logo Alphabetical list of genes

Genes A - B - C - D - -- [Genes E-K -- Genes L-R -- Genes S-Z ]
A

abdominal-A
homeodomain transcription factor - Antp class - component of the bithorax complex - involved in subdivision of the embryonic segment and the visceral mesoderm

Abdominal-B
homeodomain transcription factor - bithorax complex - required to specify the posterior abdomen and the external genitalia and the gonads -
functions in the male accessory gland to regulates the long-term female post-mating response

Abelson Interacting Protein
regulates WASP-/WAVE mediated F-actin formation and modulates the activity of the Abelson tyrosine kinase -
recruits EGFR to the membrane to promote SOP development

Abl oncogene
non receptor tyrosine kinase with SH2 and SH3 domains - involved in axon extension - phosphorylates cell adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins -
acts as a scaffold in a signaling complex to regulate both epithelial and nervous system morphogenesis

abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (common alternative name: Ipou)
POU-homeodomain transcription factor - determines odorant response profile of subsets of olfactory neurons - axon targeting of olfactory neurons

abnormal spindle
microtubule binding protein - required for the integrity of microtubule organizing centers - may organize microtubules during cytokinesis -
required for centrosome-pole cohesion and centrosome inheritance in neural stem cells

abrupt
transcription factor - zinc finger BTB domain - controls the specificity of neuromuscular connections - negative regulator of ecdysone signaling -
post-transcriptionally repressed by the steroid-induced miRNA let-7

absent MD neurons and olfactory sensilla
proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor - required for the identity of a class of multidendritic neurons
and for a class of olfactory sensilla - suppresses bristle formation

absent, small, or homeotic discs 1
histone methyl transferase that indirectly prevents gene silencing - provides a specific signal for establishment of active transcription -
marks active chromatin domains preventing heterochromatin from spreading into these domains.

absent, small, or homeotic discs 2
trithorax family member - component of the histone methyltransferase complex that specifically methylates lysine 4 of histone H3 -
downregulating histone H1 hyperphosphorylation - depletion cause homeotic transformations and pattern-formation defects

abstrakt
DEAD-box subfamily ATP-dependent helicase protein - involved in post-transcriptional regulation effecting synaptic function and
axon outgrowth and fasciculation - affects cell polarity and asymmetric cell divisions

Accessory gland peptide 26aa (common alternative name: Ovulin)
male ejaculate accessory gland protein transferred during mating to females - increases ovulation through octopamine based neuronal signaling

Accessory gland peptide 70A (preferred name name: Sex Peptide)
male ejaculate accessory gland protein transferred to females during mating - decreases female receptivity and stimulates egg production in the first mating of virgin females

achaete
transcription factor - basic HLH - proneural - involved in the determination of the neural fate -
interacts antagonistically with the Notch signaling pathway to promote neural precursor formation

achintya
homeodomain transcription factor (TGIF subclass) - required, along with homeodomain protein Vismay, for for meiotic division in spermatogenesis

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1
A component of the Arp2/3 complex - involved in catalyzing actin filament nucleation - essential to cap expansion and
pseudocleavage furrow during cellularization - required for ring canal expansion during oogenesis - involved in myoblast fusion and endocytosis

Activated Cdc42 kinase
an evolutionarily conserved non-receptor tyrosine kinases - anti-apoptotic - interacts with Drk (Grb2 homolog)
and Yorkie for pro-survival activity and promotion of tissue growth respectively - cooperates with Dpp to regulate myosin levels
during dorsal closure - targets the sorting nexin DSH3PX1 to regulate axonal guidance

Activating transcription factor-2 (alternative name: Atf-2)
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper protein - regulates fat metabolism and osmotic stress response in the intestine -
involved in stress response via activation by p38

Activating transcription factor 3
basic leucine-zipper transcription factor - partner of Jun in preventing extrusion and replacement
of epidermal cells with histoblasts during larval morphogenesis

Activator of SUMO 1
E1 SUMO-activating complex comprising the Aos1/Uba2 heterodimeric pair - required for SUMOylation -
tumor suppressor regulating cell cycle, imaginal disc development, hematopoesis, and CNS development

activin-β
TGFβ ligand of Baboon - required for tiling of photoreceptor R7 axon terminals - required for neuroendocrine regulation of Drosophila metamorphosis

act up (preferred name: capulet)
cyclase-associate protein homolog - actin binding protein - required to prevent actin filament polymerization in the eye disc

Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain
regulates fatty acid metabolism - modifies the composition of fatty acids and membrane lipid - inhibits neuromuscular
junction growth - facilitates Rab11-dependent receptor recycling - regulates axonal transport of synaptic vesicles

alpha-Adaptin (preferred name: Adaptor Protein complex 2, alpha subunit)
necessary for the formation of clathrin-coated pits and participates in the dynamin-dependent release of coated vesicles
from the membrane surface as a prelude to vesicle recycling - acts downstream of Numb in the determination of alternative cell fates in asymmetric cell division

Adar
double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase - RNA editing enzyme that affects nervous system function, integrity, and behavior

Adenomatous polypopsis coli tumor suppressor homolog 2
signaling protein in Wingless pathway and affects cytoskeletal regulation - a component of the destruction complex that phosphorylates β-catenin
and thus targets it for ubiquitination and proteasomal destruction

Adenosine deaminase-related growth factor A
a secreted enzyme that converts extracellular adenosine into inosine - regulates adenosine levels - opposes the effects
of Hedgehog signaling within the hematopoietic progenitor cells - regulates energy allocation during immune response

Adherens junction protein p120
Armadillo/beta-catenin-like repeat protein - a componenet of the adherens junction that plays a supporting role in cell adhesion -
protects epithelial integrity - involved in retinal patterning and dendritic morphogenesis

Adh transcription factor 1 (common alternative name: Nalyot)
transcription factor - Myb helix-turn-helix family involved in terminal stages of neuronal differentiation and function

Adipokinetic hormone-like
metabolic neuropeptide, made in the corpora cardiaca, that mediates mobilization of energy substrates from the fat body - regulates starvation-induced foraging behavior

Adipokinetic hormone receptor (preferred name: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor)
GPCR - involved in storage-fat mobilization - essential to adjust normal body fat content
and ensure lifelong fat-storage homeostasis - functional analog of the mammalian glucagon receptor

ADP ribosylation factor at 79F
a small GTPase - necessary for the formation of clathrin-coated pits and participates in the dynamin-dependent release of coated vesicles from the membrane surface
as a prelude to vesicle recycling - acts downstream of Numb in the determination of alternative cell fates in asymmetric cell division

adrift
novel protein involved in tracheal branching - required for tracheal pathfinding into the CNS

ahuizotl (common alternative name: Azot)
calcium dependent protein that ensures the elimination of less fit cells, fitness-based cell culling is naturally used
to maintain tissue health, delay aging, and extend lifespan

A kinase anchor protein 200
Involved in Protein kinase A localization - PKA in turn regulates the function of specialized actin structures during oogenesis - expressed in the developing eye
at a level that modulates the effects of excessive signalling caused by expression of Cbl

Akt1
S/T kinase with Src homology 2 domain - promotes cell survival - component of insulin pathway

α actinin
actin filament crosslinking protein that regulates cell adhesion and motility - alternative
splice isoforms play roles in muscle development cytoskeletal remodeling of follicle cells

alan shepard
RNA-binding protein - regulates insulator activity - regulates neuronal remodeling during metamorphosis, regulates gravitaxis

α-Catenin
an essential physical linker, acting at the adherins junction, between the cadherin-β-catenin complex and the actin cytoskeleton -
stabilises Cadherin-Catenin complexes and modulates actomyosin dynamics to allow pulsatile apical contraction

alicorn
regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase - regulation of cellular energy homeostasis - maintainance
of integrity of mature neurons under conditions of increased activity - regulation of developmental and stress-induced autophagy

Allatostatin A
neuropeptide secreted by the corpus cardiacum - a modulator of AKH and DILP signaling and feeding choices
between dietary carbohydrates and protein - conveys inhibitory input onto protocerebral dopamine neurons

altered disjunction (common alternative name: Mps1)
kinase - regulation of mitotic spindle checkpoint - required for cell cycle arrest in response to hypoxia - ensures the proper segregation of achiasmatic chromosomes
during meiosis - required for cell cycle arrest of the three haploid products of female meiosis that are not used as the female pronucleus

always early
regulator of chromatin structure - a 'meiotic arrest' gene required for transcription of key G2-M cell cycle control genes
and of spermatid differentiation genes -mfunction in leg disc regeneration

amalgam
IG superfamily - ligand for Neurotactin - maintains proper cohesion between axons and contributes to the organization of fascicles -
In conjunction with the effector kinase Abl, Ama is necessary for the correct specification of the maxillary identity of NB6-4

amnesiac
pacap-like neuropeptide that activates the cAMP pathway stimulating learning and memory -
along with CREB involved in medium-term memory by appetitive gustatory reinforcement in Drosophila larvae

AMP-activated protein kinase
adenosine 5'monophosphate-activated kinase - cellular energy sensor - coordinates epithelial polarity and proliferation with cellular energy status

Amphiphysin
SH3 domain protein that functions in membrane morphogenesis - involved in cellularization and plays
a role in establishment of proper localization of postsynaptic proteins

β amyloid protein precursor-like
β amyloid homolog - contributes to synapse formation, maintenance, and plasticity -
crucial N- and C-terminal specific sequences result in neurotoxicity and aggregation

anachronism
secreted glial glycoprotein that inhibits premature neuroblast proliferation - expressed in glia and at lower levels in neuroblasts

anakonda
transmembrane receptor protein - interacts extracellularly to mediate assembly of tricellular junctions - septate junctions - ectodermal and endodermal epithelia

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase
transmembrane protein - receptor tyrosine kinase - the ligand Jelly belly activates Alk
to specify a select group of visceral muscle precursors as muscle-patterning pioneers

anastral spindle 2
centrosomal protein, regulates spindle orientation during neuroblast asymmetical division, tumor suppressor

anillin (preferred name: scraps)
conserved component of the contractile ring that is essential for cytokinesis - physically interacts
with three conserved cleavage furrow proteins, F-actin, myosin II and septins - required for cellularization

Ankyrin-repeat, SH3-domain, and Proline-rich-region containing Protein
adherins junction protein that acts as a positive regulator of C-terminal Src kinase - fine tunes cell-cell adhesion during development by directing Csk and Src activity

Ankyrin 2
a membrane-cytoskeleton linker - a target of G-protein signaling required for neuromuscular
junction formation - regulation of presynaptic microtubules and transsynaptic cell adhesion

