logo Alphabetical list of genes

Genes E - F - G - H - I - J - K --[Genes A-D -- Genes L-R -- Genes S-Z ]

E

E2F transcription factor
positively regulates genes involved in the S (DNA synthesis) phase of the cell cycle -
alternate transcripts are necessary for maintenance of cell cycle exit during development -
required during late myogenesis to directly control the expression of a set of muscle-specific genes

E2F transcription factor 2
negatively regulates genes involved in the S (DNA synthesis) phase of the cell cycle -
Retinoblastoma family 2 is required for the tissue-specific repression of dE2F2 target genes

eagle
nuclear receptor - zinc finger - involved in the determination the cell fate of serotonergic neurons and axon pathfinding

earmuff
zinc finger transcription factor - functions cell-autonomously to maintain the restricted developmental potential of the intermediate neural progenitors
generated by type II neuroblasts in Drosophila larval brains

easily shocked
ethanolamine kinase - catalyzes the first step of the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine, one of the three major membrane
phospholipids - a behavioral mutant that belongs to a family of bang-sensitive paralytic mutants - required in
mushroom body neuroblasts to allow a rapid rate of cell division at metamorphosis

easter
required for establishment of embryonic polarity - secreted serine protease, trypsin family - generates processed Späzle,
which in turn acts as the Toll ligand - restricted to the dorso-ventral patterning of the embryo

eater
EGF-like repeat transmembrane protein located on phagocytic cells - mediates resistence to bacteria

Eb1
microtubule end-binding protein - controls the plus end of growing microtubules - targets other microtubule-associated
proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of microtubules with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores,
and different cellular organelles

ebi
Trp-Asp (WD) repeats protein - regulates Egfr pathway & protein degradation - cellular defense and sensory cell survival
require distinct functions of ebi - modulates wing growth by ubiquitin-dependent downregulation of Crumbs

ebony
an β-alanyl-dopamine synthase regulating β-alanyl conjugation of dopamine and histamine, thus 'trapping' these biogenic amines
preventing their further function - regulates pigmentation, photoreceptor activity and behavioral rhythmicity

E-cadherin (preferred name: shotgun)
E-cadherin homolog - regulates cell aggregation preventing mixing of cells at tissue boundaries -
required for the maintenance of ring canals anchoring to mechanically withstand tissue growth - reduction in adherens junction
components, including E-cadherin during remodeling junctions between apoptotic and non-dying cells

Ecdysis triggering hormone
Regulates the process of preecdysis and ecdysis behaviors in the process shedding of the old cuticle

Ecdysone-induced protein 75B
nuclear receptor - ensures proper temporal progression of larval development -
nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via E75

Ecdysone-inducible gene L2
a secreted protein that binds Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 and inhibits growth non-autonomously

Ecdysone-induced protein 63E
cyclin dependent kinase that plays a role in cell differentiation rather than in cell division

Ecdysone-induced protein 74EF
ETS domain transcription factor that encodes two isoforms that control the timing of gene induction during molting

Ecdysone-induced protein 93F
Pipsqueak family transcription factor - programs a cell death response
during larval development - Eip93F transcription is steroid-regulated

ecdysoneless
physically interacts with several components of the U5 snRPN pre-mRNA splicing complex - mutants
disrupt production of the steroid hormone ecdysone causing developmental and reproductive defects -
loss of function results in intron retention within spookier, accounting for ecdysone deficiency in mutants

Ecdysone receptor
transcription factor - nuclear receptor - zinc finger - regulates molting cycles and oogenesis

Eclosion hormone
neuropeptide - acts directly on the CNS to release the stereotyped motor programs that trigger the shedding of the old cuticle at the end of each molt

echinoid & friend of echinoid
cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) - Ig and fibronectin domains proteins - The genes are adjacent to one another and co-ordinately regulated -
Echinoid acts to antagonize Egf receptor signaling - Friend of echinoid exhibits interaction with the Notch pathway

effete
E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme - mediates anaphase-promoting complex degradation - controls germ-line stem cell maintenance
by targeting Cyclin A - regulates programmed cell death and neuronal process remodeling

egalitarian
RNA binding protein - participates along with BicaudalD in transport of mRNA during oogenesis - salivary gland morphogenesis

egghead
glycosyltransferase - required for glycosphingolipid sugar chain elongation - affects extracellular Gurken gradiant
by controlling Gurken planar transport in the extracellular space

eggless
SET domain hydroxymethyltransferase required for oogenesis - trimethylates histone H3 at its K9 residue - involved in gene silencing

eIF4E-Homologous Protein
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E - a cap binding protein that inhibits hunchback, caudal and bicoid mRNA translation

eiger
TNF superfamily; type II membrane protein - ligand of Wengen that induces cell death by activating the JNK pathway

