal group - involved in signal transduction during induction of dorsal/ventral polarity during early embryogenesis

RNA binding motif protein - controls germ-line stem cell self-renewal by repressing a differentiation pathway, possibly through regulating translation

Peptidoglycan recognition protein LC
transmembrane receptor involved in antimicrobial response, recognizes bacterial toxins, tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), expressed in fat body and midgut

Peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase
an enzyme involved in producing amidated neuropeptides - amidated secretory peptides are required for signaling
events that ensure progression through several critical developmental transitions

perdido (common alternative name: Kon-tiki)
conserved multi-domain transmembrane receptor required cell autonomously for myotubes to recognize their tendon cell targets - signals through the intracellular adaptor
Grip in a conserved molecular pathway

pericentrin-like protein (preferred name: cp309)
PACT domain protein - associated with both the centrioles and pericentriolar material -
essential for the formation of functional cilia and flagella

transcription factor - pas domain protein - regulates the diurnal photoperiod response of adult flies

cyclooxygenase (Cox-like enzyme) - required for production of prostaglandins - regulation of actin cytoskeleton
during oogenesis - regulation of Fascin to control actin remodeling

trypsin-like serine protease - specific for fungal detection in a cascade activated by secreted fungal proteases and required
for the sensing of proteases elicited by bacteria in the hemolymph - acts downstream of pattern recognition receptors and upstream of Toll

an evolutionarily conserved FERM domain protein containing a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domain - a binding partner of the upstream
Hippo signaling component Kibra - regulates midgut homeostasis

PHD finger protein 7 ortholog
chromatin component - conserved epigenetic 'reader' that activates the male germline sexual program -
binds histone H3 N-terminal tails with a preference for dimethyl lysine 4

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (common alternative name: Pten)
lipid and protein phosphatase acting in insulin pathway

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1
a master kinase that is crucial for the activation of AKT (PKB) and many kinases including PKC and S6K - contains pleckstrin homology (PH) domains
that interact with the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 second messenger - regulates cell growth - controls synaptic bouton size,
active zone number, and synaptic function - essential for neuronal differentiation

Phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase 59F
regulates intracellular vesicular transport of proteins at distinct membrane domains through production of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate -
interacts with Rabenosyn-5 which carries out a subset of Pi3K59 functions - promotes autophagy and endocytosis

Phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase 92E
signal transduction - influence cell growth functioning as a target of the insulin pathway

phosphatidylserine receptor
nuclear protein that acts through the c-Jun-NH2 terminal kinase pathway to alter the sensitivity to cell death

novel target of ras pathway - protein degradation cofactor

pickled eggs
Gas2-like protein functioning during oogenesis and mesodermal development -
acts downstream of Notch and restrict Notch activation to appropriate levels

subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) family - plays an essential role in controlling rhythmic locomotion by providing mechanosensory signal
transduction of proprioceptive sensory information

pickpocket 11 & pickpocket 16
DEG/ENaC sodium channel subunits - homeostatic modulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release

pickpocket 23, pickpocket 25 and pickpocket 29
DEG/ENaC sodium channel subunit - required for activation of courtship behavior by chemosensory perception of female pheromones

pickpocket 28
amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel - osmosensitive ion channel that mediates response to water -
expressed in labellar gustatory chemosensory bristles

signal transduction - molecular adaptor that links EGFR activation to mitogenic SRF signaling via changes in actin dynamics -
required for cell growth and proliferation

Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KII) produces the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, a key regulator
of membrane trafficking - critical for apical membrane transport events required for rhabdomere biogenesis

Pigment-dispersing factor
neuropeptide involved in the photoperiod response

piRNA methyltransferase
RNA methyltransferase - carries out methylation of small interfering RNAs, the final step in assembly of RISC occurring
after the Argonaute-bound siRNA duplex is converted to single-stranded RNA

novel protein required for sister chromatid separation in mitosis - shares functional similarities to securin a protein that acts to premature activation of separins

heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase - functions in follicle cells to set up the spatially restricted signal responsible
for activating the spatially delimited protease cascade triggering Toll and the establishment
of dorsal/ventral polarity during early development.

