Gene name - tailless
Cytological map position - 100A5-B2
Function - transcription factor
Symbol - tll
Genetic map position - 3-102
Classification - steroid receptor
Cellular location - nuclear
|Recent literature||Guillermin, O., Perruchoud, B., Sprecher, S.G. and Egger, B. (2015). Characterization of Tailless functions during Drosophila optic lobe formation. Dev Biol [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 26111972
Brain development goes through phases of proliferative growth and differentiation to ensure the formation of correct number and variety of neurons. How and when naïve neuroepithelial cells decide to enter a differentiation pathway remains poorly understood. In the Drosophila visual system, four optic ganglia emerge from neuroepithelia of the inner (IPC) and outer (OPC) proliferation centers. This study demonstrates that the orphan nuclear receptor Tailless (Tll) is a key factor for the development of all optic ganglia. The study describes tll expression during larval optic lobe development in unprecedented detail and finds a spatiotemporally dynamic pattern. In the larval OPC, symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells transform into asymmetrically dividing medulla neuroblast and into lamina precursor cells in a precisely regulated fashion. Using genetic manipulations, it was found that tll is required for proper neuroepithelium morphology and neuroepithelial cell survival. It was shown that tll regulates the precise timing of the transition from neuroepithelial cells to medulla neuroblasts. In particular, however, it was demonstrated that tll has a crucial role for the specification of lamina precursor cells. The study proposes that the Tll/Tlx transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role in regulating neural precursor cell states in the Drosophila optic lobe and in the mammalian retina.
|Nonaka, S., Ando, Y., Kanetani, T., Hoshi, C., Nakai, Y., Nainu, F., Nagaosa, K., Shiratsuchi, A. and Nakanishi, Y. (2017). Signaling pathway for phagocyte priming upon encounter with apoptotic cells. J Biol Chem. PubMed ID: 28325838
The phagocytic elimination of cells undergoing apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells. This study found that the pre-incubation of a Drosophila phagocyte cell line with the fragments of apoptotic cells enhanced the subsequent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, accompanied by an augmented expression of the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin alphaPS3. The DNA-binding activity of the transcription repressor Tailless was transiently raised in those phagocytes, depending on two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for the induction of phagocytosis as well as the occurrence of engulfment. The RNAi knockdown of tailless in phagocytes abrogated the enhancement of both phagocytosis and engulfment receptor expression. Furthermore, the hemocyte-specific RNAi of tailless reduced apoptotic cell clearance in Drosophila embryos. It is proposed that two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for phagocytosis are initiated; transcription repressor Tailless is activated; expression of engulfment receptors is stimulated; and phagocytic activity is enhanced. This phenomenon most likely ensures the phagocytic elimination of apoptotic cells that stimulated phagocytes find thereafter and is thus considered as a mechanism to prime phagocytes in innate immunity.
Two transcription factors, Tailless and Huckebein, constitute the regulatory proteins that are the final products of the terminal system. "Terminal" refers to the anterior and posterior ends of the embryo. A terminal gene is one that works and affects development at the terminal ends of the embryo. tll and hkb are transcribed at these terminals, or ends of the embryo, and therefore are considered terminal genes. Early and transient expression at the posterior pole is required to establish a domain from which arise the eighth abdominal segment, telson and posterior gut.
tailless is also considered one of the gap genes, so called because gap gene mutants have gaps in their structures. In tailless mutants, these gaps are found in the head and the posterior. Therefore, tailless controls terminal genes that result in normal development of head and posterior.
Just a few nuclear cycles after activation of tailless in the tail, a brain-specific domain is initiated at the anterior; expression in this domain is maintained with complex modulations throughout embryogenesis. Expression of tailless in this domain is required to establish the most anterior region of the brain. To understand the function and regulation of these different domains of expression, a detailed description of tailless expression in brain neuroblasts is provided (Rudolph, 1997).