18 wheeler
transmembrane - leucine-rich repeat motif (LRR) - a critical component of the humoral immune response

elbow B
zinc finger transcription factor - specifies distinct tracheal cell fates -
interacts with the transcription factor Orthodenticle, a crucial regulator of rhodopsin gene transcription

ELL (preferred name: Su(Tpl))
occludin homology domain protein - a Pol II elongation factor capable of stimulating the rate of transcription

embryonic lethal abnormal vision (common alternative name: elav)
RNA binding protein - a pan-neural gene required for correct differentiation and maintenance of the nervous system

empty spiracles
transcription factor - homeodomain - required for head development and brain morphogenesis -
required for the development of olfactory projection neuron circuitry

enabled
VASP homolog and SH3 domain protein - acts as processive actin polymerase, stimulating actin addition at the barbed end -
cytoskeletal adaptor protein acting in epithelial morphogenesis - implicated in axonal outgrowth and fasciculation

encore
uring oogenesis Encore physically interacts with the proteasome, protein degradation factor Cul1 and Cyclin E -
in encore mutant germaria Cyclin E degradation is compromised, thus impairing exit from cystoblast cell divison

Endostatin (preferred name: Multiplexin)
homolog of Collagen XV/XVIII, a matrix protein that can be proteolytically cleaved to release Endostatin, an antiangiogenesis signaling factor -
required for normal calcium channel abundance, presynaptic calcium influx, and neurotransmitter release - functions in motor axon pathfinding

engrailed
transcription factor - homeodomain - engrailed class - segment polarity gene - involved in compartment identity and boundary formation -
positively regulates the hh and negatively regulates the Hedgehog targets ci, ptc and dpp

Enhancer of bithorax
major subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (nurf) - multiple domain protein with HMGI/Y and bromodomain motifs - interacts physically
and functionally with the TRF2/DREF basal transcription factor to organize nucleosomes downstream of active promoters

Enhancer of Polycomb
novel Polycomb group protein and a suppressor of position effect variegation -
acts with extra sex combs to increase homologous recombination in somatic cells

Enhancer of split m7, helix-loop-helix
neurogenic bHLH transcription factor - Hairy/E(spl) class - an inhibitor of neural fate - Hairy/E(spl) class - E(spl)m7 and E(spl)m8
proteins are involved in the antagonistic regulation of the proneural gene senseless
and also regulate the expression of one or more of proneural target genes

Enhancer of split m8, helix-loop-helix
transcription factor - bHLH - Hairy/E(spl) class - neurogenic gene - target of Notch pathway -
Casein kinase II regulates lateral-inhibition during eye and bristle development by targeting E(spl) repressors

Enhancer of yellow 3 (common alternative name: SAYP)
Trithorax group protein, constituent PBAP chromatin remodeling complex, a coactivator supercomplex consisting of Brahma and TFIID;
participates in ecdysone-dependent transcriptional regulation

Enhancer of zeste
transcription factor - polycomb group with trithorax homology - chromatin associated - catalytic component of the Polycomb
Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) methyltransferase that methylates histone H3 lysine27 -together with PRC1, PRC2
silences developmental genes to determine specific differentiated cell identities

ensconsin
a conserved microtubule-associated protein - promotes productive recruitment of kinesin to microtubules

Eph receptor tyrosine kinase
receptor tyrosine kinase involved in axon pathfinding - functions in shaping of the wing compartment boundary

Ephrin
functions as a ligand for Eph receptor - expressed on the surface of neuron cell bodies - acts to confine Eph receptor bearing axons to longitudinal tracts by repulsion

Epidermal growth factor receptor (common alternative name: Torpedo)
transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase for signaling ligands in the TGFα family (Gurken, Spitz, Vein, and Keren) -
utilises the intracellular MAP kinase pathway - during oogenesis helps set up egg polarity, determines the identity of cells in the ectoderm -
during larval stages participates in the development of the eye and wing - regulates growth, cell survival and developmental patterning

erect wing
nuclear respiratory factor-1 transcription factor - regulates synaptic growth -
regulates spatio-temporal coordination of cell cycle exit, fusion and differentiation of adult muscle precursors

escargot
transcription factor - zinc finger - regulates the cell cycle in histoblasts - Escargot and Scratch regulate neural commitment by
antagonizing Notch-activity in sensory organs - controls the sequential specification of two tracheal tip cell types by suppressing FGF signaling