Anktm1 (common alternative name: TrpA1)
heat-activated TRP family cation ion channel that is essential for thermotaxis -
controls thermal and chemical nociception in response to noxious heat and chemical exposure

Antennapedia
homeodomain transcription factor - distal-most member of the Antennapedia complex - specifies segmental identity in the pro- and mesothorax -
initiator of a cascade of events that result in the development of an adult leg - ectopic expression in the head
is associated with antenna to leg and eye to wing transformations

anterior open (common alternative names: pokkuri or yan)
ets domain transcription factor - target of Ras pathway that serves to inhibit neural and other types of differentiation -
crucial to the development of the nervous system, heart, trachea and eye

anti-silencing factor 1
histone chaperone that assists in chromatin assembly and remodeling during replication, transcription activation,
and gene silencing - contributes to the repression of Notch target genes - directly interacts Hairless

AP-2
transcription factor that plays essential roles in leg and proboscis outgrowth -
involved in development of the adult brain central complex

Apaf-1-related-killer
CED-4 domain protein that links mitochondrial events to activation of caspases during programd cell death

APC-like
adenomatous polyposis coli homolog involved in the wingless pathway - functions in neural development

apontic
novel bZIP transcription factor and RNA-binding protein - multi-functional protein involved in translational regulation and organ development -
plays roles in cell migration, cell fate specification, and morphogenesis via STAT signaling pathway inhibition

APP-like protein interacting protein 1
JNK scaffolding scaffolding protein that is part of motor-cargo linkage complexes for both kinesin-1 and dynein - acts downstream of the JNK pathway
to affect axonal transport - binds APP family proteins

approximated
DHHC family protein, responsible for the palmitoylation of selected cytoplasmic proteins - acts by controlling the normal subcellular localization
and activity of Dachs in the Fat signaling pathway

aproctous (preferred name: brachyenteron)
transcription factor - T-domain transcriptional activator - specifies posterior gut structures - mediates specification of caudal visceral mesoderm

apterous
transcription factor - homeodomain & lim domain - involved in boundary formation in the developing wing contributing to dorsal identity of wing cells -
regulates muscle development, juvenile hormone production and neuronal pathfinding

araucan
transcription factor - homeodomain Pbx class - establishes a prepattern that determines the size, shape and number
of sensory organ mother cells in imaginal discs - required in the dorsal mesoderm to ensure normal heart development

arc
PDZ domain protein involved in structuring epithelia - affects eye development by modulating adherens junctions of the developing ommatidium.

archipelago
F box component of an SCF-ubiquitin ligase - negatively regulates the levels and activity of Drosophila Myc by linking Myc
to a protein degradation pathway - negatively regulates Cyclin E and Notch - regulates cell proliferation, survival, and hypoxia-induced gene expression

Argonaute 1
PAZ domain protein involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing - interacts with microRNAs to form miRNA-induced silencing complexes -
repress mRNAs either by transcript destabilisation, translational inhibition, or both - mutants exhibit defects in the embryonic nervous system

Argonaute 2
endonuclease - an essential component for siRNA-directed RNA interference (RNAi) response -
required for the unwinding of siRNA duplex and in consequence, assembly of siRNA into RISC

Argonaute 3
cleaves transposon derived piwi-interacting RNAs to form an adaptive system for transposon control

argos
ligand for Egf receptor - inhibitor of Egfr activation - controls formation of embryonic brain neuroblasts by regulating neuroectodermal progenitor cells

aristaless
transcription factor - homeodomain - paired-like - involved in the ontogeny of specific head segments and
the initiation of appendage development -
required for the development of specific leg segments

armadillo
plakoglobin and beta catenin homolog - functions in transducing signals from the Wingless/Wnt family of proteins
and works with cadherins to mediate cell adhesion - Wingless target genes are activated when stabilized Armadillo
enters the nucleus and recruits other coactivators to the target loci through TCF/Pangolin

armitage
RNA helicase involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing - required for primary piRNA biogenesis - mutations disrupt
mRNA translational silencing of oskar in the oocyte and silencing of Stellate in male germ cells

armless (preferred name: GDI interacting protein 3)
ubiquitin-like protein that functions in protein degradation - required for Wingless target gene expression

Arrestin 2
a protein that interacts stoichiometrically with activated rhodopsin, inhibiting its ability to interact with the G protein, transducin, thus terminating the visual response

arrow
LDL-receptor-related protein (LRP) family - a type I trans-membrane protein and functions as an obligate co-receptor with Frizzled for Wingless in the canonical
Wnt signaling pathway - binds Axins and consequently induces LEF-1 activation by destabilizing Axin and stabilizing ß-catenin

Arrowhead
LIM domains and LIM homeodomain - requirement for proliferation of histoblast and imaginal ring tissue - along with Lim1,
uses Chip as a co-factor to prevent retinal differentiation in regions of the eye disc destined to become ventral head tissue

Ataxin-2
multi-functional protein that binds DEAD box helicases of the Me31B family that associated with Argonaute and microRNA function -
required for microRNA function and synapse-specific long-term olfactory habituation -
assembles with polyribosomes and poly(A)-binding protein, a key regulator of mRNA translation

atonal
bHLH transcription factor - achaete-scute complex - functions as the proneural factor for photoreceptors
and effects the transition from progenitor cells to differentiating neurons - Olfactory receptor neurons
are specified by Atonal and pioneer the formation of the antennal lobe, the first olfactory center in the brain ]

ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor
PHD finger motifs and chromodomain - nucleosome remodeler involved in chromatin assembly

atypical protein kinase C
kinase regulating asymmetric cell division - a key apical-basal polarity determinant and Par complex component - recruited by
Par3/Bazooka into epithelial apical domains through high-affinity interaction

aubergine
related to eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C - involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing - a general regulator of maternal mRNAs -
along with piRNAs plays a key developmental role in the embryo through decay and localization of mRNAs encoding germ cell determinants.

aurora A
kinase required for centrosome separation - functions in asymmetric protein localization during mitosis - promotes efficient, timed cyclin B degradation.

aurora B
a serine-threonine kinase and member of the chromosomal passenger complex - signaling protein involved
in chromatin condensation during mitosis - corrects erroneous chromosome-spindle interactions -
promotes chromosome condensation, kinetochore assembly, spindle assembly checkpoint and cytokinesis

Autophagy-related 1
autophagy-specific protein kinase - induces a coordinated autophagic response that can lead to caspase induced cell death

Autophagy-related 9
a vesicular transmembrane protein that is a constituent of autophagic vesicles and is required for oxidative stress-induced JNK activation

auxilin
serine/threonine protein kinase - a J-domain-containing protein that cooperates with Hsc70 in the disassembly of clathrin coats from clathrin-coated vesicles
an integral component of the Notch signaling pathway, participating in the ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of Delta in the signal receiving cell

Axin
scaffolding protein - wingless pathway component - Poly ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase antagonizes activity of the
β-catenin destruction complex through ADP-ribosylation of Axin and APC2

Axud1
conserved phospho-acceptor site for acidophilic serine/threonine kinases domain protein -
cysteine- serine-rich nuclear protein - tumor suppressor that regulates proliferation of imaginal cells

B

baboon
transmembrane protein - Type 1 activin-A-receptor for ligands Dawdle, Activin-β and Myoglianin - essential for proper pupation and adult viability -
alternatively spliced into isoforms that differ only in their extracellular domain likely resulting in different ligand binding specificity

bag of marbles
novel protein involved in oogenesis and spermatogenesis - functions as a translational repressor by interfering with translation initiation -
controls the size and organization of the Drosophila hematopoietic niche through interactions with the Insulin-like growth factor pathway
and Retinoblastoma-family protein - activates H3K36 trimethylation-mediated epigenetic regulation

bagpipe
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK-2 class - forms visceral mesoderm that differentiates into gut musculature - essential for differentiated heart function.

bantam
a 21 nucleotide microRNA that promotes tissue growth, stimulates cell proliferation and prevents
apoptosis - controls of type I and type II central brain neuroblast proliferation

BarH1 & BarH2
transcription factor - homeodomain - neural selector genes involved in the development of the external sensilli - part of a transcription factor network
that patterns the developing olfactory tissue - transcriptional repression of atonal by Bar prevents ectopic retinal neurogenesis

barren (common alternative name: CAP-H)
CAP-H homologue, a condensin subunit exclusively associated with condensin I - promotes sister chromatid resolution
and maintains the structural integrity of centromeric heterochromatin during mitosis

Basigin
conserved transmembrane IgCAM required pre- and post-synaptically at neuromuscular junctions to restrict synaptic bouton size,
controls distribution of synaptic vesicles and organization of the presynaptic cortical actin cytoskeleton

basket
MAP kinase homolog - Jun amino terminal kinase - involved in a pathway that regulates cell shape changes during dorsal closure -
a key component of JNK pathway that phosphorylates the Jun transcription factor- regulates stress response

bazooka
PAR-3 homolog, PDZ domain protein involved in cell polarity and asymmetric cell division - a scaffold protein that forms a complex with par-6 and aPKC -
functions in cell polarization pathways in epithelial, neuronal and other cell types

Beadex (common alternative name: Lim-only (LMO)
LIM-only protein that forms heterotetramers with Apterous - regulates Apterous activity levels in the wing disc

Bearded
proneural - basic amphipathic alpha-helix - novel effector or modulator of Notch signaling - inhibits Neuralized-mediated endocytosis and signaling activity of Delta

beaten path
transmembrane Ig superfamily protein - required for subsets of motor axons to correctly defasciculate from other motor axons
at specific choice points

belle
helicase that unwinds RNA - translational repressor - regulates expression of transgenes, essential for male germline stem cell maintenance and
division - suppresses the effects of ectopic Wg signaling, regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades - regulates
the temporal pattern of Notch signaling in Drosophila follicle cells, regulates chromosome segregation

benign gonial cell neoplasm
cofactor of Bag of marbles that directly inhibits Pumilio repression of Nanos mRNA activity
to promote differentiation of germ line stem cells

bendless
ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that functions as a developmental switch that permits the transition from axonal growth and incipient synapse
formation to synaptic growth and maturation - required in the IMD immune response signaling pathway for IKK activation leading to NFkappaB activation

bereft
miR-263a - mutants exhibit defects in the peripheral nervous system - regulates ENaC to maintain osmotic and intestinal stem cell homeostasis

bicoid
transcription factor - homeodomain - maternally transcribed gene involved in anterior patterning of the Drosophila embryo - forms a concentration gradient
to specify the fate map along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo

Bicoid interacting protein 1 (common alternative name: Sap18)
part of the Sin3A/Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex - helps convert Bicoid from an activator
into a repressor by recruitment of a co-repressor to Bicoid-dependent promoters