Transcription of tll is initiated early in the syncytial blastoderm stage (stage 4) in two symmetrical caps: these two caps depend entirely on activity of the maternally encoded terminal system. Expression in the posterior cap is required for posterior patterning of the blastoderm stage embryo. Altough expression in both caps is transient, that in the posterior cap reaches a higher level and persists longer, i.e., through most of the blastoderm stage. Expression in the posterior cap largely disappears during gastrulation and is undetectable by the end of germband extension. By the beginning of the cellular blastoderm stage, the anterior cap of expression is replaced by a horseshoe-shaped stripe that straddles the dorsal midline between 76 and 89% egg length. This stripe covers the entire brain anlage, i.e., the procephalic neuroectoderm expression in this stripe continues in domains that will become the brain. Later, TLL mRNA is present in all proneural domains of the protocerebrum; the level of transcript in a domain is highest shortly before and during the stage at which neuroblasts delaminate from that domain. During gastrulation, the horseshoe-shaped stripe of tll expression becomes tilted backwards and undergoes a process of internal differentiation into regions with different levels of expression. A group of cells in the dorsal midline gradually ceases expressing tll, resulting in a split of the horseshoe into two dorsolateral domains. Within each of these domains, a roughly triangle-shaped, anterodorsal region shows the highest level of expression and is designated HL: posteroventral to HL is a domain with a lower level of expression, designated LL. The HL domain during stages 7 and 8 covers the dorsocentral part of the protocerebral neurectoderm. From within this region, the first groups of protocerebral neuroblasts delaminate during late stage 8. Subsequently other tll expressing neuroblasts delaminate in a well defined pattern. During stage 12, tll is expressed at a high level in a new region: the primordium of the optic lobe. This structure arises by invagination of the posterior procephalic ectoderm. tll expression remains high in the optic lobe throughout late embryonic development and can also be seen in the optic lobe in the late third instar larva (Rudolph, 1997).
tailless is activated by the torso pathway. Torso, a receptor for the putative ligand Trunk, causes a phosphorylation cascade that ultimately results in the activation of transcription of tailless. Two additional factors are involved: activation and repression by Bicoid in the anterior domain and repression by Dorsal in the central domain (Liaw, 1993).
Which genes are the targets of tailless? In the anterior domain, tailless represses fushi tarazu, hunchback and deformed, as well as hedgehog, and helps to establish the borders of expression of head gap genes, like orthodenticle.
In the posterior, Tailless acts on gap genes knirps, Krüppel and giant, setting up the posterior borders of expression (Kuelskamp, 1991). POU domain genes pdm1 and pdm2 are also regulated by tailless. tailless appears to activate caudal, forkhead and hunchback in the posterior, and is implicated in the activation of the seventh stripes of even-skipped, hairy, paired and fushi tarazu . Tailless also appears to activate T-related gene, a Drosophila Brachyury homolog.
The transcription factors encoding genes tailless (tll), atonal (ato), sine oculis (so), eyeless (ey) and eyes absent (eya), and Efgr signaling play a role in establishing the Drosophila embryonic visual system. The embryonic visual system consists of the optic lobe primordium, which, during later larval life, develops into the prominent optic lobe neuropiles, and the larval photoreceptor (Bolwig's organ). Both structures derive from a neurectodermal placode in the embryonic head. Expression of tll is normally confined to the optic lobe primordium, whereas ato appears in a subset of Bolwig's organ cells that are called Bolwig's organ founders. Phenotypic analysis of tll loss- and gain-of-function mutant embryos using specific markers for Bolwig's organ and the optic lobe, reveals that tll functions to drive cells to an optic lobe fate, as opposed to a Bolwig's organ fate. Similar experiments indicate that ato has the opposite effect, namely driving cells to a Bolwig's organ fate. Since tll and ato do not regulate one another, a model is proposed wherein tll expression restricts the ability of cells to respond to signaling arising from ato-expressing Bolwig's organ pioneers. The data further suggest that the Bolwig's organ founder cells produce Spitz (the Drosophila TGFalpha homolog) signal, which is passed to the neighboring secondary Bolwig's organ cells where it activates the Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling cascade and maintains the fate of these secondary cells. The regulators of tll expression in the embryonic visual system remain elusive: no evidence for regulation by the 'early eye genes' so, eya and ey, or by Egfr signaling is found (Daniel, 1999).