E(spl) region transcript m4
Bearded family - required to positively transduce the Notch signal during neurogenesis, and presumably during bristle development as well

estrogen-related receptor
transcription factor - nuclear receptor - regulates a coordinate switch in gene expression that drives a metabolic program normally
associated with proliferating cells - supports growth during larval development

ETHR (common alternative name: Ecdysis triggering hormone receptor)
G-protein coupled receptor - scheduling successive behavioral steps in the ecdysis, regulation of pupal and adult ecdysis

Ets at 97D
Ets domain transcription factor - homolog of the alpha subunit of mammalian NRF-2/GABP - required for proper expression of most genes encoding mitochondrial proteins -
regulator of mitochondrial number and mass - required for proper follicle cell migration, chorion formation, and nurse cell chromosome decondensation

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E
binds to the mRNA 5' cap thus controlling a crucial step in translation initiation - required for cell growth -
promotes dedifferentiation of neuroblasts back to a stem cell-like state thus functioning as an oncogene -
a target of Ago2 in translational repression - functions as a splice factor for msl-2 and Sxl pre-mRNAs

even-skipped
transcription factor - homeodomain - pair rule gene establishing epidermal cell fate -
aCC motoneuron identity is specified by a genetic cascade involving even-skipped, grain and zfh1 -
zfh-1 and even-skipped are required for cardiac-specific differentiation of a numb-dependent lineage decision

Excitatory amino acid transporter 1
transmembrane excitatory amino acid transporter expressed in glial cells - tightly regulates
extracellular glutamate levels to control neurotransmission functions in locomotor behavior

exo84
exocyst complex 84-kDa subunit Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain protein - involved in apical polarity of epithelial tissue -
the exocyst complex functions in polarized exocytosis

expanded
Band 4.1 protein with three potential SH3-binding sites - localization to adherens junctions allows Expanded
to exert effects on multiple processes involved in disc development, including
effects on cell proliferation, cell fate determination, and tissue polarity

extra-extra
a homeodomain transcription factor - regulates motorneuron cell fate by restricting expression of Even-skipped and Lim2 -
dHb9 expressing larval motor neurons persist through metamorphosis to innervate adult-specific muscle targets and function in Drosophila eclosion

extra macrochaetae
transcription factor - HLH non basic - antagonist of proneural genes - the Notch pathway
is required in combination with Emc to define the proneural cluster which gives rise to the sensory organ precursor cell

extra sexcombs
Polycomb group - WD40 domain - a component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) - in combination with
Enhancer of zeste and histone deacetylases, promotes gene silencing - required for proper morphogenesis of sensory neuron dendrites

extradenticle
TALE-class homeodomain transcription factor - cooperatively interacts with homeotic proteins to increase the specificity of homeotic protein
binding to DNA - Engrailed cooperates directly with Extradenticle and Homothorax on a distinct class of homeodomain binding sites to
repress sloppy paired - controls dendritic and axonal targeting of olfactory projection neurons in the brain - control adult muscle fiber identity

exuperantia
a noncanonical RNA-binding protein with EXO-SAM-like domain architecture that interacts with its target RNA as a homodimer
a core component of a large protein complex involved in localizing mRNAs both within nurse cells and the developing oocyte

eyegone
Pax family transcription factor that acts as a transcriptional repressor -
promotes cell proliferation in the larval eye disc through activation of Jak/STAT pathway -
plays both positive and negative roles in head vortex development

eyeless
transcription factor - homeodomain & pax domain - plays a crucial role in eye and
brain development - controls the production of glial cells in the visual center -
a temporal network transcription factor that controls neural fate of optic lobe medulla neuroblasts - eyeless, twin of eyeless,
and dachshund control development of the mushroom bodies, the associative learning centers in the Drosophila brain

eyelid (preferred name: osa)
transcription factor - Bright family - associates with the Brahma chromatin remodeling complex - antagonizes Wingless signaling
during Drosophila development and affects patterning of the eye imaginal disc