Bicaudal C
RNA-binding protein that regulates expression of specific germline mRNAs by controlling their poly(A)-tail length

Bicaudal-D
alpha helical coiled coiled protein that interacts with the cytoskeleton - regulates developmental fate of the the oocyte -
links diverse cargo to the dynein/dynactin motor - controls spatial aspects of gene expression and polarity formation during development -
supports physiology of differentiated polar cells and the function of the nervous system

bifocal
codes for a novel protein that interacts with f-actin - functions downstream of misshapen
to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton - regulates targeting of the photoreceptor cell growth cone

bigmax
bHLH transcription factor - binding partner of Mondo a nutrient sensor that functions in the fat body - regulates fatty acid synthesis -
facilitates use of sugar-rich nutrient sources - regulates transcription factor Cabut, coordinating energy metabolism

BIR repeat containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (common alternative name: Bruce)
a large protein that contains an N-terminal baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) and a C-terminal ubiquitin conjugation domain -
participates in regulation of apoptosis and autophagy

bithoraxoid
produces non-coding RNA that may mediate or counteract epigenetic silencing - bxd RNA mediates recruitment of Ash1
to stimulates gene expression

big brain
aquaporin - MIP family signature - neurogenic gene - required for endosome maturation and Notch receptor trafficking

biniou
fork head domain transcription factor essential for maintaining the distinction between splanchnic and somatic mesoderm
and for differentiation of the splanchnic mesoderm into midgut musculature

blistered (common alternative name: Serum response factor)
transcription factor - MADS-box motif - required for vein/intervein formation in the fly wing - implicated in longer forms of memory formation
like synaptic long-term potentiation and depression - required for a working memory that lasts only for a few seconds -
acts as a boosting mechanism to sustain FGF-induced terminal branching in the tracheal system.

blistery
tensin homolog - at focal adhesion sites participates in a protein complex that establishes transmembrane linkage
between the extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal actin filaments -
an adaptor protein that can bind integrins and actin and colocalizes with integrins in numerous tissues

Bloom syndrome helicase
RecQ helicase - repairs replication fork damage and double-strand breaks in mitosis - promotes repair through non-crossover
mechanisms - dissolution of double Holliday junctions - promotes meiotic crossover patterning and homolog disjunction

blown fuse
a cytoplasmic protein essential for somatic myoblast fusion - functions in stretching and outgrowth of circular visceral muscles -
required for myoblast fusion - regulates actin cytoskeletal dynamics via modulating the stability of the WASp-Vrp1 complex.

BM-40-SPARC [preferred name: Secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (Sparc)]
basement membrane component required for basal lamina maturation and condensation of the ventral nerve cord

borderless
Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that coordinates neurite-neurite interactions in the developing optic lobe

borealin-related
as a component of the chromosomal passenger complex, Borealin-related is a key regulator of mitosis -
functions to control assembly and stability of bipolar spindles and faithful chromosome segregation into daughter cells -
helps to target the the passenger complex to the centromere region of chromosomes and the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis -
involved in regulating the process of cell separation.

borealis
required for spindle orientation and asymmetric cell division - conserved protein required for the activation of Aurora-A at the onset of mitosis -
activation of Cdc2 initiates the release of Bora into the cytoplasm where it can bind and activate Aurora-A

Boss (symbol for bride of sevenless)
G-protein coupled receptor - regulates determination of R7
photoreceptor fate - responds to extracellular glucose levels in order to regulate energy homeostasis

boudin
glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored membrane protein - essential for tracheal morphogenesis -
contributes to the maintenance of theĆ’32 paracellular barrier and the organisation of the septate junctions -
required for septate junction organisation in chordotonal organ glial cells

boule
RRM motif protein involved in spermatogenesis - a translational regulator - required in spermatogenesis for entry into meiosis and spermatid differentiation -
a negative regulator of axon pruning in mushroom body neurons

Boundary element-associated factor of 32kD (common alternative name: BEAF)
DNA-binding chromatin protein required for insulator function, and chromatin structure and dynamics and genome organization -
required for oogenesis and zygotic development

brachyenteron
transcription factor - brachyury homolog - required for specification of hindgut and anal pads - mediates specification of caudal visceral mesoderm

brahma
transcription factor - SWI2/SNF2 homolog - overcomes the repressive effect of chromatin to activate gene transcription - fine-tunes circadian transcription -
regulates the Hippo pathway activity through forming complex with Yorkie-Scalloped and regulating the transcription of Crumbs

Brahma associated protein 55kD
member of both the Brahma and the Tat interactive protein 60 kD (TIP60) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes -
functions through the TIP60 complex to regulate dendrite wiring specificity in olfactory projection neurons -
as a member of the Brahma complex it is needed for cell growth and survival in the wing imaginal disc

brainiac
glycosyltransferase - directs glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - functions in oogenesis and EGF-R signaling -
helps maintain epithelial structures - controls the extracellular gradient of the EGFR ligand Gurken

brain-specific homeobox
homeodomain transcription factor - confers neural identity in specific neurons of medulla and lamina of the optic lobe

brain tumor
acts during oogenesis where it interacts with Nos and Pum to suppress hunchback translation - a tumor suppressor that regulates proliferation in the brain -
segregates into one daughter cell where it inhibits protein translation, preventing self-renewal and inducing differentiation -
directs maternal mRNA clearance during the Drosophila maternal-to-zygotic transition

brakeless (preferred name: scribbler)
transcription corepressor - a novel protein with a single zinc finger -
multifunctional protein that regulates foraging activity and shapes the activity gradient of Dpp through regulation of thickveins -
interacts with Atrophin and is required for tailless-mediated transcriptional repression in early embryos

branchless
fibroblast growth factor homolog - ligand for Breathless - stimulates the tracheal branching program by specifying tip cells that acquire motility
and lead branch migration to a specific destination - regulates primordial germ cell motility by regulating the distribution
of zygotic E-cadherin during early embryonic development to maintain cell-cell adhesion in the posterior midgut

Breast cancer 2, early onset homolog (alternative name: Brca2)
Brca2 homolog - plays a dual role in the repair of meiotic double-stranded breaks and the efficient activation
of the meiotic recombination checkpoint

Bre1
E3 ubiquitin ligase required for the monoubiquitination of histone H2B and, indirectly, for H3K4 methylation -
directs histone modification that is critical for the transcription of Notch target genes

breathless
transmembrane receptor, FGF-receptor homolog - used in the development of the trachea,
and later plays a role in migration of specific midline glia and the resultant effect on axonogenesis -
sex-specific deployment of FGF signaling in Drosophila recruits mesodermal cells into the male genital imaginal disc

Brf
transcription factor TRF1 forms a complex with the TFIIB-related factor Brf that plays a major role in RNA pol III transcription -
fatbody specific loss of Brf phenocopies nutrient limitation and TOR inhibition, leading to decreased systemic insulin signalling and reduced organismal growth

bric à brac
transcription factor bearing a BTB/POZ domain - required for pattern formation along the proximal-distal axis of the leg and antenna -
along with other BTB/POZ factors of the Tramtrack Group Bab involved in limiting the number of ovarioles

Bride of sevenless (common alternative name: Boss)
G-protein coupled receptor for Sevenless - regulates determination of R7 photoreceptor
fate - responds to extracellular glucose levels in order to regulate energy homeostasis

brinker
novel transcription factor bearing weak homology to homeobox domain proteins - negatively regulates decapentaplegic target genes -
pposing inputs by Hedgehog and Brinker define a stripe of hairy expression in the Drosophila leg imaginal discs -
Mad, TCF and Brinker first activates then represses dpp expression in the posterior spiracles

broad (common alternative name: Broad Complex)
transcription factor - zinc finger - BTD domain - a key regulator of gene activity at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila -
ecdysone signaling at the larva to puparium transition induces Broad which in turn represses the cdc25c phosphatase String thus synchronizing the cell cycle -
The ecdysone and Notch pathways synergistically regulate Cut at resulting in proper DV boundary formation in the wing disc -
required fo the determination of niche size and cell numbers during ovarian niche development

brother of odd with entrails limited (common alternative name: bowel)
zinc finger transcription factor - required for the elaboration of pattern in the tarsus -
promotes morphological changes associated with joint formation during leg development -
represses supernumerary appendage development in the antenna

bruchpilot
cytoskeletal protein critical for intact presynaptic active zone structure and normal-evoked neurotransmitter release at chemical synapses -
establishes proximity between Ca2+ channels and vesicles to allow efficient transmitter release and patterned synaptic plasticity

brummer
lipid storage droplet-associated lypase - a key factor of energy homeostasis control - involved in storage-fat mobilization

bruno (preferred name: arrest)
ribonucleoprotein-type RNA-binding protein - regulates multiple mRNAs involved in female and male gametogenesis

Btk family kinase at 29A (common alternative name: Tec29)
protein-tyrosine kinase - necessary for maintaining the equilibrium between monomeric actin and filamentous actin during invagination of the
salivary placodes - functions during oogenesis as a key downstream effector of Src64 during ring canal growth - targets β-catenin,
which functions downstream of Wnt4 in escort cells to terminate Drosophila germ cell proliferation through up-regulation of piwi expression

Bub1-related kinase
protein serine/threonine kinase - mitotic checkpoint control protein - inhibits ubiquitin ligase activity of anaphase promoting complex (APC)
preventing mitosis until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle

Bub3
mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein that serves as an essential protein required during normal mitotic progression to prevent premature
sister chromatid separation, missegreation and aneuploidy - inhibits the APC/C complex and hence the transition
from metaphase to anaphase, as long as there are free kinetochores

Buffy
pro-survival homolog of the apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 - also regulates cell cycle - rescues α-synuclein-induced Parkinson disease-like phenotypes

bunched (common alternative name: shortsighted)
transcription factor - leucine zipper - regulates Dpp signaling pathway -
acts with adaptor protein Madm downstream of Tuberous sclerosis complex to regulate the growth of intestinal stem cells

Bursicon
neuropeptide hormone that controls cuticle sclerotization and wing expansion behavior -
signals through the receptor Rickets to establish polarity, detachment, and migration of the border cells

buttonhead
transcription factor - zinc finger - transcriptonal activator that regulates the segmentation of the head -
along with Ems, serves as a major activator of string expression in mitotic domain 2

buttonless
transcription factor - homeodomain - regulates the identity of the dorsal median cells that are arranged
as a single pair within each segment along the dorsal midline just above the central nervous system

