logo Alphabetical list of genes

Genes: Sa-m - Sn-z - T - U - V - W - XYZ -- [Genes A-D -- Genes E-K -- Genes L-R]
S

SAGA factor-like TAF6
histone fold domain protein - component of histone acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex - required for
SAGA coactivator function - responsible for acetylation of histones and deubiquitination of His2B at active promoters

Sak kinase (common alternative name: Plk4)
member of the polo-like serine/threonine protein kinase family - required for centriole duplication and for formation of basal bodies and flagella

salvador
scaffold protein - restricts cell numbers in vivo by functioning as a dual regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis - physically interacts
with Warts - the stability of Salvador (Sav), which is believed to promote Hippo/Warts association, is crucially dependent on its binding partner Hippo

sanpodo
encodes a four-pass transmembrane protein that localizes to the cell membrane - specifies Notch-dependent fate - Notch and Numb
physically associate with Sanpodo - enables precursor cells to divide asymmetrically to produce daughter cells
of distinct fates - involved in cell fate specification in the nervous system, mesoderm, and endoderm

sans fille (also known as U1AsnRNP)
splicing factor - a crucial component of the spliceosome - a protein component of U1 and U2 small nuclear
ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) - involved in Sex-lethal splicing and consequently in sex determination

Sap18 (FlyBase name: Bicoid interacting protein 1)
part of the Sin3A/Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex - helps convert Bicoid from an activator
into a repressor by recruitment of a co-repressor to Bicoid-dependent promoters

sarah
regulates female meiosis by controlling calcineurin activity in the
germline - exacerbates Aβ42 phenotypes in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease

Spindle assembly abnormal 4 ortholog (C. elegans) (common alternative name: Sas-4)
centriolar constituent - required for centriolar assembly, centriole replication, flagellum biogenesis, cilium biogenesis and locomotion -
regulates asymmetric cell division

saxophone
receptor s/t kinase - a type I Dpp receptor - necessary for the specification of the dorsal-most cell fate (amnioserosa) which
requires the highest levels of Dpp activity - together with the BMP receptors Tkv and Put, Sax transduces
signaling of the BMP ligands Dpp, Gbb and Scw in the embryo and in imaginal disc patterning

SAYP (preferred name: Enhancer of yellow 3)
Trithorax group protein, constituent of PBAP chromatin remodeling complex, a coactivator supercomplex consisting of Brahma and TFIID;
participates in ecdysone-dependent transcriptional regulation

scab
α-PS3 integrin - involved in dorsal closure, tracheal and salivary gland development and in the localization of pericardial cells - thought to dimerize
with Myospheroid and possibly Integrin betanu subunit - Scb regulates adhesion, signalling, polarity and cell migration - Genetic interaction
with Laminin genes implicates them as extracellular matrix ligands.

scabrous
secreted glycoprotein - fibrinogen family - regulates spacing of photoreceptors - a Notch pathway inhibitory signal secreted by photoreceptor precursors in
response to Egfr signaling - transcriptional target of proneural bHLH proteins and a useful marker for proneural regions and cells - contributes to neural patterning

scalloped
transcription factor - human TEF-1 homolog - a downstream effector molecule in the Wingless pathway of wing imaginal discs - partners Vestigial and
Yorkie to act as a transcription factor - modified by Hippo and Wingless signalling - involved in wing and neuronal specification.

SCAR
promotes actin polymerization via Arp2/3 protein complex - Kette coordinates myoblast junction dissolution and the ratio of Scar-to-WASp during myoblast fusion

scarface
belongs to a subgroup of serine protease homologues with an inactive catalytic site - functions extracellularly during dorsal closure
as an antagonist of the JNK pathway - regulates the polarized localization of laminin A during the development of epithelial polarity

schnurri
transcription factor - zinc finger - target of Dpp - the activity of the Mad/Schnurri complex is modulated in a promoter specific fashion to active
or repress gene transcription - corepressor Schnurri protects epithelial cells from JNK-induced apoptosis in drosophila embryos.

Scm-related gene containing four mbt domains
PcG protein - Pleiohomeotic interactor that binds mono- and di-methylated H3-K9 and H4-K20
and acts to maintain a Polycomb-repressed chromatin state

scotti
pseudosubstrate inhibitor of a Cullin-3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex required for caspase activation during Drosophila spermatid terminal differentiation

scraps
encodes anillin - conserved component of the contractile ring that is essential for cytokinesis - physically interacts
with three conserved cleavage furrow proteins, F-actin, myosin II and septins - required for cellularization

scratch
transcription factor - zinc finger - panneural repressor of non-neural cell fate - Escargot
and Scratch regulate neural commitment by antagonizing Notch activity in sensory organs

scrawny
protein deubiquitinase required in germline, epithelial, and intestinal stem cells - acts to repress differentiation genes - deubiquitylates histone H2B
and functions in gene silencing - participates in a conserved pathway of chromatin regulation linking H2B ubiquitylation with H3K4me3 methylation

screw
TGF-ß superfamily - the Scw/dpp heterodimer is required to achieve the peak levels of BMP signal
in the dorsal-most cells of the early blastoderm embryo that are necessary to specify the amnioserosa.

scribbled
scaffolding protein with multiple PDZ and LLR regions - functions to localize junctional components in the determination of epithelial cell apicobasal
polarity - acts with discs large 1 and lethal (2) giant larvae to distinguish the basolateral domain of epithelial cells and neuroblasts - exhibits
antagonistic interactions with the aPKC/Par-6 complex that impacts vesicle trafficking - organizes synaptic architecture and is implicated in learning and memory

scribbler
novel protein with a single zinc finger - multifunctional protein that regulates foraging activity and shapes the activity gradient of Dpp through
regulation of thickveins - regulates transcription by interacting with Mediator complex subunit Med19

scute
transcription factor - basic helix loop helix - proneural gene that also functions to in sex determination to regulate Sex-lethal

scylla and charybde
conserved proteins acting downstream of PKB and upstream of TSC to regulate growth - they are induced under hypoxic conditions,
thus establishing a potential cross-talk between growth and oxygen sensing - required for head involution

sec5
a member of the exocyst complex - promotes vesicular trafficking involved in cell growth and membrane protein insertion -
required for membrane traffic and polarity in the oocyte - mediates embryo cellularization

sec6
component of the exocyst which tethers secretory vesicles to specific plasma membrane sites - a Rab11 effector
that facilitates protein transport to the apical rhabdomere in Drosophila photoreceptor cells -
regulates E-Cadherin trafficking from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane

Secreted decoy of InR
insulin-binding protein - negative regulator of insulin signaling - regulation of body size - receptor-like decoy molecule

Secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (common alternative name: SPARC)
basement membrane component required for basal lamina maturation and condensation of the ventral nerve cord

Secretory 15
functions in polarized exocytosis/secretion - involved in targeting photoreceptor axons that involves localization of specific cell adhesion and signaling molecules

Secretory 16
scaffolding protein - a component of the endoplasm stress granule formed in response to amino acid starvation - follicle cell
differentiation - Clueless together with dGRASP prevents ER stress and therefore maintains
Sec16 stability essential for the functional organization of perinuclear early secretory pathway

semaphorin-1a
axon guidance transmembrane protein - motor axons requiring Sema-1a for choice-point defasciculation - Sema-1a reverse signaling promotes midline crossing in
response to secreted semaphorins - prevents Drosophila olfactory projection neuron dendrites from mis-targeting into select antennal lobe regions

semaphorin-2a and semaphorin-2b
secreted - Ig superfamily - axon guidance - expressed by muscle 33 - functions by inhibiting the neuronal growth cone from forming a synaptic arborization (branching)
to alternative muscles - epidermis-derived Semaphorin promotes dendrite self-avoidance by regulating dendrite-substrate adhesion in Drosophila sensory neurons

senseless
zinc finger - target of proneural genes - expressed and required in sensory organ precursors for proper
proneural gene expression - regulates differentiation
the R8 photoreceptor - blocks nuclear transduction of Egfr activation through transcriptional repression of pointed

Sensory neuron membrane protein 1
CD36-related transmembrane protein - essential for the response of olfactory sensory neurons to cis-vaccenyl acetate,
a male-specific fatty-acid-derived pheromone that regulates sexual and social aggregation behaviours

Separase
endopeptidase required for sister chromatid separation during mitosis - required for homolog and sister disjunction
during male meiosis - together with Three rows it forms a complex which cleaves a subunit of the cohesin complex during meiosis

sequoia
zinc finger - required for specification of a subset of neurons - functions in regulating dendrite and axon development - necessary for the proper
development of tracheal branches and dendritic branches of multidendritic neurons, as well as development of the R8 cell in eye development

Serotonin receptor 1A and Serotonin receptor 1B [preferred names: 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1A and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1B]
seven-pass transmembrane protein, 5-HT1A promotes baseline sleep, aggression, courtship and memory formation

Serotonin receptor 2 [preferred name: 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A]
seven-pass transmembrane protein - coordinates germband extension movements

Serotonin receptor 7 [preferred name: 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 7]
seven-pass transmembrane protein implicated in regulation of courtship behavior, mating, olfactory learning and memory

serpent (common alternative name: dGATAb)
transcription factor - zinc finger - GATA family - plays a pivotal role in promoting morphogenesis of the anterior
and posterior midgut - necessary for embryonic fat-cell differentiation and other mesodermal
derivatives such as hemocytes and lymph gland - regulates hemopoiesis and glucose metabolism

serpentine and vermiform
polysaccharide deacetylases secreted into the apical extracellular space- converts chitin to chitosan - required to assemble
cable-like extracellular matrix and restrict tracheal tube elongation

serpin-27A
protease inhibitor functioning in the immune response - regulates melanization cascade through specific inhibition of the terminal
protease (prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme) - inhibits the serine protease Easter in dorsoventral patterning of the early embryo

Serpin77Ba
inhibits a protease cascade, involving the MP1 and MP2 proteases, that activates phenol oxidase, a key enzyme in melanin
biosynthesis - inactivation and consequent tracheal melanization induces systemic expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin

Serrate
transmembrane - EGF homolog - ligand for Notch - involved in the induction, through Notch, of the wing margin at the dorsal-ventral interface of the wing
imaginal disc - a Serrate-Notch-Canoe complex mediates essential interactions between glia and neuroepithelial cells during Drosophila optic lobe development.