The Drosophila visual system comprises the adult compound eye, the larval eye (Bolwig's organ) and the optic lobe (a part of the brain). All of these components are recognizable as separate primordia during late stages of embryonic development. These components originate from a small, contiguous region in the dorsal head ectoderm. During the extended germband stage, the individual components of the visual system can be distinguished morphologically as well as by spatially localized expression of the homeobox gene so and the adhesion molecule Fas II. Initially centered as an unpaired, oval domain straddling the dorsal midline, the anlage of the visual system subsequently elongates in the transverse axis and narrows in the anteroposterior axis. By late gastrulation (stage 8), the anlage occupies two bilaterally symmetric stripes that are anterior and adjacent to the cephalic furrow. The domain of so expression at this stage contains two regions with a high expression level [olex (the external fold of the optic lobe) and olin]. Only these two regions will ultimately give rise to the optic lobe and Bolwig's organ; the so-positive cells dorsal and posterior to these domains will either form part of the dorsal posterior head epidermis (dph) or undergo apoptotic cell death. During the extended germband stage, the anlage of the visual system expands further ventrally until, around stage 10, it reaches the equator (50% in the dorsoventral axis) of the embryo. Shortly thereafter, olin, the portion of the anlage that will give rise to most of the optic lobe and Bolwig's organ, reorganizes into a placode of high cylindrical epithelial cells that differ in shape from the surrounding more squamous cells of the head ectoderm. During stage 12, this placode starts to invaginate, forming a V-shaped structure with an anterior lip (olal) and a posterior lip (olpl). Bolwig's organ, which consists of a small cluster of sensory neurons, derives from the basal part of the posterior lip and can be recognized during stage 12 as a distinct, dome-shaped protrusion. During stage 13, invagination of the optic lobe separates it from the head ectoderm; only the cells of Bolwig's organ remain in the ectoderm. The ectodermal region olex is also internalized and forms an external 'cover' of the optic lobe; many cells of this population undergo apoptosis (Daniel, 1999).
The tll gene is expressed in a dynamic pattern in the protocerebral neurectoderm. In the posterior, this region overlaps part of the anlage of the visual system, in particular that part that will give rise to the anterior lip of the optic lobe. The anterior lip of the optic lobe upregulates expression of tll during stage 12. In addition, the posterior lip of the optic lobe, does not expressed tll at an earlier stage, now switches on this gene. Expression of tll in the posterior lip is patchy, with some cells expressing the gene at a higher level than others. The Bolwig's organ primordium does not express tll. During later embryonic stages and during larval development, tll expression remains strong in the optic lobe, but is never detected in the Bolwig's organ. Also the primordium of the eye disc, which expresses tll during larval stages, is devoid of this expression during embryonic development (Daniel, 1999).
tll controls a switch between optic lobe and Bolwig's organ cell fate. Loss of zygotic tll activity results in an absence of most of the protocerebrum of the brain (Younossi-Hartenstein, 1997). In addition, the visual system of the late tll embryo shows a dramatic phenotype, namely the transformation of optic lobe into Bolwig's organ. In wild-type embryos, the neuronal marker 22C10 (see Futsch) labels 12 neurons and their axons that project towards the optic lobe. In tll mutant embryos, the number of cells in the Bolwig's organ is dramatically increased (by a factor of 2-3), while the optic lobe, marked by anti-Crumbs or a PlacZ insertion in so, is absent. Use of antibodies to FasII and Crb, which label the apical surface of the optic lobe, and not that of the Bolwig's organ, allowed an analysis of how the phenotype unfolds in the tll mutant embryo. Abnormalities first become apparent during stage 11, when FasII expression increases strongly in the domain of the anterior lip of the optic lobe placode, a region that normally ceases to express FasII. In spite of this abnormal expression, the optic lobe placode appears to invaginate normally. As a results, in stage 13 tll mutant embryos, a Crb-positive vesicle can be seen subjacent to the head epidermis. During stage 14, all cells of this aberrant vesicle activate expression of the neuronal marker 22C10 and lose Crb expression, revealing that these cells are Bolwig's organ cells. Overexpression of tll under the control of a heat-shock promoter has an effect opposite that seen in the absence of tll activity. An additional consequence of tll overexpression is that the optic lobes become located more dorsally and fused in the dorsal midline. This 'cyclops' phenotype most likely arises because the dorsomedial cells, which normally die or form part of the head epidermis, now express optic lobe markers and become an integral part of the optic lobe. The results of both loss and gain of tll expression are consistent with the interpretation that tll is required to drive cells of the anlage, which would otherwise become photoreceptor neurons of Bolwig's organ, to develop as optic lobe cells (Daniel, 1999).