C

cabeza
conserved neurally expressed nuclear RNA binding protein whose mutants exhibit reduced climbing abilities of adult flies and
anatomical defects in presynaptic terminals of motoneurons in third instar larvae - negatively regulates the EGFR signaling pathway
required for determination of cone cell fate in the eye

cabut
zinc finger transcription factor, dorsal closure, wing disc, regulator of growth, transcriptional partner of Yorkie,
promotes cell cycling, essential for dietary sugar tolerance, modulates Dpp signalling and the JAK/STAT pathway

cacophony
voltage sensitive calcium channel that stimulates neurotransmetter release at the presynaptic terminus at the neuromuscular junction -
contributes to male courtship behavior along with TRP and TRPL, cacophony mediates Ca(2+) influx and exocytosis in photoreceptor axons

cactus
signaling protein - IkappaB homolog - regulates the nuclear transport of Dorsal -
Yorkie directly regulates Cactus in Toll receptor-mediated antimicrobial response

Cadherin-E (preferred name: Shotgun)
cadherin - regulates cell aggregation preventing mixing of cells at tissue boundaries -
required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth -
IrreC/rst-mediated cell sorting during Drosophila pupal eye development depends on proper localisation of E-cadherin -
Rab11 maintains connections between germline stem cells and niche cells in the Drosophila ovary via E-cadherin trafficking

Cadherin-N
cadherin - cell aggregation - regulates axon pathfinding - sequoia-induced axon targeting is mediated - through the ubiquitously expressed
Cadherin-N cell adhesion molecule - Cooperates with E-cadherin to regulate the cell motility process of ommatidial rotation

Cadherin 99C
receptor - cadherin superfamily - expressed in follicle cells - regulator of microvillus length -
regulates apical expansion and cell rearrangement during salivary gland tube elongation

Ca2+-channel protein α1 subunit T
voltage-gated calcium channel underlying the amiloride-sensitive transient current, projection neurons located in the antennal lobe,
negative modulation of sleep, voltage-activated calcium currents in Drosophila motoneurons

Calcineurin (preferred name: Protein phosphatase 2B at 14D)
Calcium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase - negatively regulates Egf receptor signaling

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (preferred name: CASK ortholog)
kinase that acts synaptically as a gain controller on the transition to calcium-independence -
affects activity-dependent autophosphorylation of CaMKII

Calcium-independent receptor for α-latrotoxin (common alternative name: Latrotoxin receptor)
G-protein coupled receptor - involved in the perception of tactile, proprioceptive, and auditory stimuli through chordotonal neurons of the PNS -
sensitizes these neurons for the detection of mechanical stimulation by amplifying their input-output function

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
CaM kinase II - ATP binding motif - coordinates cellular responses to neurotransmitters and hormones -
effects behavior and learning

Calmodulin
calcium ion binding signaling protein - regulation of cellular processes dependent on Ca2+ - An Abnormal spindle-CaM complex is required
for centrosome-pole cohesion and centrosome inheritance in neural stem cells - affects sensitization of odorant receptors -
interacts synergistically with Abelson tyrosine kinase and Calmodulin to transduce midline guidance cues in the Drosophila embryonic CNS

Calmodulin-binding protein related to a Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein
guanine exchange factor for Rab10 and Rab11 that organizes epithelial architecture by regulating the polarized secretion of basement membrane proteins

Calnexin 99A
binds Ca2+ - a chaperone that functions in the transition of proteins from the ER to the outer cellular membrane -
glycoprotein folding and quality control in the ER - molecular chaperone for Rh1 biosynthesis -
regulates cytosolic Ca2+ levels following activation of the light-sensitive TRP channels

cAMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (preferred name: Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic subunit 1)
catalytic subunit of PKA - involved in Hedgehog signaling pathway and functions in learning in the adult -
regulates the cholinergic Ca(2+)-response of Drosophila mushroom body neurons - PKA phosphorlyation
of Complexin regulates activity-dependent spontaneous neurotransmitter release and structural synaptic plasticity

cannonball
TAFII80, Trp-Asp repeat (WD-repeat) protein expressed only in spermatocytes, where it is required for transcription of genes
required for spermatid differentiation

canoe
glgf/dhr motif scaffolding protein - interacts with genes in both the Notch and the Ras pathways - in a complex with Pins,
Canoe contributes to proper Mud localization and spindle orientation, as well as to the correct asymmetric distribution of cell-fate determinants in metaphase NBs

CAP
Drosophila's Cbl-associated protein - interacts with Vinculin (which functions in actin-mediated organization of cellular morphology) -
regulates assembly and function of tension-sensing structures - involved in muscle and sensory organ development and function -
binds to Axin and Arrow through SH3 domains leading to a potential role in insulin-mediated glucose transport

Cap-G
Armadillo-like helical HEAT domain protein - non-SMC subunit of the condensin complex -
responsible for ensuring that replicated chromosomes are condensed prior to metaphase

capicua
transcription factor - HMG box protein - acts as a repressor of tailless and huckebein in both the anterior and
posterior domains of the early Drosophila embryo - a general sensor of RTK signaling - Capicua-dependent gene
silencing is alleviated by MAPK/Erk phosphorylation, which causes Cic translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

cap'n'collar
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - involved in the segmentation of the head -
effects both labral and mandibular structures - isoform overexpression in the fat body
induces the expression of genes related to Immune-induced molecules suggesting that Cnc regulates lipid homeostasis by regulating the immune system.

capping protein alpha & capping protein beta
regulates nonbundle actin filament assembly during bristle development - acts upstream of the Hippo pathway and functions as a tumor suppressor,
antagonized by Enabled, maintains epithelial integrity and prevents JNK-mediated apoptosis, functions in oocyte determination

cappuccino
Formin domain protein that interacts with Spire to facilitate actin filament capping and nucleation -
works with spire to build an actin mesh that fills the oocyte during mid-oogenesis - necessary for polarity establishment and female fertility

capricious
leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein involved in selective synapse formation;
contributes to formation of the affinity boundary between dorsal and ventral compartments of the wing - consolidates R cell growth cone segregation

capsuléen
protein arginine methyltransferase - together with its partner Valois Capsuléen is involved in protein localization in germ cells -
required for the localization of specific components of the nuage and pole plasm, and in particular of Tudor

capulet (common alternative name: act up)
cyclase-associate protein homolog - actin binding protein - required to prevent actin filament polymerization in the eye disc -
negatively regulate actin filament assembly

caravaggio (common alternative names: HOAP, HP1/ORC-associated protein)
poorly conserved component of the telomere capping complex - prevents end fusion
by maintaining a chromatin state that is independent of the underlying DNA sequence

CAS/CSE1 segregation protein
signaling protein - functions in axonal fasciculation and pathfinding - functions with integrins to specify axon guidance -
functions in nuclear transport in the Notch pathway

CASK ortholog
MAGUK family of scaffolding protein - guanylate domain - acts synaptically as a gain controller on the transition to calcium-independence -
affects activity-dependent autophosphorylation of CaMKII - functions in epithelia as an adhesion molecule
involved in cell proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling and cell migration- serves as a scaffold
for a number of signaling and transmembrane molecules and is involved in synaptic development and plasticity

caskin
a neuronal adaptor protein required for axon growth and guidance -
interacts physically and genetically with Lar receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase

Casein kinase II alpha subunit and beta subunit
CkII catalytic and regulatory subunits - modulates Antennapedia's properties, restricting its activity to an appropriate level -
a regulator of the active zone protein Bruchpilot - stabilizes Clock and represses its activity in circadian oscillator -
promotes Hedgehog signaling by regulating both smoothened and Cubitus interrupt
Myc and Casein kinase 2 target mushroom body miniature, which is required for ribosome biogenesis and cell growth of central brain neuroblasts

Caspase 1 (preferred name: Death caspase-1)
ICE/CED-3 protease - regulates developmental apoptosis or programmed cell death -
effector caspase that acts downstream of the initiator caspase Dronc - Dcp-1 is also involved in non-apoptotic processes such as autophagy

castor
transcription factor - zinc finger - temporal network regulator the development of late CNS sublineages - a genetic cascade involving
klumpfuss, nab and castor specifies the abdominal leucokinergic neurons in the Drosophila CNS -
Pdm and Castor close successive temporal identity windows in the NB3-1 lineage - triggers genes in a specific lineage that act to sub-divide the broader Cas window

caudal
transcription factor - homeodomain - plays a role in establishing the posterior domains of the embryo, which give rise to the posterior gut -
regulates constitutive local expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila epithelia

caupolican
transcription factor in the Iroquois Complex- homeodomain Pbx class - a prepattern gene that determines the size, shape and
number of sensory organ mother cells in imaginal discs - required in the dorsal mesoderm to ensure normal heart development

Cbl proto-oncogene ortholog
ubiquitin ligase - positively regulates receptor tyrosine ubiquitination accelerating degradation of ligand-receptor complexes -
neuronal Cbl controls biosynthesis of insulin-like peptides

cdc2
a cdc2 kinase - heterdimerizes with cyclin A and cyclin B - responsible for the execution of the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle -
controls progression into and through meiotic M phases

cdc6
AAA-superfamily ATP helicase involved in initiation of DNA replication - involved in the formation of the prereplicative complex -
checkpoint protein involved in controlling the G2/M transition

CCHamide-2
a larval fat body and gut produced nutrient-dependent hormone regulator of Drosophila insulin-like peptide -
targets brain insulin-producing cells

cdc42
a Ras type GTPase - involved in epithelial cell elongation - facilitates nucleation of actin filaments -
Cdc42 and formin activity control non-muscle myosin dynamics during Drosophila heart morphogenesis -
disruption Cdc42/Par6/aPKC polarity complex promotes epithelial proliferation

Cdc42-interacting protein 4 & Nostrin
F-BAR proteins involved in regulation of membrane curvature and dynamics - regulation of dynamin-dependent endocytosis of E-cadherin
during oogenesis - Cip4 acts downstream of Cdc42 to activate the WASP-WAVE-Arp2/3 pathway in the notum and the wing epithelium -
Nostrin makes contact with microtubules through the kinesin Khc-73 for trafficking of recycling endosomes

Ced-12
ELMO/CED-12 family protein that functions together with Myoblast city as a bipartite GEF to optimally activate Rac to mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells
and cell migration - functions in myoblast fusion and border cell migration - Draper, Ced-12, and JNK are part of the phagocytic machinery
of the follicle cells that is essential for the death and removal of germ-line-derived nurse cells during late oogenesis

Cell division cycle 27 (common alternative names Cdc27 and makos)
subunit of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) - involved in regulating cell cycle - important for substrate recruitment
and interacts with its co-activators, Fizzy and Fizzy-related, as well as the mitotic checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1