Serum response factor (preferred name: blistered)
transcription factor - MADS-box motif - required for vein/intervein formation in the fly wing - implicated in longer forms of memory formation
like synaptic long-term potentiation and depression - required for a working memory that lasts only for a few seconds -
acts as a boosting mechanism to sustain FGF-induced terminal branching in the tracheal system.

Sestrin
conserved proteins that accumulate in cells exposed to stress, potentiate adenosine monophosphate-activated
protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibit activation of TOR - prevents pathologies caused by chronic TOR activation

Set1
Histone-3 K4 methyltransferase - responsible for the generation of a chromatin structure at active promoters that ensures optimal
Pol II release into productive elongation

Set2
Histone 3 methyltransferase involved in dosage compensation, puparium formation and adult development

Seven in absentia
targets proteins to degradation - C3HC4 RING zinc-finger motif

seven up
transcription factor - orphan nuclear receptor - zinc finger - required for development of four of the eight photoreceptors
that develop in each ommatidium of the eye, the R3/R4 pair and the R1/R6 pair - Stem cell-intrinsic, triggers
temporal factor gradients that diversify intermediate neural progenitors in the larval brain

sevenless
transmembrane - receptor TK - required for the development of the R7 photoreceptor - Sevenless signaling from somatic cells
is required to ensure that the niche develops in the anterior region of the male embryonic gonads

Sex combs extra (common alternative name: Ring)
Polycomb group - protein ubiquitination - a member of a protein complex, termed PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1) - monoubiquitylates
histone H2A, an activity thought to be crucial for repression by PRC1-type complexes

Sex combs on midleg
Polycomb group - a member of a protein complex, termed PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1) - Preincubation of
nucleosomal arrays with PRC1 blocks the ability of these arrays to be remodeled by SWI/SNF - coordinates
PcG complexes and polymerizes to produce broad domains of PcG silencing

Sex combs reduced
transcription factor - homeodomain - Antp class - required for labial and first thoracic segment development - expressed in the
embryonic labial and first thoracic segments - in the absence of Scr expression the first prothoracic segment
is transformed to a second mesothoracic identity and the labial palps to maxillary

Sex lethal
RNA binding and splicing - the master regulation of sex determination in Drosophila

Sex Peptide (common alternative name: Accessory gland peptide 70A)
male ejaculate accessory gland protein transferred to females during mating - decreases female receptivity and
stimulates egg production in the first mating of virgin females - decreases receptivity to mating, changes in
juvenile hormone levels, in longevity and in sperm release from storage, and in feeding, digestion, and activity

sex peptide receptor
G-protein coupled receptor - required in Fruitless plus neurons for post-mating switch in female reproductive behaviour - acts in a
small subset of internal sensory neurons that innervate the female uterus and oviduct - these neurons project
to regions of the central nervous system that have been implicated in the control of reproductive behaviors

s59 (preferred name: slouch; common alternative name nk-1)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK-1 class - maintenance of slouch is directly involved in the control
of late aspects of muscle development, such as muscle differentiation and morphogenesis, and possibly also innervation

shaggy (common alternative name: zeste white 3)
glycogen synthase kinase - segment polarity - a key component of the β-catenin destruction complex - functions in the Wingless signaling
pathway - regulates Hedgehog ligand expression along with the N-end rule ubiquitin-protein ligase Hyperplastic discs

Shaker
Integral membrane voltage-gated potassium ion channel - carries type-A potassium current responsible for the repolarization
of the cell - regulates neurotransmitter release at the synapse - regulates sleep - neuromuscular junction

Shaker cognate b
slow delayed rectifier K+ channel - upregulated by light stimulation - functions in light
adaptation - regulates excitability in neurons and muscles, and transmitter release

shaking b
gap junction protein - innexin - motor neuron pattern regulation - giant fiber system -Johnston's organ neurons - optic lobe

shank
neuromuscular junction - regulates synaptic bouton number and maturity - regulates a noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway
in the postsynaptic cell by modulating the internalization of the Wnt receptor Fz2

shaven (common alternative name: sparkling)
paired domain and homeodomain (partial) - Pax2, 5 and 8 homolog - Denticle formation requires transcription of sparkling,
which is under positive regulation by the Egfr pathway and negative regulation by the Wingless pathway

SHC-adaptor protein
phosphotyrosine-binding domain protein - interacts with and regulates Torso and Egfr signaling conferring specificity to receptor function

shibire
GTPase involved in scission of clathrin-coated vesicles at the synapse and other sites of vesicle invagination - dynamin-mediated endocytosis
is required for tube closure, cell intercalation, and biased apical expansion during epithelial tubulogenesis in the Drosophila ovary

shifted
ortholog of the human Wnt inhibitory factor - required for Hh stability and for lipid-modified Hh diffusion -
colocalizes with Hh in the extracellular matrix and interacts with the heparan sulfate proteoglycans

short gastrulation
chordin homolog - a Dpp antagonist involved in the determination of dorsal/ventral polarity - leads to the
subdivision of the dorsal region of the fly into amnioserosa and dorsal ectoderm

short neuropeptide F precursor
neuropeptide that engenders ERK-mediated insulin expression and thus systemically modulates growth, metabolism and lifespan

shortsighted (preferred name: bunched)
transcription factor - leucine zipper - Dpp pathway - mutation leads to a delay in differentiation and to a loss of photoreceptors -
required for a morphogenetic movement in the brain - functions in wing margin development - required for both male and female fertility

short stop
cytoskeletal cross-linker protein - expressed in the tendons and is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation -
required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the Drosophila embryo

shotgun
cadherin - regulates cell aggregation preventing mixing of cells at tissue boundaries - Neuroblast niche position is controlled by PI3-kinase
dependent DE-Cadherin adhesion - required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth during oogenesis

SH2 ankyrin repeat kinase (Shark)
Known as Shark kinase this signaling protein is required for dorsal closure upstream of Dpp - also required during oogenesis for dorsal-appendage morphogenesis

shrub
vacuolar sorting protein - required for Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery -
ESCRT III component - regulation of dendritic branching - completion of membrane abscission during female germline stem cell division

shutdown
immunophilin - FK506-binding protein domain and a tetratricopeptide repeat - essential for the normal function of the germline stem cells - a conserved
cochaperone that collaborates with Hsp90 during piRNA biogenesis, potentially at the loading step of RNAs into Piwi proteins

shuttle craft
zinc finger, C4HC3 type (PHD finger), and RD-domain protein - maternal mutants exhibit
defects in segmentation, while zygotic mutants show defects in axon guidance

sickle
novel apoptosis activator - contains an N-terminal inhibitor of apoptosis motif - partially
involved in the apoptosis of some larval neurons during metamorphosis

sidestep
Ig domain cell adhesion molecule - ligand for Beaten path Ia - axon guidance

SIFamide
hormone, regulation of feeding behavior and sexual behavior, brain

sightless (preferred name: rasp)
acetyltransferase acting to acylate Hedgehog or to promote other modifications or trafficking events necessary for Hedgehog
function - modifies Spitz to increase the local concentration of the ligand by restricting its diffusion

similar
bHLH-PAS domain transcription factor - a key regulator of responses to hypoxia - mediates mitochondrial retrograde signaling - regulates
lifespan extension by inhibiting c-Myc-TFAM signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis

sine oculis
transcription factor - homeodomain - Sine oculis and Eyes absent form a complex that regulates multiple steps in eye development - contributes to
both cell and tissue fate specification, promotion of cell proliferation and suppression of apoptosis

singed
fascin homolog - crosslinks actin filaments - the gnarled, kinky bristle phenotype is due to the lack of Actin filament bundles
in both large and small bristles - regulates nuclear actin during oogenesis - required for blood cell migration during embryogenesis

single-minded
transcription factor - bHLH - pas homology - required for the developmental specification of the ventral midline

Sin3A
transcriptional corepressor; component of histone deacetylase complex that affects cell cycle progression

sinuous
claudin - localizes to septate junctions and is required for junction organization and paracellular barrier function -
required fo maintenance of cardiac integrity

Sirtuin 1 (common alternative name: Sir2)
histone deacetylase required for euchromatic and heterochromatic silencing - interacts genetically and physically
with members of the Hairy/Deadpan/E(Spl) family of bHLH euchromatic repressors

Six4
homeodomain transcription factor - confers ventral mesodermal cell fate - regulates somatic cell function during gonadogenesis

skittles
1- phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate kinase - alteration of Skittles levels results in structural defects in sensory bristles,
providing genetic evidence for the involvement of PIP5KIs in cytoskeletal regulation

skpA
component of protein degradation complex - regulates centrosome duplication, chromatin condensation, cell cycle progression and endoreduplication

sleepless (preferred name: quiver)
an Ly-6/Neurotoxin family member - a novel potassium channel subunit that regulates levels, localization, and activity of Shaker - regulates sleep

slimfast
Amino acid transporter - downregulation within the fat body causes a global growth defect involving TSC/TOR signaling
in the fat body and a remote inhibition of organismal growth

slingshot
phosphatase - plays a pivotal role in actin dynamic by reactivating the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin

slipper
mixed lineage kinase - signal transduction protein conveying information about changes in cytoskeleton to the nucleus - regulates
dorsal closure - controls cell fate and cell sheet morphogenesis during embryogenesis

slit
extracellular - egf like - ligand of Roundabout - regulates axon guidance - Slit-dependent endocytic trafficking
of the Robo receptor is required for Son of Sevenless recruitment and midline axon repulsion - Dscam1 forms a
complex with Robo1 and the N-terminal fragment of Slit to promote the growth of longitudinal axons

sloppy paired 1 and 2
transcription factor - forkhead domain - has combined characteristics of a gap, pair rule and segment polarity gene - regulates embryonic
segmentation, ventral fate specification in the retina, and temporal patterning of the neuroblasts that produce medulla neurons

slouch (common alternative names: S59 and NK-1)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK-1 class - maintenance of slouch is directly involved in the control of late aspects of muscle development,
such as muscle differentiation and morphogenesis, and possibly also innervation

slow as molasses
novel protein that is essential for polarized growth of the plasma membrane during cellularization

slow border cells
basic leucine zipper - CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homolog - slbo targets breathless and is essential
for terminal differentiation and migration of the anterior follicle cells known as border cells

slowpoke
Ca-activated, voltage-activated potassium channel that functions to modulate ion flow in presynaptic nerve terminals, including those of the neuromuscular synapse