>atonal is expressed in and required for the development of Bolwig's organ. >ato is expressed in the head in several small cell clusters, one of which is a group of three to four cells that is part of the Bolwig's organ primordium. Expression of >ato in this domain begins during stage 11 and continues until stage 12. Initially, a group of 6-8 cells faintly expresses >ato. By stage 12, their number has decreased to 3 cells. During this period, >ato-expressing cells can be seen as a small group of cells within the dome-shaped Bolwig's organ primordium. Loss of >ato function results in the absence of Bolwig's organ. Thus, similar to what has been demonstrated for the compound eye, even though only a small subset of photoreceptors actually expresses >ato, lack of >ato function results in absence of all photoreceptors. Since Bolwig's organ is enlarged in a tll mutant background, it was asked whether tll inhibits >ato expression. The number and pattern of >ato-positive cells in tll mutants is found to be normal. These results suggest that tll functions in parallel with, or downstream of >ato in the development of the Bolwig's organ/optic lobe primordium (Daniel, 1999).
Epidermal growth factor receptor is activated in midline regions of the head neurectoderm, in particular in the anlage of the visual system. Moreover, increased and/or ectopic activation of Egfr results in a 'cyclops' phenotype very similar to what has been described for ectopic tll expression. Egfr signaling has been shown to be required in both chordotonal organs and compound eye for the inductive signaling triggered by >ato expression. Two questions raised by these observations have been investigated: (1) is Egfr signaling required for tll expression in the optic lobe and (2) is Egfr signaling involved in the recruitment of the secondary (non->atonal-expressing) Bolwig's organ cells? The answer to both these questions is no. tll expression is unaltered when levels of Egfr signaling are manipulated, suggesting that Egfr signaling is not required for tll expression. To investigate the second question, a test was performed for the presence of Egfr-relevant mRNAs or proteins: Rhomboid mRNA, which would be expected to be present only in the signaling cells, and phosphorylated MAPK, Pointed and Argos mRNAs, which would be expected to be expressed in all cells receiving an Egfr-mediated signal. In stage 12 embryos, rho is expressed only in the small group of Bolwig's organ founder cells (the same cells expressing >ato). In contrast, activated (phosphorylated) MAPK is present in a larger cluster of cells including the entire Bolwig's organ and part of the adjacent optic lobe. Consistent with this, pnt and aos, both known to be switched on in cells receiving the Spi signal, are expressed at the same stage throughout the entire Bolwig's organ primordium. These gene expression and MAPK activation patterns are consistent with the idea that the Spi signal is activated by rho in the Bolwig's organ founders and passed to the neighboring secondary Bolwig's organ cells where it activates the Egfr signaling cascade. Supporting this view, only 3-4 photoreceptor neurons are found in the Bolwig's organ of embryos lacking rho or spi; furthermore, the size of the posterior lip of the optic lobe is reduced in such embryos. The fact that absence of secondary Bolwig's organ cells in rho or spi mutant embryos can be rescued by blocking cell death in the background of a deficiency that takes out the reaper complex of genes indicates that the Spi signal is not necessary for the specification (recruitment) of secondary Bolwig's organ cells, but rather, for their maintenance (Daniel, 1999).