BTB domain & Psq motif transcription factor that targets a Polycomb group protein complex to Polycomb response elements

pita (alternative name: spotted dick)
zinc finger transcription factor that serves as an activator of expression of a set of genes required for initiation of DNA replication

DEAD-box RNA helicase - a target of myc suggesting that myc might cell proliferation by activating genes that are required in protein biosynthesis

a novel protein involved in stem cell renewal and asymmetric cell division

zinc finger - Polycomb group - the first Polycomb group member to be identified as a DNA binding protein -
targets Polycomb response elements involved in gene silencing

plexin A
semaphorin domain protein, semaphorin receptor - involved in axon guidance

plexin B
semaphorin domain protein, receptor for the secreted semaphorin Sema-2a -
regulates axon extension from the sensory neuron cell body in regions of direct contact with oenocytes

WD repeat protein - crosslinks actin and microtubules - proper levels of Pod-1 must be maintained in the growth cone for correct axon guidance

poils au dos
zinc finger transcription factor - repressor of achaete and scute during bristle development

transcription factor - ets family - a target of Egf signaling - required for the differentiation of glial cells in the ventral nerve cord -
required downstream of Ras in the development of the eye

pokkuri (preferred name: anterior open, common alternative name: yan)
ets domain transcription factor - target of Ras pathway that serves to inhibit neural and other types of differentiation

novel cell surface receptor, leucine zipper protein - signaling protein with a potential involvement in exocytosis - involved in tracheal development

protein kinase - regulates mitosis - participates in the control of mitotic progression by targeting Cdc25/String

poly(A) polymerase (preferred name: hiiragi)
involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNA

Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase
enzyme that attaches ADP-ribose moiety to histone - promotes chromatin silencing by regulating the localization and function of SIR2

polyA-binding protein
RNA-binding protein involved in translational regulation and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

scaffolding protein, PDZ domain protein, MAGUK - involved in sensory organ development - mutations have a neurogenic effect

transcription factor - chromo domain - Polycomb group - chromatin associated protein - involved in gene silencing

a member of a distinct chromatin complex - functions downstream of Pleiohomeotic in the assembly of a repressive complex
that generates high levels of H3-K27 trimethylation in Polycomb target genes

polyhomeotic proximal & distal
transcription factor - zinc finger - Polycomb group - maintain the repression of hedgehog in the anterior cells abutting
the anterior-posterior boundary of the developing wing

poly-U-binding splicing factor
RNA recognition motif protein - functions in both constitutive and alternative splicing - required during oogenesis

O-acyltransferase activity - mediates lipidation of Wingless, which targets Wingless to secretory vesicles that deliver the ligand
to specialized microdomains at the cell surface where it can be packaged for secretion

Posterior sexcombs
transcription factor - zn finger-ring motif-Polycomb group - Psc is a component of Suppressor of zeste 2 complex - recruits functional PcG-silencing complexes

pou domain motif 3
Pou domain transcription factor required for odor response in a class of olfactory receptor neurons

POU domain protein 1 (pdm-1)
transcription factor - homeodomain and pou domain - involved in cell fate determination of a subset of temporally determined neural subtypes

POU domain protein 2 (pdm-2)
transcription factor - homeodomain and pou domain - along with pdm-1 involved in cell fate determination
of a subset of temporally determined neural subtypes

Pox meso
Pax family transcription factor - demarcates the 'Poxm competence domain', a domain of competence for ventral and lateral muscle development
and for the determination of at least some adult muscle precursor cells

conserved transmembrane mitochondrial protein that regulates mitochondrial activity - important for growth and integrity of dendritic branches

Pre-mRNA cleavage complex 2 protein Pcf11
forms a bridge between the RNA polymerase C-terminal domain and RNA- dismantles elongation
complexes by a C-terminal domain-dependent but nucleotide-independent mechanism

transmembrane protein involved in proteolysis of Notch - also processes betaAPP

LIM domain protein - a tissue polarity protein

transcription factor - homeodomain - Antp class - required for the formation of labial and
maxillary palps - represses leg development in proboscis