Smad on X
Dpp signaling pathway - Smad2 and Smad3 homolog - a target of Baboon - Activin signalling is required for
ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in Drosophila salivary glands

smallminded
AAA-protein family - ATPase - Mutants are defective in larval mitoses - expression of Smallminded in cells that undergo late embryonic
or larval mitosis suggests a general role in promoting mitosis

small wing
phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma, Src homology 2 and 3 domain protein - a negative regulator in the pathways leading to R7 development -
mutation results in additional cells being recruited to an R7 cell fate

smaug
RNA binding protein - repressor of Nanos translation - required for cleavage-independent
maternal transcript destruction during the Drosophila MZT

smoothened
seven-pass transmembrane protein - the reception and transduction of the HH signal is mediated by its receptor Patched
and by Smoothened - PTC and HH control SMO by regulating its stability, trafficking, and phosphorylation - SMO in turn interacts
directly with Fused and Costal2, which interact with each other and with Cubitus interruptus in an intracellular Hedgehog transducing complex

Smrter
SMRT-related ecdysone receptor-interacting protein - a corepressor that mediates transcriptional silencing of the Ecdysone receptor:Ultraspiracle heterodimer

smt3 (common alternative nam: Sumo)
a low molecular weight protein modifier that is vital for multicellular development - over 140 SUMO conjugates have been identified in the early embryo including
Dorsal, Tramtrack, Vestigial, SoxNeuro, Medea, Mod(mdg4) and CP190 and the bi-functional tRNA charging enzyme glutamylprolyl-tRNA synthetase

Smurf1 (preferred name: lethal with a checkpoint kinase)
ubiquitin-protein ligase that regulates Decapentaplegic pathway signaling by targeting Mothers against Dpp for
degradation - the F-box protein Slimb controls dSmurf protein turnover to regulate the Hippo pathway

snail
transcription factor - zinc finger - DV polarity - a transcriptional repressor - acts to restrict neuroectoderm and neural fate in the invaginating
mesoderm - mutants display a massive derepression of mesectoderm - controls proliferation of ovarian epithelial follicle stem cells

sneaky
transmembrane acrosomal protein involved in sperm plasma membrane breakdown; required for sperm activation in the egg cytoplasm

SNF1A/AMP-activated protein kinase
adenosine 5'monophosphate-activated kinase - cellular energy sensor - coordinates epithelial polarity and proliferation with cellular energy status

snf5-related 1 (common alternative name: snr1)
a component of the Swi/Snf complex (Brahma complex) in Drosophila - suppresses mutations in Polycomb complex genes - a tumor suppressor in imaginal tissues

Sno oncogene
mediator of Baboon signaling - antagonizes Dpp signaling - physically interacts with Medea - inhibits growth when overexpressed - belongs
to the highly conserved Sno/Ski family of Smad binding proteins - Medea and switches its affinity
from Mad to Smox, resulting in antagonism of dpp and facilitation of Activin signaling

Son of sevenless
a dual specificity GEF that regulates both Ras and Rho family GTPases - integrates signals that affect gene expression and cytoskeletal
reorganization - Slit-dependent endocytic trafficking of the Robo receptor is required for Son of Sevenless recruitment and midline axon repulsion

Sox box protein 15
HMG-domain protein - SOX-domain protein - under the control of the canonical wingless pathway such that
wg and Sox15 regulate each other's transcription through a feedback loop that results in proliferation of wing hinge cells

Sox box protein 70D ( common alternative name: Dichaete or fish-hook)
HMG-domain protein - SOX-domain protein - implicated in the regulation of pair-rule genes and later functions in
wing morphogenesis - roles include hindgut development, embryonic segmentation, and nervous system development.

SoxNeuro
HMG1/2 (high mobility group) box transcription factor - essential for the formation of neural progenitor cells in the central
nervous system - SoxNeuro and shavenbaby act cooperatively to shape denticles in the embryonic epidermis of Drosophila

Sp1
zinc finger transcription factor - master regulator of both wing and leg development - modifies leg-to-wing transdetermination in Drosophila

spaghetti squash
EF-hand, calcium binding motif protein that serves as the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin II

spalt
transcription factor - zinc finger - PRDII-BF1 homolog - a target of Dpp signaling - Spalt and Spalt-related regulate
the vein-specific expression of knirps and and the iroquois gene complex,
delimiting their domains of expression in the wing pouch

Sparc (preferred name: BM-40-SPARC)
basement membrane component required for basal lamina maturation and condensation of the ventral nerve cord

Spargel
transcriptional coactivator - required for the expression of multiple genes encoding mitochondrial proteins - mediates mitochondrial activity,
cell growth and transcription of target genes in response to insulin signalling

spätzle
secreted - ligand for Toll - the Easter protease is likely to be the direct proteolytic activator of Spätzle

spineless (also known as spineless-aristapedia)
bHLH PAS domain transcription factor - plays a central role in defining the distal regions of both the antenna and leg

spinster
conserved transmembrane protein expressed in glia - mutants exhibit increased neural survival and altered sexual behavior - a putative lysosomal efflux permease
with the hallmarks of a sugar transporter - essential for mTOR reactivation and lysosome reformation following prolonged starvation

spire
Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) homology domain 2 (WH2) family - a maternal effect locus that affects both the dorsal-ventral
and anterior-posterior axes of the Drosophila egg and embryo - required for localization of determinants within the developing oocyte

spitz
ligand for Epidermal growth factor receptor - Egf/Tgf alpha homolog - required for the differentiation of all ommatidial cell types, with the exception of R8 -
Spi is found on retinal axons that project into the lamina; this transported Spitz is required for lamina cartridge neuron differentiation

split ends
codes for RRM motif RNA-binding protein - mutants have defects in Notch and Egf receptor signaling resulting defects in cell-fate
and in axon guidance - large and small SPEN family proteins stimulate axon outgrowth during neurosecretory cell remodeling

spn-F (common alternative name: Spindle-F)
an adaptor linking IKKε to cytoplasmic dynein - regulation of cytoskeleton organization - bristle cell elongation -
central mediator of dendrite pruning in sensory neurons - regulation of oocyte polarity

spotted dick (preferred name: pita)
zinc finger transcription factor that serves as an activator of expression of a set of genes required for initiation of DNA replication

sprouty
membrane associated or secreted antagonist of FGF signaling - functions during tracheal development - mutant follicle-cell clones
demonstrates an essential role for Sprouty in restricting Egfr activation throughout oogenesis

Spt6
transcription elongation factor implicated in RNA processing and degradation of improperly processed pre-mRNA

squeeze
zinc finger transcription factor - regulates neuropeptidergic cellular identity and FMRFamide expression

squid
RNA-binding protein, hnRNP D homolog - Gurken mRNA localization and translation are coupled by an interaction between Sqd and
the translational repressor protein Bruno - Squid promotes apical cytoplasmic transport and localization of Fushi tarazu transcripts

Src oncogene at 42A
Src homolog - a protein tyrosine kinase with SH3 and SH2 domains - essential for cell-cell matching during dorsal closure -
involved in adherins junction stabilization

Src oncogene at 64B
Src homolog: a protein tyrosine kinase with SH3 and SH2 domains - plays a role in ring canal morphogenesis during oogenesis and the male
germline, microfilament ring constriction during cellularization, and modulation of growth and apoptosis. Some of its roles overlap with those of Src42A.

S6K (preferred name: Ribosomal protein S6 kinase)
signaling - regulates growth response - targets ribosomal protein S6 - a target of the TOR pathway - essential for Myc-dependent rDNA transcription

Star
type II transmembrane protein - Rhomboid and Star facilitate Egfr signaling by processing membrane-bound Spitz to an
active, soluble form - facilitates trafficking of transmembrane EGFR ligands from the endoplasmic
reticulum to the late secretory compartment - growth regulation, cell survival and developmental patterning

stardust
membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein - codes for a regulatory component of the subapical complex of cellular junctions - crucial
in the control of epithelial cell polarity and the organization of zonula adherens

starry night (common alternative name: flamingo)
Cadherin-related 7TM protein involved in tissue polarity - epithelial microRNA-9a
regulates dendrite growth through Fmi-Gq signaling in Drosophila sensory neurons

STAT (common alternative name: marelle)
transcription factor - cytoplasmic signal transducing protein - regulates the even-skipped stripe 3 promoter and the pair rule gene runt -
central to the establishment of planar polarity during Drosophila eye development

staufen
Double stranded RNA binding protein - required for the localization of multiple mRNA species during oogenesis and zygotic development -
direct binding of Staufen to Bicoid and Prospero mRNAs is a requirement for their subcellular distribution -
as a posterior group protein Staufen required for the localization of Oskar mRNA to the posterior pole of the oocyte

steamer-duck
LIM-only protein (PINCH) that is required for integrin-dependent cell adhesion - physically interacts with Integrin-linked kinase and the adaptor protein Icarus