While the maternal patterning systems that regulate tll during its blastoderm expression have been determined, the genes required to turn on tll at a later stage in the visual system are not known. Candidates are the 'early eye genes', so, eya and ey, which encode transcription factors expressed in the embryonic visual system and in the larval eye disc in front of the morphogenetic furrow. The expression of these genes was analyzed in the visual system anlage, and tll expression was examined in embryos mutant for each of these genes. tll expression in the optic lobe does not depend on any of these three genes. It was also concluded that ey and so, which have been shown to interact with each other during eye disc determination, must act independently in embryonic visual system development, since they are expressed in those primordia in non-overlapping patterns (Daniel, 1999).
Although so is expressed initially in the entire visual system anlage, during later stages its expression becomes increasingly restricted to subsets of visual system progenitors. Thus, during stage 11, when a morphologically distinct optic lobe placode first becomes visible, the domain of so expression retreats to the posterior lip of this placode; slightly later its expression is limited to only the Bolwig's organ, where it is maintained until stage 13. eya expression is initiated during the late blastoderm stage in a trapezoidal field in the dorsomedial head region that includes the visual system anlage, as well as progenitors of the medial brain. Beginning during gastrulation (stage 6/7), the eya domain becomes divided into an anterior stripe and a narrow posterior stripe immediately anterior to the cephalic furrow that widens laterally; this posterior domain will become part of the posterior lip of the optic lobe, including Bolwig's organ. eya expression continues in the optic lobe until stage 12 and in Bolwig's organ until stage 13. Embryos that lack either so or eya exhibit defects in the portions of the visual system where these genes are expressed. In both mutants, development proceeds normally until stage 11, when the posterior lip of the optic lobe (olpl) would normally start to invaginate. In eya and so embryos, invagination of the optic lobe placode does not take place and differentiation markers characteristic of the lobe are not expressed. In conclusion, so and eya, although expressed coincidental with tll, are not required for its activation. ey plays no role in the embryonic visual system (Daniel, 1999).
Since tll is a nuclear receptor transcription factor, it must function to block the effect of signaling from the founder cells (which is mediated at least in part by Egfr) at the transcriptional level. In the posterior of the blastoderm stage embryo, tll has been shown to function directly as both a repressor (of Kruppel, knirps and Ubx) and as an activator (of hunchback). Additional activator effects of tll (not yet demonstrated to be direct) have been shown for brachyenteron at the posterior of the blastoderm embryo, and for the proneural gene lethal of scute in the brain. Thus, in the optic lobe, tll could repress genes that would in its absence be activated by Egfr signaling, and/or activate genes that would block receipt, or execution, of the signal (Daniel, 1999 and references).
The intrinsic neurons of mushroom bodies (MBs), centers of olfactory learning in the Drosophila brain, are generated by a specific set of neuroblasts (Nbs) that are born in the embryonic stage and exhibit uninterrupted proliferation till the end of the pupal stage. Whereas MB provides a unique model to study proliferation of neural progenitors, the underlying mechanism that controls persistent activity of MB-Nbs is poorly understood. This study shows that Tailless (Tll), a conserved orphan nuclear receptor, is required for optimum proliferation activity and prolonged maintenance of MB-Nbs and ganglion mother cells (GMCs). Mutations of tll progressively impair cell cycle in MB-Nbs and cause premature loss of MB-Nbs in the early pupal stage. Tll is also expressed in MB-GMCs to prevent apoptosis and promote cell cycling. In addition, it was shown that ectopic expression of tll leads to brain tumors, in which Prospero, a key regulator of progenitor proliferation and differentiation, is suppressed whereas localization of molecular components involved in asymmetric Nb division is unaffected. These results as a whole uncover a distinct regulatory mechanism of self-renewal and differentiation of the MB progenitors that is different from the mechanisms found in other progenitors (Kurusu, 2009).
tll was expressed in the dividing MB-Nbs and GMCs, but not in the postmitotic neurons, through the stages of MB development. Tll expression is initially found in almost all procephalic neuroblasts, but became largely restricted to anterior cells by stage 16. Double immunostaining with an anti-Dac antibody, which labels MB neurons, confirmed that they were MB-Nbs and GMCs. In the larval stages, Tll is expressed in the MB-Nbs and GMCs as well as in lamina precursor cells. While the expression in lamina precursor cells disappears by the end of the larval stage, Tll expression in the MB progenitors is maintained during the pupal stages. In newly eclosed flies, Tll expression was found in a few GMC-like cells in the middle of the MB cell clusters, although their exact identity is unknown (Kurusu, 2009).