eyes absent (common alternative name: Clift)
transcriptional co-activator and protein tyrosine phosphatase - cell survival factor - functions in eye development -
also plays a role in the embryonic determination of somatic gonadal precursor (SGP) cell fate -
Retinal axon guidance requires integration of Eya and the JAK/STAT pathway into phosphotyrosine-based signaling circuitries

eyes closed (preferred name: prominin)
five transmembrane protein - a fly homolog of p47, a protein co-factor of the p97 ATPase involved in membrane fusion
- mutation results in a lethal failure of nuclear envelope assembly in early zygotic divisions and results in defective photoreceptor morphogenesis

eyes shut
a proteoglycan secreted into the ommatidial apical matrix - critical for the formation of epithelial lumina in the fly retina -
forms an extracellular shield that guards mechanosensory neurons from environmental insult

F

fab1
phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase - controls vesicular trafficking but not silencing of endocytosed receptors, including Wingless and Notch -
functions in negative regulation of cell volume - regulates autophagy by being required for the maturation of autolysosomes

faint sausage
Ig superfamily - involved in neural cell migration and axon pathfinding

falafel
Protein Phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit - regulatory of neuroblast asymmetric divisions a key mediator specific for
the asymmetric localization of Miranda and associated cell fate determinants during both interphase and mitosis

Fasciclin I
lipid linked novel protein - homophilic cell adhesion molecule that acts in axon guidance

Fasciclin II
transmembrane - NCAM homolog - Ig superfamily - controls number and stability of neuromuscular synapses -
regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

Fasciclin III
transmembrane - cam - novel - aids in cell adhesion, axon pathfinding and fasciculation ensuring proper muscle innervation

fat
cadherin domain transmembrane receptor that negatively controls cell proliferation - also functions in planar polarity -
Fat functions in the Hippo signaling pathway and the Dachsous-Fat planar cell polarity pathway

fat facets
conserved Cys and His domains - ubiquitin-specific protease - plays multiple roles in eye and oocyte development -
Fat facets and Liquid facets promote Delta endocytosis and Delta signaling

fat-like (common alternative names: kugelei, fat2)
a cadherin related to Fat - required for the planar polarity of actin filament orientation
at the basal side of ovarian follicle cells - acts non-autonomously in follicle cells in the transmission of polarity information
required for morphogenesis and maintenance of tubular structures of ectodermal origin

fear of intimacy
transmembrane domain protein - FICL family - zinc transporter - required in the mesoderm
for gonad morphogenesis - required for tracheal branch fusion - controls glial cell migration

female sterile (1) homeotic
double-bromodomain protein - trithorax group gene that cooperates with Zeste in Ultrabithorax activation - regulates dendrite morphology

female sterile (3) homeless (preferred name: spindle E)
DE-H family of RNA-dependent ATPases - possible roles during oocyte development in RNA processing, transport, or stabilization -
required to maintain Aub and AGO3 protein levels for piRNA silencing in the Drosophila germline

female sterile (1) Yb (common alternative name: Yb)
tudor domain RNA helicase, post-transcriptional gene regulation - regulates transposon silencing via the piRNA pathway -
component of the Yb body, a site for Piwi-associated RNA biogenesis, regulates Piwi transport to the nucleus

FER ortholog (H. sapiens) (common alternative name: Fps oncogene analog)
Fes/Fer non-receptor tyrosine kinases - regulates cell adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganisation through the modification
of adherens junctions -
cooperates with Src42A to activate dpp expression in leading edge cells during dorsal closure

Ferritin 1 heavy chain homologue and Ferritin 2 light chain homologue
iron storage proteins; ferroxidase and iron core nucleation- combines three functions:
iron storage, intercellular iron transport, and protection from iron-induced oxidative stress

fgf-receptor homolog 1 (preferred name: heartless - common alternative name: DFR1)
receptor tyrosine kinase - involved in the development of mesodermal and neuronal cells - supports Drosophila fertility by
regulating development of ovarian muscle tissues - Pebble is required for cell shape changes during cell migration triggered by Heartless