Stellate
ß subunit of Casein kinase II - a normally inactive gene which, when active, leads to male sterility - a target of post-transcriptional gene regulation

stem cell tumor (also known as rhomboid-2)
Rhomboid-related transmembrane protein - serine-type protease - activates the oocyte-specific Gurken ligand and
thereby participate in defining posterior cell fates in the early follicular epithelium

steppke
a cytohesin Arf-guanine nucleotide exchange factor that promotes local endocytic
events - regulates membrane dynamics in cellularization and insulin and Egf receptor signaling

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein
bHLH-leucine zipper transcription factor - membrane bound HLH106 is released by phosphatidylethanolamine, exerting feedback control
on the synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids - cleavage by Drice releases an SREBP fragment to travel to the nucleus
where it mediates the increased transcription of target genes needed for lipid synthesis and uptake

sticks and stones
single pass transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of fusion competent myoblasts - essential for fusion of embryonic myoblasts - contributes
to formation and function of the nephrocyte diaphragm and cell sorting within the developing ommatidia

sticky (alternative name: citron)
Rho effector kinase functioning downstream of pebble - required for cytokinesis

stoned A and stoned B
a dicistronic locus encoding two proteins involved in synaptic vesicle recycling

strabismus (preferred name: Van Gogh)
novel transmembrane protein - a tissue polarity gene - mutants show a disrupted orientation of ommatidia - Frizzled-induced
Van Gogh phosphorylation by CK1epsilon promotes asymmetric localization of core PCP factors in Drosophila

Striatin interacting protein
a component of the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex that regulates axon elongation, cytoskeletal stability,
and cell signaling - required to ensure the proper development of synaptic boutons at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction - a molecular
platform for the early endosome organization that has important roles in neuronal morphogenesis - negatively regulates the Hippo and clock pathways

Strawberry notch
nuclear protein in the Notch pathway - An EGFR/Ebi/Sno pathway promotes delta expression
by inactivating Su(H)/SMRTER repression during inductive Notch signaling.

string
protein tyrosine phosphatase - activates cyclin dependent kinase causing mitotic entry - the switch-like entry into mitosis
observed in the Drosophila embryo during the 14th mitotic cycle is timed by the dynamics of Cdc25(String) accumulation

stripe
transcription factor - zinc finger - involved muscle development - induces the fate of tendon cells in the embryo as well as in the adult fly - works
upstream of tendon specific genes including Thrombospondin, the Efg-like domain protein Slowdown and Leucine-rich tendon-specific protein.

Structure specific recognition protein
transcription factor - along with Dre4 forms a protein complex, FACT,
that facilates GAGA factor directed chromatin remodeling

stumble
surface transmembrane protein involved in transduction of mechanical stimuli in proprioceptive neurons - transduces dendrite stretching into cellular responses

stumps (common alternative name: heartbroken)
novel signal transduction protein functioning downstream of two FGF receptors -
mutations are associated with defects in the migration and later specification of mesodermal and tracheal cells wg
via stabilization of the negative elongation factor complex - promotes anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome function during cell cycle exit -
acts to generate neuroblast cortical polarity - acts to prevent phenotypic variation

stunted
a circulating insulinotropic peptide produced by fat cells - modulates physiological insulin levels in response to nutrients
ε-subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase - required for normal spindle orientation during embryonic divisions

subito
kinesin-6 homolog - bundles antiparallel microtubules - required for cytokinesis
in mitosis and spindle organization and chromosome segregation in female meiosis

Sumo (preferred name: smt3)
a low molecular weight protein modifier that is vital for multicellular development - over 140 SUMO conjugates have
been identified in the early embryo including Dorsal, Tramtrack, Vestigial, SoxNeuro, Medea, Mod(mdg4) and CP190 and
the bi-functional tRNA charging enzyme glutamylprolyl-tRNA synthetase

sunspot
zinc finger transcription factor that interacts with Armadillo - acts downstream of wingless to positively regulate the proliferation
of imaginal disc cells and the endoreplication of salivary gland cells - activates E2F-1 and PCNA expression

supernumerary limbs
beta-transducin family Trp-Asp repeats family - subunit of a multi-protein complex that targets proteins for degradation by
the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway - an important regulator of Wingless, Hedgehog and Dorsal pathways

Suppressor of bithorax
major subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (nurf) - multiple domain protein with HMGI/Y and bromodomain motifs - interacts physically
and functionally with the TRF2/DREF basal transcription factor to organize nucleosomes downstream of active promoters

Suppressor of cytokine signaling at 36E
inhibitor of JAK/STAT pathway, works vie a protein degradation pathway, cooperates with EGFR to regulate oncogenic transformation,
optimizes motile cell specification in the ovary, regulator of niche competition in the testis, regulated by Histone demethylase

Suppressor of fused
novel protein with PEST sequence - inhibits Hedgehog signaling pathway - forms a complex with the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus to inhibit its activity.

Suppressor of Hairless
transcription factor - integrase domain - Notch pathway - Notch intracellular domain associates with Su(H) and Mastermind, a transcriptional coactivator - operates
as molecular switch on Notch target genes: within activator complexes, including intracellular Notch, or within repressor complexes, including the antagonist Hairless

suppressor of Hairy wing
transcription factor - zinc finger - insulator protein - blocks enhancer-promoter interactions - required for proper ring canal development during oogenesis

Suppressor of profilin 2 (preferred name: Actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1)
A component of the Arp2/3 complex - involved in catalyzing actin filament nucleation - essential to cap expansion and pseudocleavage furrow during cellularization -
required for ring canal expansion during oogenesis

Suppressor of variegation 3-3
homolog of the human LSD1 amine oxidase - demethylates H3K4me2 and H3K4me1 and facilitates subsequent H3K9 methylation by SU(VAR)3-9 -
dictates the distinction between euchromatic and heterochromatic domains during early embryogenesis

Suppressor of variegation 3-7
chromatin constituent - C2H2 zinc finger protein - required for X-restricted dosage compensation complex targeting - increasing
the amount of Su(var)3-7 triggers heterochromatin expansion and epigenetic gene silencing.

Suppressor of variegation 3-9
involved in gene silencing - a modifier of position effect variegation - methylates histone H3 thus providing a mark for the association of HP1 to heterochromatin

Suppressor of variegation 205 (common alternative name: heterochromatin protein 1 or HP1)
chromodomain - Polycomb group - chromatin associated protein - required both for activation of heterochromatic genes and silencing of euchromatic genes

Suppressor two of zeste
transcription factor - zinc finger - ring motif - chromatin associated protein - Su(Z)2 and Psc proteins co-localize to and silence
many of the same chromosomal loci acted upon by other Pc-G proteins, suggesting that Pc-G proteins function in a multi-protein complex to maintain gene silencing

survival motor neuron
RNA binding protein involved, along with Gemins, in the assembly of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that constitute the spliceosome -
neuromuscular junction protein required in both neurons and muscle for normal junctional morphology

Survivin (preferred name: Deterin)
component of the chromosomal passenger complex that regulates chromosome condensation,
interaction between kinetochores and microtubules, spindle organization, cytokinesis, and apoptosis

Su(Tpl) (common alternative name: ELL)
occludin homology domain protein - a Pol II elongation factor capable of stimulating the rate of transcription

Su(z)12
Polycomb group -histone methyltransferase activity - constituent of polycomb PRC2 complex - functions in
nucleosome binding of Drosophila PRC2 - essential for tri-methylation of the lysine 27 residue of histone H3

Syd-1 (preferred name: Rho GTPase activating protein at 100F)
master organizer of active zone assembly, regulates pre- and postsynaptic maturation, neuromuscular junction


Synapsin
a vescular protein that participates in the regulation of neurotransmitter release - interacts with the cytoskeleton to regulate the number
of synaptic vesicles available for release via exocytosis - promotes vesicle reuptake and reserve pool formation upon intense stimulation

Synaptosomal-associated protein 25kDa (common alternative name: Snap-25)
target-Snare (t-Snare) protein - one part of the four helix bundle of proteins referred to as SNAPs invoved in synaptic vesicle priming -
required for vesicle docking at the presynapse - a part of the neuroexocytosis machinery

synaptotagmin
calcium sensor in synaptic vesicle fusion - functions during exocytosis - functions as the fast calcium sensor for neurotransmitter release at synapses

Synaptotagmin 4
a postsynaptic Ca2+ sensor acting at the neuromuscular junction to release retrograde signals that stimulate enhanced presynaptic function -
acts throught activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway

Syncrip
mRNA binding protein that regulates localized translation during synaptic plasticity in the neuromuscular junction - regulates synaptic
output through regulation of retrograde BMP signaling - regulates of localized transcripts during axis specification

Syndecan
a heparan sulfate proteoglycan - a necessary component of Slit/Robo signaling required in Slit target cells - a crucial regulator of synapse development and growth

Syntaxin 1A
vesicular docking protein - a t-SNARE - involved in docking and fusion of neurotransmitter-filled vesicles with the presynaptic membrane to release neurotransmitter
into the synaptic cleft - organized in nanoclusters that are critical for the docking and priming of secretory vesicles from neurosecretory cells

Syntaxin 5
a Golgi-localized SNARE protein - required for ER-Golgi traffic and Golgi reassembly following cell division - required for steps leading to formation of mature sperm

T

Tachykinin
a secreted neuropeptide that regulates aggression, response to metabolic stress, and insulin-producing cells

Tachykinin-like receptor at 99D
G-protein coupled receptor activated by tachykinin-related peptides - regulates stress induced insulin production
and signaling in renal tubules, insulin-producing cells in the adult brain, and presynaptic suppression and
olfactory behaviors in the antennal lobe of the brain

Tafazzin
an enzyme in the cardiolipin remodeling pathway that catalyzes the incorporation of an acyl group into lipid acceptors -
modifies lipid composition of mitochondrial inner membranes - regulates spermatogenesis - serves as a Drosophila model for Barth syndrome

tailless
transcription factor - nuclear receptor - zinc finger - regulates neuronal sub-type identity, including motor, serotonergic
and dopaminergic neuron identity - required for efficient proliferation and prolonged maintenance of mushroom
body progenitors in the Drosophila brain - regulates germ band retraction, dorsal closure, muscle and heart development.