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
Polymerase-delta/epsilon processivity factor - a sliding clamp that encircles DNA and tethers the DNA polymerase catalytic unit to the DNA template

prominin (common alternative name: eyes closed)
a fly homolog of p47, a protein co-factor of the p97 ATPase involved in membrane fusion - mutation results in a lethal failure
of nuclear envelope assembly in early zygotic divisions and results in defective photoreceptor morphogenesis

transcription factor - novel homeodomain - represses neuroblast cell fate - initiates development of gangleon mother cell fate

Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic subunit 1 (common alternative name: cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1)
catalytic subunit of PKA - involved in Hedgehog signaling pathway and functions in learning in the adult

Protein Kinase C
serine/threonine kinase, diacylglycerol binding protein - flies expressing a PKC pseudosubstrate show an alteration in performance in courtship conditioning;
they fail to show immediate suppression of courtship, a trait exhibited by normal flies

atypical protein kinase C
kinase regulating asymmetric cell division

Protein 1 of cleavage and polyadenylation factor 1
RNA binding motif protein - dismantles elongation complexes by a RNA Polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) dependent mechanism
- forms a bridge between the CTD and RNA

Protein phosphatase 2A at 85F (preferred name: twins)
B subunit of PP2A - four independent defects have been associated with mutant PP2A; defective mitosis, defective cell fate determination in the PNS,
alteration of patterning in the wing, and interferance in Ras pathway function in eye morphogenesis

Protein phosphatase 2B at 14D (alternative name: Calcineurin)
Calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase - negatively regulates Egf receptor signaling

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 4E
broadly expressed type III receptor tyrosine phosphatase closely related to Ptp10D - shows synthetic phenotypes with other Pdps

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 10D
receptor tyrosine phosphatase - required for embryonic and larval axon guidance - along with Ptp69D regulates segregation
of the young axons into a single core bundle in the larval mushroom body - mutants are defective in long-term memory formation

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 52F
transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, destruction of larval midgut, larva-pupa transition, metamorphosis, axon guidance

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 69D
receptor tyrosine phosphatase involved in axon guidance

Protein tyrosine phosphatase Meg
protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in neuronal circuit formation the central brain - regulates establishment
and the stabilization of axonal projection patterns

Prothoracicotropic hormone
developmental timing cue involved in promoting larval development and eclosion

PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (commonly known as Pink1)
promotes mitochondrial fragmentation by targeting core components of the mitochondrial morphogenesis
machinery for ubiquitination - negatively regulates mitochondrial fusion - a fruitfly model for Parkinson's disease

multifunctional signaling protein involved in neurotransmitter release, a mitochondrial protein and a chromatin protein
functioning as a protamine chaperone in nucleosome assembly during sperm chromatin remodeling

dual specificity phosphatase KH-1 subfamily - JNK specific phosphatase functioning in dorsal closure

a ubiquitin-specific protease that regulates Myc levels and function - regulates both the ubiquitin ligase Archipelago and its cell cycle substrate Cyclin E

novel posterior group gene - binds and regulates Hunchback mRNA

glycine cleavage system H protein - involved in appetite control

receptor for Dpp - type II TGFß receptor - punt lack Ultrabithorax and dpp expression in the visceral mesoderm and fail to induce labial in the adjacent endodermal cells

zinc finger transcription factor that acts as key regulator of cell proliferation and as a positive of Notch target genes -
physically interacts with DREF and TRF2 to activate replication-related genes

PvuII-PstI homology 13
homeodomain transcription expressed in the developing eye - required for rhabdomere morphogenesis and proper detection of light

nuclear PHD-finger protein - a core component of the Wingless signaling pathway that acts downstream of or at the level of Pangolin

pyramus and thisbe
FGFs involved in mesodermal development - ligands for Heartless


an alpha-helical coiled-coiled protein - mutants exhibit altered male courtship behavior

quiver (common alternative name: sleepless)
an Ly-6/Neurotoxin family member - a novel potassium channel subunit that regulates levels, localization, and activity of Shaker - regulates sleep

required for endocytosis - a Rab5 effector that bridges an interaction between Rab5 and the Sec1/Munc18-family protein Vps45 -
required for vesicle fusion to form early endosomes

Rab-protein 3
Rab family GTPase necessary for the induction and expression of synaptic homeostasis - dynamically controls
the composition of the presynaptic release machinery