Centrobin
a constituent of the daughter centriole - a key determinant of the orientation of cell division

centromere identifier
a variant of histone H3 - localizes exclusively to centromeres - chromatin component that plays a key role in assembling the kinetochore at meiosis and mitosis

Centromeric protein-C
centromere protein required for normal attachment of kinetochores to the spindle

Centrosomal protein 190kD
BTB/POZ domain and microtubule binding protein that alternatively serves as a chromatin insulator and as a component of centrioles -
involved in axial expansion, the spreading out along the anterior-to-posterior axis during syncytial development

centrosomin
cytoskeletal protein - important for assembly of mitotic spindles and spindle poles - Aurora-A regulates centrosome assembly by
controlling the CNN's ability to target and/or anchor γ-tubulin to the centrosome and organizing microtubule-nucleating sites

centrosomin's beautiful sister
a trans-Golgi protein that links Golgi inheritance to the cell cycle

Cep135
scaffolding protein - assembly of microtubule based structures, centriole and flagella biogenesis

Ceramidase
enzyme that hydrolyzes ceramide to sphingosine, a critical structural components of cell membranes that act as second messengers
in diverse signal transduction cascades - maintains photoreceptor homeostasis - regulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis and trafficking

C15 (common alternative name Clawless)
member of the 93E cluster of homeodomain proteins - regulates spatial patterning of the tarsus, a distal portion of the leg -
homolog of vertebrate oncogene Hox11

chameau
histone acetyltransferase - acts as antagonistic cofactor to the histone deacetylase Rpd3 to modulate JNK-dependent
transcription during pupal thorax metamorphosis and JNK-induced apoptosis - recruited by DJun and DFos

charlatan
zinc finger transcription factor - facilitates accumulation of proneural proteins Achaete and Scute by forming a transcriptional stimulatory loop

charybde and scylla
conserved proteins acting downstream of PKB and upstream of TSC to regulate growth - they are induced under hypoxic conditions,
thus establishing a potential cross-talk between growth and oxygen sensing

cheerio
a dimeric F-actin crosslinking protein - organizes the F-actin cytoskeleton in ovarian germline ring canals - functions in migrating somatic cells,
neuronal growth cones and larval neuromuscular junction - mechanosensor - a target of JNK signaling that links cytoskeleton dynamics to tumor progression

chickadee
profilin homolog - regulates polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton - chickadee/profilin mRNA is a direct and
functional target of the RNA-binding protein Imp that localizes to axons and controls axonal regrowth of mushroom body γ neurons

chico
insulin receptor substrate family - the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin receptor -
longevity conferred by reduced Insulin receptor substrate Chico partially requires d4eBP.

chiffon
Dbf4 homolog - regulatory subunit of Cdc7-Dbf4 dimer - associated with the origin recognition complex
activates the kinase function of its dimerization partner, thus triggering the initiation of cellular DNA replication

Chip
transcription factor - enhancer facilitator - functions at enhancers to bring together diverse transcriptional factors and
form higher order activation complexes; or, in some cases, it may block formation of such complexes - Chip-mediated partnerships
of the homeodomain proteins Bar and Aristaless with the LIM-HOM proteins Apterous and Lim1 regulate distal leg development

chk2 (preferred name: loki)
homolog of mammalian Chk2 - a serine/threonine kinase required required for DNA damage-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

Cholecystokinin-like receptor at 17D1 (also known as cholecystokinin-like receptor)
G-protein coupled receptor - along with drosulfakinin, its predicted ligand, a strong positive growth regulator of the larval neuromuscular junction

Chorion factor 2
zinc finger transcription factor - along with Mef2, Cf2 functions as critical regulator of the
myogenic program - a mediator of EGF-R-activated dorsoventral patterning in oogenesis

Chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit
A histone chaperone protein - mediates nucleosome assembly on both the leading and lagging strands
immediately after passage of the DNA replication fork - maintenance of heterochromatin
CAF-1 requires its interaction with HP1a through a conserved motif

Chromatin-linked adaptor for MSL proteins (common alternative name: Clamp)
zinc finger transcription factor - dosage compensation - essential in both males and females - also functions outside of the dosage compensation pathway

Chromator
chromodomain protein that contributes to the maintenance of polytene chromosome morphology - a component
of spindle matrix that contributes to microtubule spindle dynamics and proper chromosome segregation during mitosis

Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein
chromodomain protein in the SNF2-like family of ATPases - functions in assembly of active chromatin

chromosome alignment defect 1
substochiometric centromeric linker protein involved in centromere propagation - regulator of centromeric deposition
of Cenp-A/Cid and Cenp-C during exit from mitosis

Chromosome associated protein D3
condensin II subunit, chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis and meiosis - regulation of anti-bacterial
immune determinants - restriction of retrotransposon mobilization

Chromosome associated protein H2
a condensin II subunit functioning during meiosis - promotes prophase I chromosome territory formation
preventing heterologous chromosomal associations - promotes disassembly of polytene chromosomal structure into chromosomal components

chromosome bows (common alternative names: Orbit and Mast)
microtubule-associated protein that plays an essential role facilitating the kinetochore-microtubule interaction -
maternally it facilitates multiple interactions of the fusome with mitotic spindles and ring canals -
zygotically it mediates the action of Slit and its receptors acting as a partner of the Abelson tyrosine kinase

Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis
BTB/POZ domain transcription factor - helps specify distinct birth order-dependent cell fates in an extended neuronal lineage -
regulates the time at which neuroblasts undergo Prospero-dependent cell-cycle exit or Reaper/Hid/Grim-dependent apoptosis

Chx1 and Chx2 (preferred names: Visual system homeobox 1 ortholog and Visual system homeobox 2 ortholog)
homeodomain transcription factors - markers for the brain central neuroendocrine system termed the pars intercerebralis
that expresses the hormones Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp), FMRF, and myomodulin

CIN85 and CD2AP orthologue (common alternative name cindr)
adaptor protein that links cell surface junctions and adhesion proteins with multiple components of the actin cytoskeleton -
regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and eye patterning - cooperates with anillin to promote intercellular bridge stability
during cytokinesis - promotes endocytosis

citron (preferred name: sticky)
Rho effector kinase functioning downstream of pebble - required for cytokinesis

Clathrin heavy chain
A basic component of the vesicle coat that is involved in many cellular processes including intracellular transport
of proteins and lipids, endocytosis of signaling proteins and released neurotransmitters. and exocytosis of secreted proteins -
Clathrin molecules assemble themselves into closed cages that capture the molecules to be transported,
then quickly disassemble once the contents are delivered

clift (common alternative name: eyes absent)
dual-function transcription factor/phosphatase - eyes absent family - cell survival factor - functions in eye development
and in the embryonic determination of the somatic gonadal precursor cell fate -
retinal axon guidance requires integration of Eya and the JAK/STAT pathway

Clock
transcription factor - bHLH and PAS domains - regulates circadian rhythms - required in brain pacemaker neurons-
Clock-Cycle heterodimers initiate circadian oscillator function by activating per and tim transcription
to prevent premature locomotor aging independently of its circadian function

clockwork orange
a transcriptional repressor that synergizes with Per and inhibits Clk-mediated activation -
acts preferentially to help terminate Clk-Cyc-mediated transcription of direct target genes

clueless
novel protein required for normal mitochondrial function - negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway - associates with mitochondrial
outer membrane proteins, including Translocase of outer membrane 20 - works to promote damaged mitochondrial clearance

coiled
a secreted Ly domain adhesion protein required for septate junction formation and blood-brain barrier integrity - expressed in subperineurial glial
cells - attached to the surface membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor - mediates cell adhesive properties - expressed in trachea

Collagen type IV
the main component of basement membranes - synthesized by the fat body, secreted to the hemolymph,
and incorporated into the BM - determines organ shape - regulates BMP signaling

collier (preferred name: knot)
EBF/Olf-1 homolog, HLH protein - required for the formation of the hypopharyngeal lobe,
the proper development of the larval head skeleton, and suppresses vein formation between veins 3 and 4

comatose
N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion (NSF) gene - required in disassembly or rearrangement of the SNARE complex at the plasma membrane after vesicle fusion

combgap
zinc finger transcription factor - involved in pattern formation and the regulation of cell fate -
contributes to recruitment of Polycomb group proteins in Drosophila -
promotes ovarian niche development and chromatin association of EcR-binding regions in BR-C

commissureless
novel transmembrane protein - involved in axon pathfinding and neuromuscular synaptogenesis

complexin
SNARE-complex-binding proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle release and consequently neurotransmitter release

concertina
Gα12/13 G-protein - necessary to trigger acto-myosin contractility during gastrulation - required for RhoGEF2
and consequent MyosinII apical recruitment

Connectin
Leucine rich repeat homophilic cell adhesion protein expressed in a subset of muscles and the motoneurons that innervate them -
functions in axon guidance and target recognition.

Contactin
GPI-anchored cell adhesion molecule - required for organization of septate junctions and for function of the paracellular barrier -
forms a tripartite complex with Neuroglian and Neurexin

convoluted
fly ortholog of the vertebrate insulin-like growth factor-binding protein acid-labile subunit (ALS) -
antagonizes Dilp function to control animal growth and carbohydrate and fat metabolism

COP9 complex homolog subunit 5
Component of COP9 signalsome - regulates ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation - Jab1/MPN domain metalloenzyme motif -
COP9-Hedgehog axis regulates the function of the germline stem cell progeny differentiation niche

coracle
protein 4.1 homolog - links transmembrane proteins to cytoskeleton - component of septate junctions, structures that serve as selective-permeability
barriers - occluding junctions shape the signaling environment between the soma and the germline in order to maintain niche homeostasis

corazonin
a secreted neuropeptide produced by dorsolateral peptidergic neurons with axon terminations in the corpora cardiaca, anterior aorta and intestine -
regulates ethanol and trehalose metabolism and male reproductive activity - coordinates increased food intake and diminished energy stores
during stress - coordinates sperm transfer and copulation duration - targets corazonin receptor in salivary glands and adipocytes

Co-repressor of Pangolin
Myb/SANT-like transcription factor that antagonizes Wingless signaling binding to Pangolin

CoRest
corepressor - regulation of Notch signaling, ovarian follicular cells and wing - component of L(3)mbt repressor
complex - component of LSD1-CoREST demethylase complex - regulates DPP signaling - associates with Charlatan

corkscrew
nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase - SH2 domains - downregulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling -
Sprouty proteins are targets of Corkscrew/SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatases -
Corkscrew/SHP-2 proteins can promote RTK signaling by inactivating a feedback inhibitor

cornichon
cargo receptor required for transport of the TGFalpha growth factor Gurken to the oocyte surface