tailup (common alternative name: islet)
transcription factor - homeodomain and LIM domain - required in combination with other transcription factors for serotonergic and dopaminergic neuron identity taiman
steroid hormone receptor coactivator - required for border cell migration during oogenesis - links
Yorkie to transcriptional control of germline stem cell factors in somatic tissue

takeout
secreted ligand-binding protein - A takeout mutant has aberrant locomotor activity and dies rapidly in response to starvation,
indicating a link between locomotor activity, survival, and food status

Talin
(preferred name: Rhea) essential for integrin function - crosslinks extracellular matrix-linked integrins to the cytoskeleton - represses
E-cadherin Shotgun transcription in follicle cells independently of integrins

tan
hydrolase - abdominal pigmentation - hydrolysis of N-β-alanyl dopamine to dopamine during cuticular melanization -
hydrolysis of carcinine to histamine in the metabolism of photoreceptor neurotransmitter

tango
Myc-type, helix loop helix and PAS family protein - Tango heterodimerizes with two transcription factors, Trachealess and Single minded,
to regulate transcription in the trachea and central midline, respectively

Tao
Sterile 20 family kinase - a component of the Hippo pathway - restricts cell proliferation in imaginal discs -
controls of epithelial morphogenesis by promoting Fasciclin 2 endocytosis - negative regulator of microtubule
plus-end growth - regulation of apoptosis in pole cells

taranis
a novel trithorax group member potentially linked to the cell cycle regulatory apparatus, required for normal sleep patterns, protects regenerating tissue
from fate changes induced by the wound response, determinant of larval type I lineage-specific neural progenitor proliferation patterns, apparatus

TAR DNA-binding protein-43 homolog
RNA-binding protein - regulation of synaptic efficacy and motor control - regulation of Futsch activity
at the neuromuscular junction - regulation of the robustness of neuronal specification through microRNA-9a -
a model for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), often referred to as Lou Gehrig's Disease

target of Pox-n
bHLH transcription factor - Neurogenin/NeuroD homolog - a neural differentiation gene,
acting later in the hierarchy of gene activation than
the proneural genes - functionally interacts with the Wnt-PCP pathway to regulate neuronal extension and guidance.

Target of rapamycin
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase - involved in perception of nutrient status -
pivotal member of the TOR pathway involved in regulation of growth and cell proliferation

tarsal-less
codes for short encoded peptides that convert Shavenbaby from a transcriptional repressor to an activator
via the truncation of its N-terminal region, polycistronic message, epidermal differentiation, spatial pattern of trichomes, legs, trachea

tartan
Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein - along with Capricious, contributes to the adhesive properties of the cells
in the morphogenetic furrow, thus regulating control of spacing ommatidial clusters - regulates boundary formation in the leg and wing -
regulates tracheal branching

TATA binding protein
general transcription factor - component of TFIID - activates TATA-dependent transcription and represses DPE-dependent transcription

TATA box binding protein-related factor 2
differentially recognizes and regulates a subset of TATA-less promoters

TBP-associated factor 1
component of the conserved general transcription factor TFIID - kinase and histone transacetylase activities - regulates transcription
by binding the initiator element at transcription start sites and binding acetylated histones via its bromodomains

Tbp-related factor
general transcription factor - cell type specific TATA-binding protein - ubiquitiously expressed but upregulated in the CNS
and the gonads - the majority of Trf substitutes for Tbp in Pol III transcription in complex with Brf - the rest of Trf initiates
transcription of a small subset of PolII-transcribed genes regulating fly fertility and nervous system function

teashirt
transcription factor - zinc finger - required globally for segmental identity throughout the entire trunk - required for identity of the anterior prothorax -
required for the subdivision of midgut mesoderm acting in partnership with the homeotics - Restricted
teashirt expression confers eye-specific responsiveness to Dpp and Wg signals during eye specification

Tec29 (preferred name name: Btk family kinase at 29A)
protein-tyrosine kinase - necessary for maintaining the equilibrium between monomeric actin and filamentous actin during invagination of the
salivary placodes - functions during oogenesis as a key downstream effector of Src64 during ring canal growth - targets β-catenin,
which functions downstream of Wnt4 in escort cells to terminate Drosophila germ cell proliferation through up-regulation of piwi expression

Ter94 (common alternative name: Valosin Containing Protein or VCP)
AAA family ATPase, CDC48 subfamily - modulation of proteolytic degradation - Hedgehog pathway -Wingless pathway - dendritic pruning -
motor neuron degeneration - ER stress response - maintenance of paternal chromosome integrity in the Drosophila zygote

telomere fusion (common alternative name: ATM)
Phosphatidylinositol 3- and 4-kinase - serves as Drosophila's ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) - plays a conserved and essential role
in the maintenance of normal telomeres and chromosome stability

Tenascin accessory
transmembrane partner of Tenascin major acting in synapse assembly at the neuromuscular junction - synaptic partner matching in olfactory system -
regulates fusion of central complex primordia and eye patterning

Tenascin major
transmembrane protein that acts together with the filamin Cheerio to influence growth cone progression - acts in projection neurons autonomously to regulate
acetylcholine receptor cluster number and transsynaptically to regulate olfactory receptor neuron active zone number

terribly reduced optic lobes
extracellular matrix component - homolog of perlecan - regulates larval neuroblast division by modulating both FGF and Hedgehog signaling

Tie-like receptor tyrosine kinase
anti-apoptotic receptor for Pvf1 - bystander effect - resistance to ionizing radiation - guidance receptor for border cells

TGF-ß activated kinase 1
is a MAP kinase kinase kinase required for morphogenetic changes that take place during the fusion of the epithelial wing disc cell
layers (thoracic closure), acting in the context of JNK signaling - required for Relish cleavage and antibacterial immunity - functions
downstream of imd, Fadd and Diap2 and upstream of the IKK complex in the Imd pathway

THADA
negative regulation of lipid storage - negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion concentration - adaptive thermogenesis - negative
regulation of calcium-transporting ATPase activity - binds the sarco/ER Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) and acts on it as an uncoupler

thickveins
receptor of Decapentaplegic - Wnt ligands regulate Tkv expression to constrain Dpp activity in the Drosophila ovarian stem cell niche -
loss of Neurexin and Neuroligin leads to decreased levels of the BMP co-receptor, Thickveins and the downstream effector phosphorylated
Mad at the neuromuscular junction synapses - S6 kinase like inhibits neuromuscular junction growth by downregulating the BMP receptor thickveins

thisbe and pyramus
FGFs involved in mesodermal development - ligands for Heartless - Thisbe, released from olfactory neurons, particularly from
local interneurons, instructs ensheathing glia to wrap each glomerulus

thoc5
a component of the conserved THO/TREX (transcription/export) complex involved in processing of nascent RNAs and mRNA export
from nucleus - splicing-independent loading on nascent RNA - piRNA biogenesis - male meiosis- regulation of p53 and PI3K/AKT signaling

Thor (common alternative name: d4E-BP)
messenger RNA 5' cap binding protein - regulates translation during environmental stress -
Ecdysone promotes growth of imaginal discs through the regulation of Thor
Acute fasting regulates retrograde synaptic enhancement through a 4E-BP-dependent mechanism

thread (preferred name: Death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis 1)
ubiquitin ligase that functions as an inhibitor of apoptosis - the inhibition of caspase function is counteracted by proapoptotic proteins
Hid, Grim and Reaper - niche signaling promotes stem cell survival in the Drosophila testis via the Jak-STAT target DIAP1

Thrombospondin
extracellular matrix ligand produced by tendon cells - essential for the formation of the integrin-mediated myotendinous junction - a ligand for the integrin subunit Inflated

Tiggrin
secreted - extracellular matrix - required for muscle attachment - regulates plasmatocyte maturation in Drosophila larva

timeless
transcription factor - novel with pas domain - photoperiod response - partners the transcription factor Period - involved
in mating behavior, DNA replication and larval phototaxis

tinman (common alternative name: NK-4 and msh2)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK-2 class - mesodermal - involved in the formation of the heart and dorsal vascular musculature

Tip60
histone acetyltransferase that regulates general metabolism, axon growth and dendritic targeting and sleep-wake cycle -
regulates acetylation of histone H2A and promotes the generation of silent chromatin

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases
metalloprotease inhibitor expressed in muscle - neuromuscular junction - limits BMP trans-synaptic
signaling and the downstream synapse-to-nucleus signal transduction

TNF-receptor-associated factor 4
Traf domain protein - involved in signal transduction in the JNK and pathway - an adapter protein thought to bind the TNF receptor and
activate downstream signaling - interacts with and localizes polarity and adherens junction proteins such as Bazooka and Armadillo
respectively - required for normal embryonic development, cell death, and cell growth

tolkin (common alternative name: tolloid-related-1)
BMP-1 homolog - a Zinc metallopeptidase with similar substrate specificity to tolloid, which is its paralog. Tok cleaves the Decapentaplegic
inhibitor Short gastrulation as well as the prodomains of several TGF-beta ligands

Toll
transmembrane receptor - IL1 homolog - a crucial protein for embryonic dorsal/ventral polarity
and immunity - receptor for spätzle - activates the Tl intracellular signaling pathway

Tollo
Toll-like receptor - leucine rich repeat transmembrane protein - expressed in ectoderm
and required for neural-specific expression of the glycan HRP epitope

tolloid
secreted BMP-1 homolog - member of the asticin metalloprotease family - cleaves Decapentaplegic inhibitor Short gastrulation thus functioning to
activate Dpp - cleavage facilitates Dpp diffusion to the dorsal-most cells in the early blastoderm embryo, helping to specify formation of the amnioserosa

tolloid-related-1 (preferred name: tolkin)
BMP-1 homolog - a Zinc metallopeptidase with similar substrate specificity to tolloid, which is its paralog. Tok cleaves the Decapentaplegic
inhibitor Short gastrulation as well as the prodomains of several TGF-beta ligands