Rab-protein 5
Rab family GTPase - required for fusion of endocytic vesicles with endosomes - required for endocytosis of vesicles at the synapse -
required for tracheal maturation - regulates JAK/STAT activity, functions in endosomal transport to promotes wingless signaling -
promotes F-actin reorganization in oogenesis

Rab-protein 6
small GTPase required for membrane trafficking - required for organization and growth of the egg chamber and the polarization of the microtubule cytoskeleton and
localization of oskar mRNA - involved in trafficking Notch protein during bristle development and rhodopsin the the eye

Rab-protein 11
Rab family GTPase - required in endocytic recycling and in the organization of posterior membrane compartments during oogenesis -
functions in membrane trafficking during furrow formation during cellularization -
functions in post-Golgi transport of rhodopsin to the rhabdomeric membranes of photoreceptors, and in analogous transport processes in other cells

Ras-like ATPase, vesicular protein, regulates planar cellular polarity, cuticular hair, contributes to inhibition
of hair formation at positions outside of the distal vertex of cells

GTPase of the Ras superfamily - regulates cytoskeletal dynamics

cytoskeletal regulator required for cytokinesis - connects the contractile ring to cortical microtubules at the site of furrowing in dividing cells -
negatively regulates the wingless pathway during Drosophila embryonic development - required for neuroblast proliferation and limits axon growth

Rad21 (preferred name: verthandi)
constituent of the cohesin complex, functions in chromosome cohesion, spindle morphology, dynamics of a chromosome passenger protein,
and stability of the cohesin complex

Rad51-like (common alternative name: spindle A)
checkpoint protein essential for recombinational repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in somatic cells and during meiosis in germ cells

rapidly evolving gene encoding a protein that contains multiple phosphorylation sites - required for anaesthesia resistent memory

Raf oncogene
serine/threonine-protein kinase - an effector of Ras - directs the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and survival

Ral (preferred name: Ras-related protein)
Ras-like GTPase - counters apoptotic programs to support cell fate determination by acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity
and a positive activator of p38 MAP kinase

Ran GTPase activity required nucleo-cytoplasmic transport - also required for microtubule organization during mitosis
and for alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate

rapamycin-insensitive companion of Tor (common alternative name: rictor)
component of TORC2 complex - regulation of cell growth, heat stress response, synaptic growth, dendritic tiling and consolidation of long-term memory

Rap1 GTPase (common alternative names: Roughened and Dras3)
Ras-like GTPase - establishes of cell polarity by regulation of columnar cell shape - controls epithelial invagination via α-Catenin -
regulates cell morphology within the developing wing epithelium - regulates radial movement of mesodermal cells during
monolayer formation - regulates adhesive contacts necessary for maintenance of Egfr signaling between cells and differentiation of wing veins and photoreceptors

Ras oncogene at 85D (common alternative name: Ras1)
ras homolog - establishes follicular cell fate during oogenesis, functions in Torso signal transduction, functions downstream EGF-R in the establishment
of ventral ectoderm fate, functions downstream of Breathless in tracheal and midline glia migration, functions downstream of FGF receptor
in muscle precursors and in the central nervous system, functions downstream of the EGF-R and Sevenless in differentiation in photoreceptors

Ras-related protein
Ras-like GTPase - counters apoptotic programs to support cell fate determination by acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity
and a positive activator of p38 MAP kinase

rasp (common alternative names: Sightless and Skinny hedgehog)
acetyltransferase acting to acylate Hedgehog or to promote other modifications or trafficking events necessary for Hedgehog function

a novel gene product required to limit AP-1 activity to leading edge epidermal cells during embryonic dorsal closure

Rbfox (preferred name: Ataxin-2 binding protein 1)
RNA-binding protein - homolog of an autism-susceptibility gene - targets pumilio mRNA for destabilization
and translational silencing, thereby promoting germ cell development, oogenesis

pro-apoptotic protein - action inhibited by inhibitors of apoptosis

Regulator of cyclin A1
a novel signaling protein that prevents cyclin degredation in G2 by interacting with Fizzy-related - inhibits Fizzy-related's activation of
protein degradation machinery - mutants exhibit premature cyclin destruction

mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) family protein - facilitates repair synthesis during meiotic recombination