Several lines of evidence indicate that Tll is cell autonomously required for efficient proliferation activity MB-Nbs. BrdU labeling experiments demonstrate that DNA synthesis is partially suppressed in tll mutant Nbs in both the larval and the pupal stages. Cell cycle defects in the mutant MB-Nbs are not evident in the larval stage but confirmed by marked suppression of PH3 and Cyc B activity at 20 h APF before the disappearance of mutant Nbs. As a whole, these data suggest that Tll is required to maintain efficient cell cycle progression in MB-Nbs, particularly in the pupal stage. In contrast, although the premature loss of the mutant Nbs might be a consequence of cell cycle exit as has been suggested with other Nbs, the exact mechanism of the disappearance of mutant MB-Nbs in the early pupal stage is unknown. It is also plausible that mutant Nbs are removed by apoptosis, as is the case with mutant GMCs, although TUNEL signals for MB-Nbs were not detected at 20 h APF, shortly before their disappearance whereas cell death signals in GMCs are evident at both the larval and pupal stages (Kurusu, 2009).
Despite marginal reduction in cell division activity of MB-Nbs at the larval stage, loss of tll activity results in significant reduction of the larval MB clones. Instead, the results demonstrate that cell cycle progression is impaired in larval MB-GMCs. Moreover, the majority of the MB-GMCs are lost by cell death. The molecular mechanism underlying these GMC defects is yet to be investigated, but it is unlikely that they are mediated by altered Pros expression since Pros is co-expressed with Tll in wild-type MB-GMCs, and its expression is unaltered in mutant GMCs. In addition, the results demonstrating that neither p35 nor Diap1 rescues GMC death suggest that Tll might be involved in suppression of an unconventional cell death pathway (Kurusu, 2009).
What is the molecular function of Tll in the regulation of MB progenitors? The fact that Tll is a transcription factor localized in the nucleus suggests that Tll might specify neuronal identity of MB progenitors by regulating cell-type specific genes. However, unlike other regulatory factors that confer either spatial or temporal identity, Tll is expressed only in Nbs and GMCs, and mutant neurons exhibit wild-type like dendritic and axonal wiring patterns even in the adult stage, in which perdurance of wild-type tll activity in the mutant clones is unlikely. Rather, Tll might provide MB progenitors with cellular identity that specify a distinctive proliferation pattern, either by promoting cell cycle or by preventing apoptosis or by both in parallel. In any case, such identity cannot be determined by Tll on its own because Tll is expressed in other neuronal progenitors such as lamina precursor cells in the optic lobes. Instead, it is presumed that the proliferation identity of MB progenitors may be specified in combination with other regulatory factors such as Eyeless, which is expressed in MB-Nbs, GMCs and postmitotic neurons to control MB development (Kurusu, 2009).
In the course of MB proliferation, Tll might downregulate key regulatory genes involved in cell-cycle exit and differentiation, particularly given the fact that Tll functions mostly as a repressor in the early embryogenesis. One such candidate gene is pros. Pros is detected in MB-GMCs, but not MB-Nbs. However, loss of pros causes neither tumorous transformation of MB progenitors nor suppression of tll phenotype in pros tll double mutant clones. Moreover, Pros is not upregulated in tll mutant clones. Thus, these data argue against the involvement of pros in the regulation of MB progenitors although they do not exclude a redundant mechanism involving Pros cooperating with other factors. Alternatively, Tll could indirectly control cell cycle progression by downregulating genes that suppress progenitor division. In support of this, it is noteworthy that the mammalian homolog Tlx (NR2E1) represses a tumor suppressor gene, Pten, via consensus Tll/TLX binding sites located in the pten promoter, and thereby indirectly stimulates the expression of various cell cycle genes including Cyclin D1, p57 kip2, and p27 kip1 (Kurusu, 2009).