Toll-6 & Toll-7
Toll-like receptors - Neurotrophin receptors - regulation of locomotion, motor axon targeting and neuronal survival - innate immunity

Topoisomerase 2
ATP-dependent homodimeric enzyme that transiently cleaves double stranded DNA, passes a second DNA double helix
through the break and then reseals the break - plays a role in homolog association in meiosis - modulates insulator function

TORC (preferred name: CREB-regulated transcription coactivator)
transcription factor - transducer of regulated CREB activity - starvation triggers TORC activation -
TORC maintains energy balance through induction of CREB target genes in the brain

torso
transmembrane - receptor tyrosine kinase - membrane receptor for Trunk - crucial for establishment of anterior and posterior
cell identity of the embryo - required for ecdysone synthesis in the prothoracic gland at pupariation

torso-like
torso pathway - localized determinant of terminal pattern formation - produced and secreted by two cell clusters in the egg chamber - initially
anchored at the vitelline membrane and then translocated to the oocyte plasma membrane where it is required for the Track-mediated activation of Torso

toutatis
PHD zinc finger and bromodomain chromatin component - acts positively to activate proneural gene expression
in the PNS - associates with Iswi, Pnr and Chip - required during Pnr-driven neural development

tout-velu
acetylglucosaminyltransferase - involved in heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis - affects diffusion of Wingless, Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic

trachealess
bHLH-PAS nuclear transcription factor required for the formation of the tube of the salivary duct, trachea and filzkorper - required for expression of
all tracheal genes - mutants exhibit a defect in the ability of the tracheal precursors to organize tubes, the same defect seen in salivary glands

traffic jam
orthologue of a large Maf transcription factor in mammals - gonad development - somatic gonadal cells - follicle cells - germline-–soma
interactions - a transcriptional target of Hh signaling controlling cell-cell adhesion by negative regulation of E-cadherin expression

trailer hitch
conserved protein involved in mRNA localization that interfaces with the secretory pathway to promote efficient protein trafficking in the cell - Bicaudal-C
associates with a Trailer Hitch/Me31B complex and is required for efficient Gurken secretion

tramtrack (common alternative name: FTZ-F2)
transcription factor - zinc finger - represses neural cell fate in the peripheral nervous system - a master repressor of
enteroendocrine cell specification in intestinal stem cell lineages - regulates morphogenetic events during tracheal development

transformer
RNA splice factor - Sex determination - productively spliced in the presence of Sex lethal - Sexual dimorphism of body size is controlled by dosage
of Myc and by the sex-determining gene transformer

transformer 2
RNA splice factor - functions with Transformer to bring about the sex specific splicing of
Doublesex - functions in the fat body to regulate lipid storage.

Transforming growth factor beta at 60A (preferred name: glass bottom boat)
TGF-beta superfamily - BMP 7 homolog - potentiates dpp signaling - High fat diet-induced Gbb signaling provokes insulin resistance
through the tribbles expression - gates the expression of synaptic homeostasis independent of synaptic growth control

transforming acidic coiled-coil protein (common name: tacc)
centrosomal protein that stabilizes microtubules during mitosis by recruiting the microtubule plus end binding protein Minispindles

transient receptor potential
visual phototransduction, calcium channel, adaptation to light - dephosphorylation of light-activated TRP ion channel is a fast, graded, light-dependent,
and Ca2+-dependent process that is partially modulated by the rhodopsin phosphatase retinal degeneration C

Transient receptor potential A1
heat-activated TRP family cation channel that is essential for thermotaxis - controls thermotaxis at innocuous temperatures,
as well as thermal and chemical nociception in response to noxious heat and chemical exposure

Transient receptor potential cation channel γ
Ca++ channel protein activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids generated in a phospholipase C- and phospholipase A2-dependent manner -
motor coordination - olfactory sensitivity - Malpighian tubule fluid transport - photoresponse

transient receptor potential mucolipin
TRP family calcium channel that facilitates of fusion of amphisomes and lysosomes, involved in clearance of apoptotic cells
and autophagy, loss of function implicated in lysosomal storage disease

Translationally controlled tumor protein
guanine nucleotide exchange for Rheb - functions in the TSC pathway to control growth

Transportin-Serine/Arginine rich
an importin-ß family member responsible for transporting SR protein splice factors into the nucleus

trapped in endoderm-1
G-protein coupled receptor - links cell polarity, modulation of cell adhesion, and invasion during germ cell migration

Trehalose-sensitivity (preferred name: Gustatory receptor 5a)
G-protein coupled receptor - Taste receptor

T-related gene - (preferred name: brachyenteron)
transcription factor - brachyury homolog - essential for the development of hindgut, anal pads and Malpighian
tubules - mediates specification of caudalbvisceral mesoderm

tribbles
serine/threonine kinase-like domain protein - regulates cell cycle - Tribbles pseudokinase is necessary for proper memory formation

tricornered
Ndr serine/threonine kinase - required for the normal morphogenesis of epidermal hairs, bristles, laterals, and dendrites -
regulates synapse development by regulating the levels of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein

trio
Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor - Loss-of-function trio mutations result in the misdirection or stall of axons in embryos and also cause
malformation of the mushroom body - functions in sculpting class specific dendrite morphogenesis in Drosophila sensory neurons

trithorax
histone methyltransferase activity (H3-K4 specific), transcription factor - zinc finger - trithorax group - maintains activity of
homeotic genes - regulates systemic signaling during Drosophila imaginal disc regeneration - a positive regulator of global
gene expression, modulates transcriptional pausing and organization of upstream nucleosomes

Trithorax-like (common alternative name: GAGA)
transcription factor - GAGA - Zinc finger - BTD domain - a chromatin modifying protein - cell division, dosage compensation and gametogenesis

trithorax related
constituent of the Trr H3K4 methyltransferase, nuclear receptor co-activator complex, acts as a coactivator of Ecdysone receptor
by altering the chromatin structure at ecdysone-responsive promoters

Troponin I (preferred name: wings up A)
cytoskeletal protein - along with Tropomyosin regulates muscle contraction - required to maintain nuclear integrity and
apico-basal polarity during early embryogenesis - required for myofibrillogenesis and sarcomere formation in Drosophila flight muscle

Trpa1 (common alternative name: Anktm1)
heat-activated TRP family cation channel that is essential for thermotaxis - controls thermotaxis at innocuous temperatures,
as well as thermal and chemical nociception in response to noxious heat and chemical exposure

trunk
secreted - ligand for torso - crucial for establishment of anterior and posterior cell identity of the embryo - Trunk and Torsolike
alone are ineffective but acted synergistically to stimulate Torso signaling

Tsc1
acts in conjunction with TSC2 to suppress cell growth by inhibiting Tor, a central controller of cell growth - TSC1/TSC2 has GAP activity
toward the Rheb small GTPase which acts upstream of and stimulates TOR - TSC2 is the catalytic GAP subunit,
while TSC1 enhances TSC2 function by stabilizing TSC2

tube
cofactor with pelle to activate Dorsal - involved in dorsal/ventral polarity during early development - adaptor
protein that functions downstream of Myd88 in the Toll pathway - regulates antimicrobial peptides

ß1 Tubulin
ß Tubulin56D - ubiquitious component of cytoskeleton

ß2 Tubulin
ß Tubulin85D - sperm tubulin - ß1 tubulin is found in mitotically active germ cells and all somatic parts of the testis -
starting with early spermatocytes, the ß1 isotype is switched off and all microtubular arrays contain ß2 tubulin.

ß-Tubulin at 60D
beta Tubulin60D - microtubular cytoskeleton - transiently expressed in the embryo - higher pupal levels in the developing musculature -
Adult expression confined to specific somatic cells in the gonads

gamma Tubulin
γ Tubulin at 23C - microtubule nucleating factor - critical component of microtubule organizing centers - γ Tubulin ring
complex components Grip75 and Grip128 have an essential microtubule-anchoring function in the Drosophila germline

gamma-Tubulin at 37C
microtubule nucleating factor - eggs produced by mutant mothers show an arrest of nuclear divisions during early embryogenesis
and a disruption in the anterior-posterior axis - required for bicoid mRNA localization

tubulin-specific chaperone E
multidomain protein - required for development and function of neuromuscular synapses - promotes microtubule formation

tudor
tudor domain protein - serves as 'docking platform' for polar granule assembly - maternal effect gene required for germ cell
formation and abdominal segmentation during oogenesis - interacts with Aubergine, a Piwi family protein, in a manner
dependent on symmetrically dimethylated arginine residues located at the N-terminal end of Aub

tumor suppressor protein 101 (common alternative name: erupted)
an ESCRT-I complex component that acts as an adapter for membrane rearrangements operated by ESCRT-III - binds monoubiquitinated substrates predicted
to be ubiquitinated cytoplasmic tails of membrane bound proteins; this interaction delivers cargos to the lysosome via multivesicular bodies.

turtle
Ig superfamily - ligand or co-receptor - required to restrain dendrite branch formation in neurons with simple arbors,
and to promote dendrite self-avoidance in neurons with complex arbors - regulates the tiling pattern of R7 photoreceptor terminals

twin
degrades mRNA poly(A) tails - CCR4 component of an enzyme complex catalyzing mRNA deadenylation - promotes
the maintenance and differentiation of germline stem cell lineage

twins
Protein phosphatase 2A - B subunit - mutation causes a peripheral nervous system defect similar to those of numb and
musashi - mutation also causes a pattern duplication in imaginal discs

twinstar
Drosophila cofilin - actin-depolymerizing and actin-severing protein - essential for neuronal axon growth

twine
cdc25 phosphatase - dephosphorylation of cdc2 by Twine controls entry into meiosis in both males and females

twist
transcription factor - bHLH - DV pathway - a switch in the development of muscle - High levels required for somatic myogenesis -
this blocks formation of other mesodermal derivatives such as visceral mesoderm and heart

twisted gastrulation
secreted growth factor - Tsg dislodges latent BMPs bound to Short gastrulation thus activating BMP signaling - makes a tripartite complex
with Sog and a Dpp/Scw heterodimer - a favoured substrate for Tolloid, which processes Sog and liberates the Dpp/Scw heterodimer