Ankyrin-repeat and NFkappaB domain protein - a key factor in the induction of the humoral immune response in Drosophila,
including antibacterial as well as antifungal factors

member of AAA+ family of ATPases - DNA helicase - participates in epigenetic processes
leading to a repressive chromatin state as part of the TIP60 HAT complex

Resistant to dieldrin
GABA-A receptor that negatively modulates olfactory associative learning, possibly by gating the input of olfactory information
into the mushroom bodies - regulates the length of time required to fall asleep

Resistance to Juvenile Hormone (common alternative name Methoprene-tolerant)
bHLH-Pas domain transcription factor - involved in juvenile hormone (JH) action as
a likely component of a JH receptor

Ret oncogene
regulates dendrite patterning, adhesion and stability - rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Pink1 mutants

retina aberrant in pattern (common alternative names: retained, dead ringer)
transcription factor - ARID domain protein - required for proper patterning of the abdomen

Retinal Homeobox
homeodomain transcription factor - required for regulation of genes involved in brain morphogenesis

Retinoblastoma-family protein
cell cycle regulator - interacts with and negatively regulates members of a family of factors called E2Fs, which serve
to activate transcription of genes required for entry into S phase.

Retinoblastoma-family protein 2
cell cycle and developmental regulator - functions in concert with E2F2 to repress the expression of differentiation markers
in ovaries and embryos where RBF2 is highly expressed

Retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein
Lipophorin - bears lipid-linked morphogens on its surface - required for long-range signaling activity of Wingless and Hedgehog

reversed polarity
transcription factor - homeodomain - required for aspects of glial differentiation

transcription factor - RFX DNA-binding domain - essential regulator of ciliated sensory neuron differentiation

(alternative name: Talin) essential for integrin function - crosslinks extracellular matrix-linked integrins to the cytoskeleton

Ras superfamily of G-proteins - functions downstream of the tumor suppressors Tsc1 and Tsc2 (Gigas in Drosophila), with Tsc2 functioning as a GAP for Rheb -
signals to the growth regulator known as Target of rapamycin (TOR)

HP1 homolog - required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of Piwi-interacting RNAs

rho-subfamily GTPase - in concert with DRhoGEF2, Rho1 mediates specific cell shape changes during gastrulation
in response to the extracellular ligand, Folded gastrulation

rho-associated kinase
Rho-kinase - plays a role in planar cell polarity

part of an axon retraction pathway from Rho to myosin in mature neurons - inactivation of RhoGAP leads to axon retraction

induces contractile cell shape changes by stimulating myosin II via the Rho1 pathway - location at the actin cortex
regulated by interaction with the microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1

Rho GTPase activating protein at 100F (common alternative name: Syd-1)
master organizer of active zone assembly, regulates pre- and postsynaptic maturation, neuromuscular junction

serine protease - transmembrane protein involved with Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling - required for the production or processing of Spitz, the Egfr ligand

rhomboid-2 (also known as stem cell tumor)
Rhomboid-related transmembrane protein - serine-type protease - activates the oocyte-specific Gurken ligand and
thereby participate in defining posterior cell fates in the early follicular epithelium

transmembrane mitochondrial protease required for spermatogenesis and muscle maturation

rho-type guanine exchange factor
RhoGEF - homolog of mammalian Pix - regulates postsynaptic structure and protein localization at the glutamatergic neuromuscular junction

BTB/POZ domain transcription factor - a regulator of epithelial morphogenesis that promotes cell migration

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase
signaling - regulates growth response - targets ribosomal protein S6 - a target of the TOR pathway

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase II (common alternative name: dRSK)
negatively regulates ERK-mediated developmental processes and gene expressions by blocking the nuclear localization of ERK

guanine nucleotide-exchange factor - regulates Gαi cortical localization to promote Gαi-dependent planar orientation of the mitotic spindle
during asymmetric cell division - regulates cortical tension during gastrulation -
essential for plasma-membrane localization of heterotrimeric G proteins

G-protein coupled receptor expressed in the CNS and muscle - required for wing expansion, cuticle hardening and melanization

rictor (preferred name: rapamycin-insensitive companion of Tor)
component of TORC2 complex - regulation of cell growth, heat stress response, synaptic growth, dendritic tiling and consolidation of long-term memory