Cortactin
cytoskeletal component that acts as a link, via Src, between surface receptors and actin - interacts
with F-actin and can stimulate actin polymerization by direct interaction with the Arp2/3 complex

cortex
a meiosis-specific anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activator - functions together Fizzy to target mitotic cyclins for destruction in the egg

corto
Chromodomain protein - partners with CycG which regulates the activity of Corto at chromatin - acts alternatively as an enhancer of TrxG and an Enhancer of PcG

costa (common alternative name: costal2)
kinesin like protein - hedgehog signaling - a cytoplasmic anchor for Cubitus interruptus

courtless
ubiquitin conjugation enzyme - plays a role in protein degradation - mutation disrupts
early steps of courtship behavior in Drosophila males and the development of their sperm

cousin of atonal
bHLH transcription factor required for sensory neuron morphology - plays roles in sense organ precursor maintenance and/or identity,
and in controlling the number of cell divisions in the neuronal branch of the lineage arising from these precursors

Cp110
a conserved centriolar protein - controls centriole length & suppresses centriole overduplication

cp309 (common alternative name: pericentrin-like protein)
PACT domain protein - associated with both the centrioles and pericentriolar material -
essential for the formation of functional cilia and flagella

cramped
a novel Polycomb group protein - physically interacts with Proliferating cell nuclear antigen,
a protein involved in DNA replication and repair

CrebB (preferred name: Cyclic-AMP response element binding protein B)
transcription factor - cAMP response element binding protein - acts downstream of Protein kinase A - regulates genes involved
in learning and memory

CREB-binding protein (preferred name: nejire)
CBP, a transcriptional co-activator that interacts with a large number of
developmentally important transcription factors - Polycomb inhibits histone acetylation by CBP by binding directly to its catalytic domain

CREB-regulated transcription coactivator
transcription factor - transducer of regulated CREB activity - starvation triggers TORC activation -
TORC maintains energy balance through induction of CREB target genes in the brain

crimpy
cysteine-rich transmembrane BMP regulator - physically interacts with and inhibits BMP ligand glass bottom boat in motoneurons
thus permitting the muscle-derived Gbb pool to predominate at the NMJ and establishing the retrograde directionality of the pro-growth BMP pathway

crinkled
bidirectional molecular motor that acts in concert with Wg targets to orchestrate the proper shaping of denticles
in the embryonic epidermis - necessary for auditory organ development

crocodile
winged helix, forkhead family - establishing the domains of expression for wingless and engrailed in the clypeolabrum,
the anterior most segment of the fly's head

crooked legs
multiple zinc finger transcription factor - mutants exhibit both a morphological defect in leg morphogenesis
and altered gene expression during morphogenesis

crooked neck
mRNA splicing factor that participates in the assembly and control of the splicing machinery

crossveinless
twisted gastrulation family member - along with Short gastrulation, Crossveinless promotes BMP signaling
by transporting a Dpp/Gbb heterodimer from the longitudinal veins into the crossvein regions

crossveinless 2
a secreted chordin-like cysteine rich domain protein: modifies BMP signaling - binds BMPs, the BMP receptor Tkv and heparan sulfate proteoglycans -
promotes BMP signaling in the developing crossveins - inhibits BMP signaling in the early embryo

crossveinless c (common alternative name: RhoGAP88C)
required in tissues actively undergoing morphogenesis -- regulates GTPase function of Rho
to promote the coordinated organization of the actin cytoskeleton

crumbs
transmembrane - egf repeats - laminin A homolog - involved in epithelial polarity - binds to multiple proteins such as
Stardust, Par-6, AP-2α, Yurt, Expanded and Moesin - contributes to organization of zonula adherens, epithelial morphogenesis,
apico-basal cell polarity, and is a negative regulator of Notch activity and growth control via the Hippo pathway -
involved in photocell morphogenesis, NinaE trafficking and prevention of light-dependent photoreceptor degeneration

Crustacean cardioactive peptide (common alternative name: Cardioacceleratory peptide)
a conserved 9 amino acid neuropeptide - produced by 1-2 neurons in each segment of the ventral nervous system -
released during the shedding of the old exoskeleton (ecdysis) - controls behavior during molting - has cardioactive functions

cryptocephal
REB/ATF superfamily bZIP domain transcription factor - controls expression of diverse neuropeptides and
peptide hormones involved in metamorphosis - GCN2-ATF4 pathway targets 4E-BP during development and aging

cryptochrome
a circadian blue light photoreceptor - photolyase - activated by flavin reduction - mediates a rapid light-dependent degradation of the clock protein Timeless (Tim)
via the F box protein Jetlag (Jet) and the proteasome, which initiates the resetting of the molecular clock - mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity -
antagonizes synchronization of Drosophila's circadian clock to temperature cycles

CTCF
CCCTC-binding factor is a zinc finger transcription factor that confers enhancer blocking in all known chromatin insulators

C-terminal binding protein
transcription factor-interacting protein - a transcriptional co-repressor - directly activates and represses Wnt transcriptional targets -
regulates proliferation and differentiation of eye precursors and complexes with Eyeless, Dachshund, Dan, and Danr during eye and antennal development -
Trithorax monomethylates histone H3K4 and interacts directly with CBP to promote H3K27 acetylation and antagonize Polycomb silencing

C-terminal Src kinase
tyrosine kinase acts as a tumor suppressor through Src pathway regulation -
loss of Csk activity leads to increased organ size, organismal lethality, and increased cell proliferation

CUB and LDLa domain
rhodopsin endocytic trafficking - photoreceptor desensitization and adaptation

cubitus interruptus
transcription factor - zinc finger - mediates Hedgehog signaling - undergoes limited proteolysis to be converted into a truncated form
that functions as a transcription repressor in the absence of Hh but is converted into a full-length transcription activator in the presence of Hh.

CUB and LDLa domain
rhodopsin endocytic trafficking - photoreceptor desensitization and adaptation

Cullin1 (preferred name: lin-19-like)
a major component of a series of multimeric ubiquitin ligases that control the degradation of a broad range of proteins

Cullin-3
Cullen acting in protein degradation - loss of function has pleiotropic effects during development,
including defects in external sensory organ development, pattern formation and cell growth and survival - targets Cubitus interruptus

Cullin-4
cullin family protein that regulates cell cycle by controlling degradation of Dacapo and Cyclin E

cup
translational repressor - represses oskar translation - physically interacts with Bruno - Cup controls NMJ presynaptic terminal morphology
and regulates oskar mRNA stability during oogenesis

cut
transcription factor - homeodomain - cut domain - mediates choice between chordotonal sense organ
and external sensory organ fate - also involved in wing and follicle cell morphogenesis -
The ecdysone and Notch pathways regulate Cut at the dorsal-ventral boundary in wing discs

cutoff
a protein related to a yeast transcription termination factor - involved in piwiRNA cluster expression, which is critical for oocyte development

cycle
transcription factor - bHLH, pas domain - photoperiod response - Clock-Cycle heterodimer binds canonical
E-box sequences to activate the transcription of direct targets clockwork orange, period, timeless, vrille and par domain protein 1

Cyclic-AMP response element binding protein A
basic leucine zipper transcription factor - regulates secretory pathways and
tissue-specific genes in the salivary gland and epidermis

Cyclic-AMP response element binding protein B
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - acts downstream of Protein kinase A -
regulates genes involved in learning and memory

Cyclin A
a a G2-M phase cyclin - cell cycle regulator - dimerization partner of Cdk1/Cdc2 kinase - during the G2 phase the CycA-Cdk1 prevents
premature DNA re-replication - during mitosis and G1, CycA is rapidly degraded resulting in inactivation of Cdk1 protein kinase activity

Cyclin B
a G2-M phase cyclin - cell cycle regulator - dimerization partner of Cdk1/cdc2 kinase - promotes Cdk1's protein kinase activity -
CycB-Cdk1 complex induces the start of mitosis - during late metaphase of mitosis and continuing in G1, CycB is rapidly
degraded resulting in inactivation of Cdk1 protein kinase activity, and allowing termination of mitosis.

Cyclin C
regulatory partner of CDK8 - mediator complex component - cofactor for EcR-dependent transcription - links nutrient intake to developmental transitions
and fat metabolism - negative regulator of the lipogenic pathway - regulation of Serpent-dependent transcription and innate immunity -
involved in small nuclear RNA (snRNA) 3' end processing - recruited to phosphorylate the Notch ICD and coordinate activation with turnover

Cyclin D
cell cycle regulator - a G1-S phase cyclin - nutrition controls mitochondrial biogenesis in the Drosophila adipose tissue through Ets97D and Cyclin D/Cdk4

Cyclin-dependent kinase 2
G1 cyclin dependent kinase - heterodimerizes with Cyclin D, Cyclin E and Cyclin J - regulates somatic cell proliferation,
germline stem cell proliferation maintenance, follicle stem cells and endocycle - target of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo -
regulates Double-parked and Retinoblastoma protein

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6
a Cdk involved in control of growth of cells - partners cyclin D - governs progression through the G1
phase of the cell cycle - controls intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5
a Cdk involved in control of cell differentiation and morphology - regulates developmental remodeling of mushroom body neurons

Cyclin-dependent kinase 7
a Cdk-activating kinase and general transcription factor - activity depends on the regulatory CycH and Mat1 subunits - this trimeric Cdk complex
activates other Cdks by phosphorylation in their T-loop and is called Cdk activating kinase (CAK) -
CAK can be part of TFIIH, where Cdk7 phosphorylates different transcription substrates (e.g. CTD of Pol II)

Cyclin-dependent kinase 8
functions together with its partner CycC as a component of the mediator complex to regulate gene expression in the leg, eye and notum -
phosphorylates C-terminal domain of PolII

Cyclin-dependent kinase 9
along with CycT forms the positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, involved in RNA polymerase II elongation control

Cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 30A
Cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit required for progression through female meiosis and the mitotic divisions of the early embryo
through an interaction with Cdk1 (Cdc2)

Cyclin E
a G1-S phase cyclin - dimerization partner of cdc2c kinase - a mitochondrial pool of Cyclin E,
regulated by Dynamin related protein 1, is linked to cell density dependent cell proliferation

Cyclin G
a transcriptional regulator that interacts with the chromatin factor Corto and controls expression of the homeotic gene Abdominal B -
controls developmental stability by ensuring compensatory processes between cell growth and cell proliferation

Cyclin J
regulates S phase early in embryonic development, partners Cdk2 - strong genetic interactions between CycJ and piRNA
pathway genes reveal a role for CycJ in early oogenesis