Tyramine β hydroxylase
an enzyme that converts tyramine to octopamine, a neurotransmitter that is the insect equivalent of norepinephrine -
octopamine modulates several physiological functions and behaviors including sleep, aggression and ovulation

Tyramine receptor & Tyramine receptor II
GPCRs that arose by gene duplication - neuromodulation - adult brain - regulates courtship activity -
TyrR is expressed in heart muscles - TyrRII is expressed in oenocytes

Tyrosine decarboxylase 1 and Tyrosine decarboxylase 2
catalyze directly the biosynthesis of the neuromodulator tyramine and indirectly the biosynthesis of octopamine -
Tdc1 acts to synthesize tyramine, a potent diuretic factor in the Malpighian tubule - Tdc2 is required neurally for egg deposition

U

U1snRNP (preferred name: sans fille)
splicing factor - a crucial component of the spliceosome - regulates alternative splicing - a protein component of U1
and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) - U1 and U2 snRNPs combine with other snRNPs on the
pre-mRNA to assemble a spliceosome - involved in Sex-lethal splicing and consequently in sex determination

U2 small nuclear riboprotein auxiliary factor 50
splicing factor required for the ATP-dependent association of U2 snRNP with pre-mRNA branchpoints - forms a heterodimer
with the small splice factor U2af38 - U2af50 interacts with the intronic 3' polypyrimidine tract -
the small subunit functions in recognition of the 3' AG dinucleotide

Ubiquitin activating enzyme 1
Ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, activates and transfers ubiquitin to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, tumor suppressor

Ubiquitin protein ligase E3A
Ubiquitination - protein degradation - model for Angelman syndrome - neuromuscular junction -
regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, the formation of terminal dendritic branches, and dopamine/serotonin synthesis

Ultrabithorax
transcription factor - homeodomain - Antp class - Mutations of Ubx result in transformation of the dorsal and ventral appendages of the
third thoracic segment (the haltere and third leg) into their counterparts on the second thoracic segment (wing and second leg).

ultraspiracle
transcription factor - RXR homolog - nuclear receptor - cofactor for Ecdysone receptor

unc-5
multiple domain protein that functions as a repulsive netrin receptor - essential for heart lumen formation

unc-13
a scaffold protein with a C1 lipid-binding motif and two C2 calcium-binding motifs - mediates signals to control synaptic vesicle exocytosis

uninflatable
transmembrane protein involved in Notch-dependent cell fate assignation during asymmetric mitosis - essential to direct asymmetric
endosome motility - required for tracheal inflation

unc-104 (common alternative name, immaculate connections or imac)
a Kinesin-3 family member that is essential for transporting synaptic vesicle precursors

unconventional myosin 10A (preferred name: Myosin 10A)
cytoskeletal motor protein required during dorsal closure for the correct alignment of cells on opposing sides
of the fusing epithelial sheets and for adhesion of the cells during the final zippering/fusion phase

uncoordinated
coiled-coil protein expressed in sensory neurons and the male germline - localizes to centrioles and basal bodies - required for ciliogenesis

unkempt
C3HC4 type (RING finger) protein - works downstream of insulin receptor/mTOR pathway to regulate temporal control of neuronal differentiation

unpaired 1, unpaired 2 and unpaired 3
interleukin-like ligands of Domeless - activators of JAK/STAT signaling pathway - mutation results
in the stripe-specific loss of expression of even-skipped, fushi tarazu, and runt

unplugged
homeodomain protein - involved in tracheal branching morphogenesis by regulating cell migration or extension;
in the absence of such function, the tracheal founder cells either die or adopt other branch patterns

Upstream of N-ras
RNA-binding protein that interacts with Rox RNAs to repress dosage compensation complex formation in female
and promote its assembly on the male X chromosome

u-shaped
multiple zinc finger protein - antagonizes Pnr by physically interacting with the Pnr DNA-binding domain.

Utx histone demethylase
H3K27me3 demethylase - Notch antagonist - suppressor of Rbf-dependent tumors

UV-resistance associated gene (common alternative name: Vps38)
subunit of the PI3K-cIII complex - autophagy - endosomal-lysosomal pathway - axon pruning tumor suppressor -
receptor downregulation through endolysosomal degradation - the establishment of proper cell polarity
in the developing wing - UV-induced DNA damage repair

V

Vacuolar H+ ATPase subunit 68-2
acidification of the endosomal compartment - required in signal-receiving cells for Notch
signaling downstream of ligand activation - promotes degradation of Notch

Vacuolar protein sorting 35
a subunit of the retromer complex which is essential for the retrograde transport of numerous transmembrane proteins
from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network - required apical localization of key apical/basal polarity molecules

valois
scaffolding protein - the substrate recognition platform for the arginine methyltransferase Capsuleen - the primary substrates of
Capsuleen and Valois are the spliceosomal Sm proteins - required for accumulation of high levels of Oskar protein, for
posterior localization of Oskar in later stages of oogenesis and for posterior localization of the Vasa protein during pole plasm assembly

VAMP-associated protein of 33kDa ortholog A
cleaved secreted ligand for Eph receptors - plays a conserved role in synaptic homeostasis

Van Gogh (common alternative name: strabismus)
a four-pass transmembrane protein that localizes to cell junctions - part of the Frizzled-dependent planar polarity pathway that
establishes planar polarity in epithelia - implicated in nervous system patterning - mutants show a disrupted orientation of
ommatidia - Frizzled-induced Van Gogh phosphorylation by CK1epsilon promotes asymmetric localization of core PCP factors

varicose
Essential septate junction gene encoding a membrane associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) - required for accumulation of the tracheal
size-control proteins Vermiform and Serpentine in the tracheal lumen

vasa
maternal - a DEAD-box RNA helicase - interacts with eIF5B and promotes translation of gurken and mei-P26
mRNAs - overcomes the repressive effect of Nanos translational control element - functions in piRNA biogenesis
as a component of an Amplifier complex - Maternally-expressed Vas is required for oogenesis, transposon
silencing in the female germ line, anterior-posterior embryonic patterning, and germ cell specification.

Vav ortholog
guanine nucleotide exchange factor that belongs to the Dbl GEF superfamily - functions as a GDP/GTP exchange factor
for Rac1 and an adaptor protein. Both activities are activated by direct tyrosine phosphorylation

vein
a secreted neuregulin-like EGFR ligand - EGF domain and Ig domain - an intrinsically weaker ligand for
EGF-receptor than Spitz - Vein is the major ligand for activating EGF-R in intervein regions -
has roles in growth and patterning of tissues including muscle, midgut, ovary, trachea, glia, eye and leg .

veli (common alternative name: Lin-7)
scaffolding protein that acts downstream of DlgS97, in conjunction with its binding partner Metro, to control neuromuscular
junction expansion and proper establishment of synaptic boutons

ventral veins lacking (common alternative name: drifter)
transcription factor - homeodomain - pou domain - mutants display severe tracheal defects and defects in ventral midline glia migration -
identities of medulla neurons are pre-determined in the larval medulla primordium, which is subdivided into concentric zones
characterized by the expression of four transcription factors: Drifter, Runt, Homothorax and Brain-specific homeobox

ventral nervous system defective (vnd) (common alternative name: NK2)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK2 class - required for the formation of a subset of segmental neuroblasts, and possibly
as a neuroectodermal committment gene - upstream of proneural achaete-scute
complex - required for specification of the tritocerebrum in embryonic brain development

vermiform and serpentine
secreted polysaccharide deacetylases - converts chitin to chitosan - required to assemble
cable-like extracellular matrix and restrict tracheal tube elongation

Verprolin 1
facilitator of myoblast fusion - homolog of the conserved Verprolin/WASp Interacting Protein family of WASp-binding proteins -
recruits the actin-polymerization machinery to sites of myoblast attachment and fusion

verthandi (common alternative name: Rad21)
constituent of the cohesin complex, functions in chromosome cohesion, spindle morphology, dynamics of a chromosome passenger protein,
and stability of the cohesin complex

vestigial
wing/haltere identity selector gene - transcription factor - when bound to Scalloped , Vg activates several genes
in the wing field, for example activation of Serum response factor intervein promoter - muscle specification

vielfaltig (common alternative name: zelda)
zinc finger transcription factor - functions in the cellular blastoderm to activate many genes essential for
cellularization, sex determination and pattern formation

vihar
E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme - contributes to the spatiotemporal control of Cyclin B degradation that occurs first during mitosis at the spindle poles

viking
along with Collagen IV, the main component of basement membranes - synthesized by the fat body, secreted to the hemolymph,
and incorporated into the basement membrane - determines organ shape - regulates BMP signaling

Vinculin
component of adherens and focal adhesion junctions - regulates cytoskeletal anchoring at the plasma membrane - regulates cell
adhesion - mechanotransduction - triggers the formation of cytoplasmic adhesion complexes - interacts with α-Catenin - recruited
to amniosersoa apical cell membranes during dorsal closure - regulates of cardiac function during aging

viriato
nucleolar protein of unknown function - ensures a coordinated nucleolar response to dMyc-induced growth -
required for the growth and differentiation progression activities of the Dpp pathway during eye development

virilizer
transmembrane protein involved in Sex lethal splicing - a component of mRNA N6A methylosome, a complex
of nuclear proteins - translationally represses male-specific lethal 2 to prevent dosage compensation in females

vismay
homeodomain transcription factor (TGIF subclass) - required, along with homeodomain protein Achintya, for meiotic division in spermatogenesis