RIM-binding protein
presynaptic scaffolding protein - neuromuscular junction - essential for the integrity of the synaptic active zone scaffold and for exocytotic neurotransmitter release

DEAD box helicase - involved in generation of precursor-miRNA, double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing, heterochromatin formation,
resilencing of active transcription, maintenance of homeotic genes and antiviral immunity

RNA on the X-1
X chomosome associated RNA - chromatin associated non-translated RNA involved in dosage compensation

RNA on the X 2
non-coding RNA - dosage compensation - activation of male specific lethal proteins

RNA polymerase II 215kD subunit
large subunit of the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template

RNA polymerase II elongation factor (TfIIS)
critical for efficient release of stalled RNA Pol II from intrinsic stop sites in promoter regions -
promotes transcriptional elongation and decreases pausing

a member of a conserved family of proteins that serve as substrate adaptors for Cullin3-mediated ubiquitylation -
regulates Cubitus interruptus levels by targeting it for degradation

robo2 (preferred name: leak)
transmembrane receptor - regulates heart cell and tracheal branch migration and axon guidance

rolled (common alternative name: MAP kinase or ERKA)
Component of Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway - involved in establishment of the dorsoventral polarity of the egg shell and the embryo -
acts in specification of terminal structures immediately after fertilization - Gain-of-function mutants produce extra R7 photoreceptors and extra wing veins

rolling pebbles
RING-finger motif, ankyrin repeat and TR repeat protein - a signaling protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of Dumbfounded and with Myoblast city -
functions to integrate initial myoblast fusion with myotube structural organization

structural component of base of cilia - organizes rootlets at the base of primary cilia in sensory neurons - essential for
sensory neuron functions, including negative geotaxis, taste, touch response, and hearing - rootlet assembly requires centrioles

Ror proteins are a class of Wnt-binding receptor tyrosine kinases - expressed during neural differentiation

transcription factor - zinc finger - required for proper imaginal disc development

transcription factor - homeodomain - plays a critical role in restriction of the number of photoreceptor precursors in the specification of R8 photoreceptors

Roughened (preferred name: Rap1 GTPase)
Ras-like GTPase - establishes of cell polarity by regulation of columnar cell shape - controls epithelial invagination via α-Catenin -
regulates cell morphology within the developing wing epithelium - regulates radial movement of mesodermal cells during
monolayer formation - regulates adhesive contacts necessary for maintenance of Egfr signaling between cells and differentiation of wing veins and photoreceptors

Ig-C2-type-domain protein - transmembrane - required in at least three independent events in eye development and axon guidance

novel regulator of cell cycle - a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor that specifically inhibits Cdk1-CycA - required to inhibit Cdk1-CycA kinase activity
during metaphase, thereby facilitating the transition to anaphase

Rhomboid and Roughoid/Rhomboid-3 act together, on an unknown Egf, to control cell recruitment through the Epidermal growth factor receptor

Ig and Fn repeats protein - a repulsive guidance receptor on growth cones that binds to Slit

histone deacetylase functioning in gene silencing - interacts with Groucho

RPS6-p70-protein kinase (common alternative name: S6k)
signaling - regulates growth response - targets ribosomal protein S6 - a target of the TOR pathway

functions as part of a protein complex in the monoubiquitination of histone H2B and the consequent methylation of histone H3 - functions in Notch signaling

double-stranded RNA-binding protein - bridges the initiation and effector steps of the Drosophila RNAi pathway
by facilitating siRNA passage from Dicer, which carrys out the initiation step, to RISC, which carrys out the effector step

protein kinase A anchor protein - required for correct retinal pattern formation through its interactions with Egfr and Notch pathways

transcription factor - novel - pair rule gene - contritutes to neuroblast cell identity

Ca++/Calmodulin dependent adenyl cyclase - a crucial memory pathway protein

Ryanodine receptor 44F
Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release channel located in presynaptic endoplasmic reticulum membranes -
sustains vesicular mobilization thus enhancing release of transmitters and neuropeptides

Genes A-D -- Genes E-K-- Genes S-Z

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