Studies on Drosophila neural progenitors reveal heterogeneity among the brain Nbs in terms of temporal windows of cell division, patterns of self-renewal, and susceptibility to mutations that regulate proliferation and termination of progenitors. Among the Nbs in the Drosophila brain, MB-Nbs exhibit a highly unique proliferation pattern. Most Nbs pause cell division between the late embryonic and the early first instar stages, and cease proliferation by the early pupal stage. By contrast, MB-Nbs divide continuously from the embryonic stage till the end of pupal stage, generating diverse identities of neurons by temporal order. In house cricket and moth, proliferation activity of MB-Nbs further extends beyond the pupal stage to exhibit persistent neurogenesis during adult life (Kurusu, 2009).
Although the data clearly indicate a pivotal function of Tll for persistent proliferation and maintenance of MB-Nbs, the mechanism that determines the exit from cell cycling at the end of pupal stage remains elusive. Neither extension of Tll expression beyond the end of the pupal period nor blocking cell death program, by p35 or Diap1, prolonged MB-Nb proliferation beyond the pupal stage, suggesting existence of other mechanisms that schedule the end of MB-Nb activity. In most brain Nbs, a burst of Pros in the nucleus at around 120 h after larval hatching (24 h APF) induces cell cycle exit to regulate generation of postmitotic progeny in the brain. However, no burst of nuclear Pros is detected for MB-Nbs at the end of the pupal stage when they finally exit from cell cycling, although the data demonstrate that, as is the case with other Nbs in the brain, Pros indeed has such regulatory potential in larval MBs that its overexpression results in partial loss of the MB-Nbs. Moreover, MB clones lacking pros activity, which exhibit normal growth, cease cell division by the end of the pupal stage (Kurusu, 2009).
During asymmetric cell division of Drosophila Nbs, Pros is kept inactive by tethering to the cell cortex by MIRA. At telophase of Nb cell cycle, Pros is segregated into GMC, where it enters the nucleus to trigger cell cycle exit and promote differentiation of post mitotic progeny that are generated by the division of GMC. Accordingly, nuclear Pros is expressed at high levels in postmitotic neurons and at moderate levels in GMCs. However, whereas this partition pattern of Pros in the post-embryonic brain is shared between MB and non-MB progenies, Pros seems dispensable for cell-cycle control of MB-GMCs. In non-MB lineages, loss of pros activity in GMCs leads to failure of cell-cycle exit and transforms of GMCs into Nbs. However, loss of pros activity never causes transformation of MB-GMCs although mutant MB neurons exhibit considerable dendritic defects. In contrast, Tll is expressed and required for MB-GMCs to suppress apoptosis and maintain active cell cycling. Intriguingly, whereas Pros is suppressed by Tll in non-MB progenitors, both proteins are coexpressed in MB-GMCs, clearly suggesting that, as compared to the progenitors of non-MB lineages, a different mechanism may operate in MB progenitors to control the expression of regulatory factors that are important for cell division and differentiation (Kurusu, 2009).
The brain hyperplasia produced by Tll overexpression is reminiscent of brain tumors caused by mislocalization of asymmetric determinants. Aberrant Nb divisions that disrupt the positioning of such factors generate brain tumors. Brain tissues from pins, mira, numb, or pros mutants generate tumors when transplanted in the wild-type abdomen. In double mutants of pins and lgl, mislocalization of aPKC in the basal cortex results in the generation of supernumerary Nbs at the expense of GMCs, and thus, neurons. BRAT is required for the asymmetric positioning of Pros, which in turn suppresses self-renewal of GMC and promotes cell differentiation by transcriptional control. Mutant clones of either brat or pros are highly tumorigenic, forming a large number of MIRA-positive Nbs (Kurusu, 2009).