Visual system homeobox 1 ortholog and Visual system homeobox 2 ortholog
homeodomain transcription factors - markers for the brain central neuroendocrine system termed the pars intercerebralis
that expresses the hormones Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp), FMRF, and myomodulin

von Hippel-Lindau
E3 ubiquitin ligase - functions in follicular epithelial morphogenesis to stabilize microtubule bundles and aPKC -
in trachea controls the HIF-1 α/sima hypoxia response pathway

vps25 (alternative name: Vacuolar protein sorting 25)
a member of the ESCRT-II complex, which sorts certain endocytosed receptors for degradation via the
multivesicular body - as part of this complex, Vps25 also has a role in bicoid RNA localization

vreteno
Tudor domain protein involved in regulation of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in gonadal tissues thus regulating mobile genetic elements

vrille
basic leucine zipper transcription factor - an enhancer of dpp during the development of dorsal/ventral polarity in the early embryo -
a clock gene: suppression of the normal cycle of vri expression generates long-period
rhythms or arrhythmicity - involved in hair and cell growth and in tracheal development

W

wallenda
MapKKK member of the JNK pathway - influences axonal transport by functioning as a kinesin-cargo dissociation factor -
suppresses autophagy-induced neuromuscular junction overgrowth - required for normal axon degeneration

warts
a tumor suppressor kinase - regulates cell cycle - loss of gene function leads to the cell-autonomous formation
of epithelial tumors in the adult integumentary structures derived from imaginal discs - plays a post-mitotic
role in R8 photoreceptor cells where it antagonizes melt to control the bistable choice of Rhodospin expression

washout
cytoskeletal protein - acts upstream of Arp2/3 which in turn mediates actin nucleation activity - functions downstream of Rho1
and the formin Cappuccino to control actin and microtubule dynamics during oogenesis - bundles and crosslinks F-actin and microtubules

WASp
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein - regulates actin polymerization - enables the Arp2/3 complex to nucleate polymerization
of branched microfilament arrays and contributes to gastrulation, myoblast fusion, synapse
morphology at neuromuscular junctions, sensory organ development, and spermatogenesis

wee
protein tyrosine kinase that targets Cdc2 thus preventing premature activation of the mitotic program - interacts with
members of the γTubulin ring comples and is required for proper mitotic-spindle morphogenesis and positioning\

wengen
tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily - forced expression triggers cell death - nociceptive sensitization

Whamy
actin polymerase - promotes fast actin filament elongation - functions in membrane protrusions and cell migration in macrophages -
functions in myoblast fusion - sensory cell fate specification

white
ABC transporter of amines that partners with Brown in determination of eye pigmentation - Behavioral abnormalities in white, brown and scarlet mutants
could arise from reduced amine levels in neurons

wide awake (common alternative name Banderuola)
a multi-domain signaling protein that regulates asymmetric cell division, cell polarization, spindle orientation,
and asymmetric protein localization, regulation of circadian timing of sleep onset

wilderborst
protein phosphatase PP2A-B' regulatory subunit - regulates insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling through interaction with Akt

wingless
ligand - wnt family - segment polarity gene - plays a primary role in specifying the wing primordium, and a subsequent role mediating
the patterning activities of the dorso-ventral compartment boundary - post-translational modification (addition of palmitoleate
by Porcupine) is essential for signaling activity - contributes tissue growth and patterning, neuromuscular
junction morphogenesis, gut homeostasis and long term memory formation.

wings up A (common alternative name: Troponin I)
cytoskeletal protein - along with Tropomyosin regulates muscle contraction - required to maintain nuclear integrity and
apico-basal polarity during early embryogenesis - required for myofibrillogenesis and sarcomere formation in Drosophila flight muscle

wishful thinking
type II TGFß receptor - functions presynaptically to regulate synaptic size at the neuromuscular
junction - modulates the probability of neurotransmitter release and readily releasable pools

wispy
poly(A) polymerase acting on specific mRNA targets during late oogenesis and early embryogenesis - required at the final stage
of oogenesis for metaphase during meiosis I arrest - interacts with Orb genetically and physically in an ovarian complex.

wnt inhibitor of Dorsal (common alternative name: Wnt8)
Wnt family ligand - involved in establishment dorsal/ventral patterning and the immune response - A WntD-dependent integral feedback loop attenuates variability in Drosophila Toll signaling

wntless
novel conserved transmembrane protein that acts in the Wnt-sending cells to promote the secretion of
Wnt proteins - mutation triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress

Wnt oncogene analog 2
ligand - Wnt homolog - required for the development of thensheath of the male reproductive tract and testis
morphogenesis - mediates redox regulation - maintains the germ line stem cell differentiation niche

Wnt oncogene analog 4
ligand - TGF-B homolog - mesodermal - a Wingless antagonist - transposon dysregulation modulates Wnt4 signaling to control germline stem cell differentiation

Wnt oncogene analog 5
Wnt superfamily ligand involved in axon
guidance and salivary gland morphogenesis - Wnt5 and Derailed gradients pattern the Drosophila olfactory dendritic map.

worniu
zinc finger transcriptional repressor - required in neuroblasts to maintain self-renewal by promoting cell-cycle progression and inhibiting
premature differentiation - expressed in the neuroblasts of brain hemispheres and the ventral ganglion - promotes ommatidial death
during eye development and subsequent photoreceptor formation - controls both asymmetry and cell division of neuroblasts

wrapper
Immunoglobulin domain ligand - present in midline glia - required, along with neuronally-expressed
Neurexin IV, for ensheathment of commissural axons

Wrinkled (common alternative name: head involution defective)
induces programmed cell death - arbitrates collective cell death in the wing - Nanos-mediated repression
of hid protects larval sensory neurons after a global switch in sensitivity to apoptotic signals

wunen and wunen-2
lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases - somatic Wun and Wun2 provide a repulsive environment for germ cell migration
by depleting an extracellular, attractive substrate - in germ cells Wun2 competes with somatic Wun and Wun2
for a common lipid phosphate substrate, which is required by germ cells to produce a survival signal

X Y Z

X-box-binding protein 1
unfolded protein response (UPR) - enhances the expression of genes encoding ER chaperones, enzymes, and the ER protein degradation machinery

XNP
DEAD-like helicases superfamily - complements HIRA in recognizing exposed DNA and serving as a binding platform
for the efficient recruitment of H3.3 predeposition complexes to chromatin gaps

yan (preferred name: anterior open)
ets domain transcription factor - target of Ras pathway that serves to inhibit neural and other types of differentiation -
crucial to the development of the nervous system, heart, trachea and eye

yorkie
target of the Hippo-Warts pathway - ortholog of the mammalian transcriptional coactivator yes-associated protein - transcriptional
coactivator that negatively regulates cell-cycle and cell-death regulators - fold formation at the compartment
boundary of Drosophila wing requires Yki signaling to suppress JNK dependent apoptosis

ypsilon schachtel
cold-shock domain protein involved in post-transcriptional regulation of Oskar mRNA - efficient Gurken protein
trafficking requires trailer hitch, a component of a ribonucleoprotein complex that includes Cup and Yps

yurt
ERM junctional protein involved in regulating apical-basal polarity - tracheal development

zelda (preferred name: vielfaltig)
zinc finger transcription factor - functions in the cellular blastoderm to activate many genes essential for
cellularization, sex determination and pattern formation

zerknüllt
transcription factor - homeodomain - Antp class - HoxA3, HoxB3 and HoxD3 homolog - DV polarity - The absence of the amnioserosa in zen
mutants might cause the germ band to be twisted and thrown into folds during an abortive elongation process

zero population growth
germline-specific gap junction protein - Innexin 4 - required for survival of differentiating early germ cells during gametogenesis in both sexes

zeste
transcription factor - hlh domain and leucine zipper domain - trithorax group - Zeste specifically interacts with the
p400 Brahma complex component - tunes the timing of ecdysone actions in triggering programmed tissue degeneration in Drosophila

zeste white 3 (preferred name: shaggy)
glycogen synthase kinase - segment polarity - a key component of the β-catenin destruction complex - functions in the Wingless
signaling pathway - regulates Hedgehog ligand expression along with the N-end rule ubiquitin-protein ligase Hyperplastic discs

Zinc-finger protein
zinc finger transcription factor required for the expression and asymmetric localization of aPKC, thus establishing
cell polarity and controlling neuroblast self-renewal

Zinc finger protein RP-8
control of heterochromatin silencing - interacts with the piRNA pathway that is essential for the maintenance
of germline stem cells, a component of the small ribosomal subunit (40S), controls RNA processing, regulates cell proliferation

Zn finger homeodomain 1
transcription factor - zinc finger domain and homeodomain - mutation results in various degrees of local errors in mesodermal cell
fate or positioning - a transcription factor network, comprised of eve, zfh1, and grain, induces the
expression of the Unc5 and Beaten-path guidance receptors and the Fasciclin 2 and Neuroglian adhesion molecules to guide individual dorsal motor neuron axons

Zn finger homeodomain 2
transcription factor - zinc finger domain and homeodomain - required for correct proximal wing development - a mediator of hypercapnic (elevated CO2) immune regulation

zipper
Myosin II or non-muscle myosin - motor protein - crucial functions in motility, cytokinesis, dorsal closure and cytoplasmic transport - myosin
activation promotes collective morphology and migration by locally balancing oppositional forces from surrounding tissue

zucchini
nuclease that functions in germline RNAi processes, required in dorso-ventral patterning pathway - required early during
oogenesis for the translational silencing of osk mRNA and at later stages for proper expression of the
Grk protein - regulates telomere-specific transposable elements

Zyxin
Lim domain signaling protein involved in cytoskeletal regulation of growth - regulates Hippo pathway - transduction of mechanical tension -
component of adherens and focal adhesion junctions junctions




Genes A-D -- Genes E-K -- Genes L-R

Home page: The Interactive Fly © 1995, 1996 Thomas B. Brody, Ph.D.


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