Cyclin Y
cyclin that interacts with the cyclin dependent kinase Eip63E - has essential functions
during embryogenesis, larval development, and metamorphosis - regulates wnt signaling

cylindromatosis ortholog (H. sapiens)
deubiquitinating enzyme that deubiquitinates dTRAF2 and prevents dTRAF2 from ubiquitin-mediated
proteolytic degradation - involved in stress response - required for Eiger-triggered JNK activation and cell death

Cytochrome c proximal and Cytochrome c distal
electron transport - caspase activation during apoptosis

D

dacapo
CIP/KIP family cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor - inhibits cell cycle progression - .binds to CycE-Cdk2 complexes - Upregulation of Dap is required
after the last mitosis for arresting cells in G1/G0 before terminal differentiation in many post-mitotic cell types

dachs
unconventional myosin motor domain protein - acts as an F-Actin-binding scaffolding protein - downstream component of a Fat
signaling pathway that influences growth, cell affinity and developmental gene expression

dachsous
cadherin superfamily - controls imaginal disc morphogenesis - controls left-right asymmetry -
planar polarity is specified through asymmetric subcellular localization of Fat and Dachsous

dachshund
transcriptional co-repressor - required for elongation of leg discs - potentiates Hedgehog signaling during retinogenesis

dally-like
membrane bound glypican related proteoglycan - required for Hedgehog signalling in the embryonic epidermis of Drosophila - mediates the autonomous
and nonautonomous effects on tissue growth caused by activation of the PI3K and TOR pathways

dappled (preferred name: wech)
LIN-41 subclade multiple domain protein of unknown function - let-7 micro RNA regulated

daughterless
transcription factor - basic HLH - proneural gene that is also involved in sex determination - Inhibition of Daughterless by Extramacrochaetae mediates
Notch-induced cell proliferation - Daughterless and Tcf4 restrict neurite branching and synapse formation by repressing Neurexin in postmitotic neurons

daughter of sevenless
an adaptor protein that facilitates signal transduction as a downstream component of the receptor tyrosine kinases Sevenless, Egf receptor and Torso

Daughters against dpp
Smad family - inhibits Dpp signal transduction - Ubx dynamically regulates Dpp signaling by repressing Dad expression
during copper cell regeneration in the adult Drosophila midgut

dawdle
TGF-ß superfamily ligand - Activin-like protein - by activating Dawdle, Tolloid-related provides a permissive signal
for axon guidance - Dawdle signals preferentially through one isoform of the Type-I receptor Baboon - Activin-β and Dawdle
function redundantly to regulate proliferation in the larval brain

DC0
Protein kinase A catalytic subunit - a signal transduction protein involved in learning and memory and in the Hedgehog pathway - Phosphorylation
of Complexin by PKA regulates activity-dependent spontaneous neurotransmitter release and structural synaptic plasticity

dCREB2 (preferred name: Cyclic-AMP response element binding protein B)
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - acts downstream of Protein kinase A -
regulates genes involved in learning and memory

Dbx
homeobox gene - contributes to the development of subsets of interneurons via cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions
with the motoneuron-promoting factors eve and exex

deadpan
transcription factor - bHLH - hairy/E(spl) class - a pan-neural repressor - regulates the self-renewal and specification of Drosophila larval neural stem cells
independently of Notch - required to silence Tramtrack transcription in the R7 photoreceptor precursor in order to determine photoreceptor fate

dead ringer (preferred name: retina aberrant in pattern)
transcription factor - ARID domain protein - required for proper patterning of the abdomen - required for positioning of the longitudinal glia
in the embryonic CNS - necessary for neuronal pathfinding, female receptivity and repression of fruitless independent male courtship behaviors

Death caspase-1
ICE/CED-3 protease involved in apoptosis - an effector caspase - cleaves specific proteins during apoptosis - acts downstream
of the initiator caspase Dronc - involved in non-apoptotic processes such as autophagy

death executioner Bcl-2 homologue
Bcl-2/CED-9 family protein involved in regulating apoptosis - Screening of suppressors of bax-induced cell death
identifies Glycerophosphate oxidase-1 as a mediator of Debcl-induced apoptosis

Death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (common alternative name: Thread)
ubiquitin ligase that functions as an inhibitor of apoptosis - the inhibition of caspase function is counteracted by proapoptotic proteins
Hid, Grim and Reaper - niche signaling promotes stem cell survival in the Drosophila testis via the Jak-STAT target DIAP1

Death-associated protein kinase related
regulation of myosin II dynamics - promotes proper morphogenesis of epithelial tissues during development - maintenance of
furrow canal structure and lateral plasma membrane integrity during cellularization - morphogenesis of retina,
functions during Myosin II-dependent cell constriction, subsequent multicellular alignment and adherens junction remodelling

Death regulator Nedd2-like caspase (Common alternate name: Dronc)
cysteine protease - an initiator caspase - functional homolog of CED-3/caspase-9 - involved in programed cell death - Diap1 protein is required
to prevent accumulation of a continuously generated, processed form of the apical caspase Dronc

Death related ced-3/Nedd2-like protein
ICE/CED-3 protease involved in apoptosis - an initator caspase - Ubiquitylation of DREDD is required for innate immune signalling

debra
involved in the Hedgehog signaling pathway as a mediator of protein degradation by the lysosome -
required in a physiological, nondevelopmental aspect of long-term memory

DE-cadherin (preferred name: shotgun)
transmembrane - E-cadherin homolog - cell adhesion - sets up boundaries between epithelial compartments preventing cell mixing

decapentaplegic
ligand - tgf-beta homolog - early on dpp establishes embryonic dorsal/ventral axis --
later defines boundaries between appendage compartments - signals through Smad transcription factors

defective proventriculus
homeodomain transcription factor - involved in the establishment of two gut structures:
the proventriculus (a foregut structure) and the central midgut

Deformed
transcription factor - homeodomain - Antp class - required to form a normal head -
involved in establishing the form of the maxillary and mandibular segments - controls organogenesis
by shaping territorial border through regulation of basal DE-Cadherin distribution

Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1
SAND and zf-MYND domain transcription factor - involved in embryonic development, Deformed autoregulation and the immune response

degringolade
SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase that acts as a negative regulator of the repressor Hairy and its corepressor Groucho
during embryonic segmentation and neurogenesis - acts as a regulator in sex determination by interfering
with the repressive activities of Deadpan and Groucho

Delta
transmembrane - EGF family - Notch ligand - important in establishing neural cell fates - regulates developmental patterning -
post transcriptional modification (such as by fucosylation, ubiquitination and proteolysis) of Dl is key for its functions

deltex
E3-ubiquitin ligase - Deltex mediated accumulation of Notch in the late-endosome compartment is required for the Dx-mediated Su(H)-independent Notch signaling

dendritic arbor reduction 1
zinc finger transcription factor that promotes dendrite growth in part by suppressing the expression
of the microtubule-severing protein Spastin

DER (Preferred name: EGF-R) (common alternative name: Torpedo)
transmembrane receptor- tk - EGF-R homology - during oogenesis helps set up egg polarity, determines the identity of cells in the ectoderm;
during larval stages participates in the development of the eye and wing.
ventral ectoderm; during larval stages participates in the development of the eye and wing

derailed
receptor tyrosine kinase - functions in axon during central nervous system and brain development

Deterin (common alternative name: Survivin)
component of the chromosomal passenger complex that regulates chromosome condensation,
interaction between kinetochores and microtubules, spindle organization, cytokinesis, and apoptosis

DFR-1 (preferred name: Heartless - also commonly known as Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1)
receptor tyrosine kinase - involved in the development of mesodermal and neuronal cells

DHR3 (preferred name: Hormone receptor-like/Hr46)
transcription factor - nuclear receptor superfamily - a second tier regulator involved in Drosophila molting --
acts negatively on Ecdysone receptor and postively on genes expressed subsequently in the molting hierarchy

Diabetes- and obesity regulated
coactivator of ecdysone receptor needed during metamorphosis - antagonized by insulin signaling via FOXO in the fat body -
part of a feed-forward mechanism whereby ecdysone potentiates its own signaling - regulates autophagosome formation and protein degradation

diaphanous
Formin homology domain protein required for cytokinesis - spatial regulation of Dia and Myosin-II by RhoGEF2
controls initiation of E-cadherin endocytosis during epithelial morphogenesis

Dicer-1
ribonuclease III family, double-stranded RNA domain binding domain, DEAD/DEAH box helicase, PAZ domain -
an enzyme involved in degrading RNA - involved in double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) and post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGS)

Dicer-2
DEAD/DEAH box helicase - mutants are defective in processing small interfering RNAs -
has an RNA interference-independent function that modulates Toll immune signaling -
produces 21-nt siRNAs with a remarkably high fidelity for efficient RNA silencing

Dichaete (preferred name: Sox box protein 70D, common alternative name: fish-hook)
HMG-domain protein - SOX-domain protein - implicated in the regulation of pair-rule genes
and later functions in wing morphogenesis - Dichaete roles include hindgut
development, embryonic segmentation, and nervous system development

diego
ankyrin repeat protein involved in tissue polarity - helps promote polarized clustering of Flamingo -
modulates Frizzled-Dishevelled signaling specificity outcome



dilute class unconventional myosin (common alternative names: Didum and MyosinV)
a motor protein that mediates sensory neuron morphogenesisin - forms a complex with Rab11 and Rab11 interacting protein
that trafficks rhodopsin in the developing rhabdomere

diminutive (Preferred name: Myc)
bHLH - leucine zipper - controls cell cycle progression - contributes to cell growth, cell competition and regenerative proliferation -
downregulation suppresses pathogenesis of human neuronal tauopathies in Drosophila - sexual dimorphism
of body size is controlled by dosage of the X-chromosomal gene Myc and by the sex-determining gene tra

dimmed (common alternative name: Mist 1-related)
Atonal family bHLH transcription factor - component of a mechanism by which diverse neuroendocrine lineages
differentiate and maintain a pro-secretory state

Disabled
adaptor protein that is a core component of the Abl tyrosine kinase signaling pathway -
interacts with Abl to regulate axon guidance - associates with transmembrane receptors including N and Appl -
involved in axon patterning, embryo morphogenesis and trafficking in endocytosis, exocytosis and Golgi organization

disconnected and disco-related
zinc finger transcription factors - required for head segment identity during Drosophila embryogenesis -
required for optic lobe development and ventral appendage development

disc proliferation abnormal
Licensing factor - Zn finger motif - cdc21 homolog - MCM4 homolog - implicated in the initiation of DNA replication
and in the discrimination between replicated and unreplicated chromatin

discs large 1
Links septate junctions to cytoskeleton - Guanylate kinase signature and Src homology 3 domain - exon junction complex
regulates the splicing of cell polarity dlg1 to control Wingless signaling -
PAR-1 kinase phosphorylates Dlg and regulates its postsynaptic targeting at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