While recapitulating the tumor phenotype, ectopic expression of Tll does not affect asymmetric localization of aPKC, PINS, and BRAT. Instead, Tll downregulates Pros in hyperplasic brains and in overexpression clones, suggesting that the tumorigenesis phenotype caused by Tll expression is mediated by Pros downregulation in GMCs. This notion is further supported by the fact that coexpression of Pros with Tll suppresses brain hyperplasia. Notably, the cis-regulatory region of pros harbors a consensus Tll binding site within 500 base pairs from the transcriptional initiation site, consistent with the idea that Tll might repress transcription of pros via direct DNA binding (Kurusu, 2009).
Recently, atypical large Nb lineages in the dorsomedial part of the larval brain have been described and designated as Posterior Asense-Negative (PAN) Nbs. Nbs of such lineages divide asymmetrically to self renew, but, unlike other Nbs, generate smaller intermediate progenitors that express Nb markers. The fact that these atypical Nbs are MIRA-positive and Pros negative raises a possibility that tumor clones induced by Tll could either correspond to or originate from them. As with other Nbs, clones of the PAN-Nb lineages accompany only a single large Nb, with their progeny arranged regularly in a columnar order. By contrast, clones generated by Tll overexpression harbor several large to intermediate-sized Nbs, exhibiting irregular morphology, which is typical of tumors. PAN-Nbs are the Nb subpopulation that exhibits overgrowth in brat mutants. However, it is also unlikely that Tll induced overgrowth originates from overgrowth of PAN Nbs, which correspond to eight Nbs in the DPM group among the ~90 Nbs per hemisphere. On the contrary, Tll induces clonal tumors not only in DPM but also in CM and BLP lineages. Indeed, Tll overgrowth phenotype is not localized to a specific location of the hemisphere, but broadly detectable in the brain including the optic lobe. Moreover, Tll overgrowth phenotype is also induced in the embryonic CNS, arguing against the involvement of larval PAN-Nbs (Kurusu, 2009).
The Drosophila Tll and the vertebrate homolog TLX (NR2E1) share high sequence similarity in the DNA binding domain. Tlx mutant mice exhibit a reduction of rhinencephalon and limbic structures with emotional and learning defects. Notably, Tlx mutant mice exhibit reduction of neuron numbers in cortical upper layers. Postnatally, TLX is localized to the adult neurogenic regions including the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus to maintain stem cells in a proliferative and undifferentiated state. Recent behavioral studies have shown that such TLX-positive neural stem cells actually contribute to animal's spatial learning. Thus, combined with the current results, these studies highlight a functional commonality of the tll/Tlx homologs between flies and mammals, and imply an intriguing evolutionary conservation of the genetic programs underlying neural progenitor controls in crucial brain structures involved in memory and other cognitive functions (Kurusu, 2009).
Intriguingly, the mammalian pros homolog Prox1 promotes cell cycle exit and differentiation of the neural progenitors in the developing subventricular zone and the retina, the neural tissues in which Tlx functions antagonistically to control progenitor proliferation. Based on the tll GOF phenotypes in Drosophila, it is predicted that deregulation of Tlx in the developing brain may cause suppression of Prox1 and could result in severe neurological tumors in humans. On the other hand, consistent with the loss-of-function phenotypes in flies, several mutations have been identified in the regulatory regions of Tlx in humans with microcephary. Given the commonality in progenitor control, further studies of the Drosophila MB-Nbs may shed light on the molecular basis of the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, and would provide important cues for understanding progenitor disorders in the human brain (Kurusu, 2009).
Bases in 5' UTR - 189
Bases in 3' UTR - 442
The Tailless repressor has an N-terminal DNA binding domain and a C-terminal hormone binding domain. It is identified as a steroid receptor superfamily protein (Pignoni, 1990). Tailless is an orphan nuclear receptor, meaning that although it possesses a hormone binding domain, no hormone has been identified that can bind to this domain. Although the ligand binding domain is conserved, the effects of mutation are felt most strongly in the DNA binding domain. The ligand binding domain of Tailless and mammalian homolog contains a conserved putative dimerization domain (consisting of seven heptad repeats). There is some evidence that the protein binds DNA as a dimer (Diaz, 1996).
date revised: 15 August 98
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