Discs large 5
MAGUK family scaffold protein - required for the maintenance of apical polarity of follicle epithelium during oogenesis

discs lost
conserved protein of unknown function - required for cell survival and cell cycle progression - implicated in modification of olfactory behavior

discs overgrown (common alternative name: double-time)
casein kinase Iepsilon - contributes to circadian rhythmicity - Spaghetti
and Doubletime link the circadian clock and light to caspases, apoptosis and tauopathy

dishevelled
novel cytoplasmic protein - a component in the wingless pathway and regulates epithelial polarity -
membrane bound GSK-3 activates Wnt signaling through Disheveled and Arrow

Dishevelled Associated Activator of Morphogenesis
Formin homology domain protein regulated by RhoA - functions upstream or parallel to Src42A
and Tec29 to organize the actin cytoskeleton and to determine the cuticle pattern of the respiratory system

dispatched
patched family protein regulating Hedgehog release - multipass transmembrane protein and a member of the RND transporter family - required for the
release and long-range activity of the lipid-modified Hh protein from producing cells. Hh and thus Disp control cell growth, survival, fate, and patterning.

dissatisfaction
nuclear receptor superfamily - essential for many aspects of sexual behavior and neural development in both males and females

distal antenna & distal antenna-related
two closely linked genes coding for pipsqueak domain proteins - effector genes that act downstream of homothorax and Distal-less
to control differentiation of distal antennal structures

Distal-less
transcription factor - homeodomain - defines the termini of appendages and regulates appendage growth - proximodistal
axis formation in the Drosophila leg: subdivision into proximal and distal domains by Homothorax and Distal-less -
coexpression of Distal-less and Homothorax determines Drosophila antennal identity
Diuretic hormone 31
regulation of sleep - regulates a preferred temperature decrease at night-onset - midgut cells that express Dh31 and tachykinin
are activated by the presence of proteins and amino acids - increases the contraction frequency in the anterior midgut

Diuretic hormone 44
hormone produced by brain neurosecretory cells - sensor of nutritive sugar - directs the detection and consumption of nutritive sugar -
controls sperm retention and storage by females - a circadian output hormone that is required for normal rest:activity rhythms

division abnormally delayed
membrane bound glypican related proteoglycan - effects cell division of lamina precursor cells of the optic lobe -
Ras/MEK/MAPK-mediated regulation of heparin sulphate proteoglycans promotes retinal fate in the Drosophila eye-antennal disc -
Dally mediates the autonomous and nonautonomous effects on tissue growth caused by activation of the PI3K and TOR pathways

DJun (Preferred name: Jun-related antigen)
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - cooperates with the ETS domain protein Pointed to induce R7 fate in the developing eye

Dlar (preferred name: Leukocyte-antigen-related-like)
transmembrane - receptor tyrosine kinase functioning to regulate axon guidance - required for development
of circadian pacemaker neuron processes that support rhythmic activity in constant darkness but not during light/dark cycles

dmyc (preferred name: diminutive)
bHLH - leucine zipper - controls cell cycle progression - contributes to cell growth, cell competition and regenerative proliferation -
downregulation suppresses pathogenesis of human neuronal tauopathies in Drosophila - sexual dimorphism
of body size is controlled by dosage of the X-chromosomal gene Myc and by the sex-determining gene tra

DNA replication-related element factor
a transcription factor that activates genes involved in cell proliferation - required for efficient growth and
cell cycle progression in Drosophila imaginal discs - Dref and Trl bind and activate housekeeping versus developmental enhancers, respectively

dodo
peptidylprolyl isomerase - facilitates the degradation of the transcription factor CF2, which regulates expression of the rhomboid gene in follicle cells

domeless
a divergent member of the cytokine class I receptor family - required for segmentation and functions in trachea specification -
the ligand Unpaired, its receptor Domeless, Hop, and Stat92E Are Required in mushroom bodies for long term memory

Domina (preferred name: jumeau)
forkhead/winged-helix class - a suppressor of position effect variegation that also affects and regulates eye and bristle development -
acts upstream of a Polo-kinase dependent pathway - its roles included asymmetric
protein localization, chromatin modification, dendrite formation and organ (eye, wing and bristle) development

domino
DNA helicase/adenosine triphosphatase - component of the Tip60 chromatin-remodeling complex
that acetylates nucleosomal phospho-H2Av and exchanges it with an un modified H2Av

Dopamine/Ecdysteroid receptor
G-protein coupled receptor - activated by dopamine to increase cAMP levels - mediates the non-canonical actions of 20E
and rapidly modulates adult conditioned behavior through cAMP signaling - courtship memory - modulates appetite control of sugar sensing

Dopamine receptor
GPCR - mediates aversive and appetitive learning in pavlovian olfactory conditioning - potentiates hindleg grooming behavior in Drosophila

Dopamine 1-like receptor 2
G-protein coupled receptor - Dopamine receptor - locomotor activity - presynaptic autoreceptor - appetitive and aversive learning

Dopamine transporter
mediates uptake of dopamine in dopamine positive neurons - functions in regulating sleep and arousal

dorsal
transcription factor - NFkappaB/rel homolog - functions in establishment of dorsal/ventral polarity

Dorsal interacting protein 3
MADF DNA-binding domain and BESS protein interaction domain protein - interacts with Rel domain proteins -
enhances Rel family transcription factor function in both dorsoventral patterning and the immune response

Dorsal related immune factor
NFkappaB/rel homolog - a regulator of the immune response

Dorsocross
three closely linked T-box domain transcription factors that are crucial for completion of differentiation,
cell proliferation arrest, and survival of amnioserosa cells

double parked
conserved protein required for DNA replication - double-parked is sufficient to induce re-replication during development and is
regulated by cyclin E/CDK2 - Double-parked must be degraded to exit S-phase, otherwise the DNA will undergo re-replication

doublesex
novel zinc finger transcription factor - regulates sexual differentiation of both sexes - regulates
the connectivity of a neural circuit controlling Drosophila male courtship song

double-time (preferred name: discs overgrown)
casein kinase Iepsilon - contributes to circadian rhythmicity - Spaghetti
and Doubletime link the circadian clock and light to caspases, apoptosis and tauopathy.

DP transcription factor
transcription factor - obligate dimerization partner of E2f1 and E2f2 - required for normal cell proliferation,
optimal DNA synthesis, and efficient G2/M progression

draper
encoding an EGF-repeat single-pass transmembrane domain receptor - required during
metamorphosis for recognition and engulfment of degenerating axon branches by glia

dreadlocks
SH2 and SH3 domain signal transduction protein - required for photoreceptor cell growth cone guidance and targeting

dre4
transcription factor - along with Structure specific recognition protein (Ssrp) forms a protein complex, FACT,
that facilates GAGA factor directed chromatin remodeling

drifter (preferred name: ventral veins lacking)
transcription factor - homeodomain - pou domain - mutants display severe tracheal defects and defects in ventral midline glia migration -
identities of medulla neurons are pre-determined in the larval medulla primordium, which is subdivided into concentric zones
characterized by the expression of four transcription factors: Drifter, Runt, Homothorax and Brain-specific homeobox

Drop (common alternative name: muscle segment homeobox-1)
transcription factor - homeodomain - confers cell fate on the dorsal (lateral-most) column of neuroblasts
during ventral cord development - patterning of the wing disc, specification
of myoblasts, proper development of muscle, neuronal and glial cells, male genital disc, and regulation of glucose metabolism

Dror (preferred name: Ror)
ROR proteins are a class of Wnt-binding receptor tyrosine kinases - expressed during neural differentiation

drosha
ribonuclease - acts on primary microRNA transcripts by cleaving it to excise the pre-microRNA polymer - physically interacts with Pasha,
a double-stranded RNA binding protein

Drosomycin
inducible antifungal peptide

drumstick
zinc finger transcription factor - regulates epidermal cell differentiation and patterning in the epithelia
of the foregut, hindgut, and imaginal discs

Dscam (preferred name: Downs syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1)
multiple Ig domain protein - acts with other proteins to direct pathfinding of Bolwig's nerve -
controls neuronal morphogenesis through spatial regulation of Cdc42 signaling and, subsequently, cytoskeletal remodeling -
Dscam1 forms a complex with Robo1 and the N-terminal fragment of Slit to promote the growth of longitudinal axons

Dscam2 (preferred name: Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 2)
immunoglobulin superfamily - Dscam2 homophilic interactions mediate repulsion between neurites of L1 laminar cells in neighbouring columns of the optic lobe

dtfr (preferred name: thickveins)
receptor of Decapentaplegic - Wnt ligands regulate Tkv expression to constrain Dpp activity in the Drosophila ovarian stem cell niche -
loss of Neurexin and Neuroligin leads to decreased levels of the BMP co-receptor, Thickveins and the downstream effector phosphorylated
Mad at the neuromuscular junction synapses - S6 kinase like inhibits neuromuscular junction growth by downregulating the BMP receptor thickveins

dumbfounded (preferred name: kin of irre)
IG superfamily - required for myoblast aggregation and fusion

dunce
cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase - involved in memory and learning - cAMP microdomains restricted to single boutons provides a biophysical basis for the local control of
synaptic plasticity.- Hangover links nuclear RNA signaling to cAMP regulation via the phosphodiesterase 4d ortholog Dunce

Dynamin related protein 1
a Dynamin GTPase - regulates mitochondrial fission in normal cells including primary spermatocytes -
mediates mitochondrial fragmentation during programmed cell death

Dynein heavy chain 64C
a molecular motor that functions in axon transport - Dynein-Dynactin complex is essential for dendritic restriction of an isoform of Dscam

dysbindin
coiled-coil domain protein required presynaptically for the retrograde, homeostatic modulation of neurotransmission

dysfusion
bHLH-PAS protein expressed in tracheal fusion cells and required for tracheal fusion - forms a DNA binding complex with Tango
to activate target genes - functions in tarsal joint formation during leg development

Dystroglycan
transmembrane receptor for extracellular matrix molecules - required for cellular polarity in epithelial cells and the oocyte

dystrophin
the postsynaptically localized scaffolding protein required for appropriate control of neuromuscular synaptic homeostasis


Genes E-K -- Genes L-R -- Genes S-Z

Home page: The Interactive Fly© 1995, 1996 Thomas B. Brody, Ph.D.


The Interactive Fly resides on the
Society for Developmental Biology's Web server.