Fife
a presynaptic scaffolding protein of the neuromuscular junction - active zone cytomatrix - homeostatic modulation of
neurotransmission - organizes active zones to create synaptic vesicle release sites

fizzy
WD40 domain protein - homolog of Cdc20 - required for the activity of the anaphase promoting complex in mitosis -
functions to target the three mitotic cyclins A, B and B3 for destruction in the egg and drive anaphase progression during meiosis

fizzy related (preferred name: retina aberrant in pattern)
Trp-Asp repeat (WD-repeat) protein - negatively regulates the levels of cyclins A, B and B3 thus promoting mitosis -
Notch-dependent Fizzy-related expression is required for the mitotic-to-endocycle transition in follicle cells

flamingo (preferred name: starry night)
Cadherin-related 7TM protein involved in tissue polarity -
epithelial microRNA-9a regulates dendrite growth through Fmi-Gq signaling in Drosophila sensory neurons

flapwing
Isoform of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 - regulates nonmuscle myosin by dephosphorylating the myosin II regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash)

flower
Transmembrane protein - expressed in 'loser' cells to mediate win/lose decisions in cell competition by means of differentially expressed isoforms

Fmr1
KH domain RNA-binding protein - homolog of mammalian Fragile X mental retardation gene - represses Futsch translation - mutants have synaptic structural defects

FMRFamide-related
neuropeptide of unknown function in Drosophila expressed in sets of brain and ventral cord neurons -
induces contractions in Drosophila body wall muscle fibers in a Ca2+ -dependent manner -
Retrograde Gbb signaling through the Bmp type 2 receptor Wishful Thinking regulates systemic FMRFa expression

Focal adhesion kinase-like
non-receptor tyrosine kinaseinvolved in integrin signaling - targets multiple cytoskeletal and signal transduction proteins -
functions include embryonic muscle attachement, morphogensis of the optic stalk,
synaptic growth and transmission, and in the regulation of RTK-MAP kinase signaling in epithelia

folded gastrulation
secreted - novel protein - regulates gastrulation via GPCRs - necessary for coordination of cell shape changes throughout the
invaginating primordia - regulates motor axon guidance, glial organization and morphogenesis

Follicle cell protein 26Aa (preferred name: palisade)
multi-domain protein that acts during oogenesis to coordinate assembly of the vitelline membrane -
required for functional properties of the eggshell

follistatin (accepted FlyBase name: Fs)
modulates TGF-β ligand signaling - inhibits activin-β signaling but activates Dawdle

foraging
cGMP-dependent protein kinase - controls feeding behavior and locomotion - regulates motor axon guidance in Drosophila by
suppressing Lola function - inhibition of For extends the upper temperature limit of stimulus-evoked calcium
responses in motoneuronal boutons of Drosophila larvae behavior

fork head
winged-helix nuclear transcription factor - plays two roles in the formation of the embryonic salivary glands: an early role
in promoting survival of the secretory cells, and a later role in secretory cell invagination works with bHLH protein Sage
to activate expression of salivary gland specific gene products, such as secreted proteins and their modifying enzymes

Forkhead box P
forkhead domain transcription factor - a highly conserved transcription factor known for its importance in human speech
and language production - reduced expression in Drosophila leads to decreased levels of courtship behavior, altered
pulse-song structure, and sex-specific motor impairments in walking and flight

forkhead domain 3F
required for the specialization of mechanosensory cilium of chordotonal neurons

Fos-related antigen (preferred name: kayak)
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - regulates dorsal closure - also required downstream from Decapentaplegic signaling for the regulation
of labial in the midgut - interplay among Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy -
Fos repression by Piwi regulates ovarian germline formation and tissue morphogenesis

4E-BP (preferred name: Thor)
messenger RNA 5' cap binding protein - regulates translation during environmental stress -
Ecdysone promotes growth of imaginal discs through the regulation of Thor
Acute fasting regulates retrograde synaptic enhancement through a 4E-BP-dependent mechanism

4EHP (preferred name: eIF4E-Homologous Protein)
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E - a cap binding protein that inhibits hunchback, caudal and bicoid mRNA translation -
essential for the larval-pupal transition and required in the prothoracic gland for ecdysone biosynthesis

four-jointed
transmembrane protein kinase that targets Fat and its transmembrane ligand Dachsous - conveys positional information in the leg and eye -
regulates control of planar polarity in epithelia and also growth via the Hippo/Warts pathway

14-3-3ε
regulates the activity of cellular proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by binding as a dimer to phosphoserine/threonine-containing motifs -
acts as a cofactor for PAR-1 by binding to proteins that are phosphorylated by the PAR-1 kinase

14-3-3zeta (common alternative name name: leonardo)
a 14-3-3zeta isoform - a phosphoserine/threonine interacting protein - positively regulates
Ras-mediated signaling in the development of the compound eye - also involved in facilitating olfactory learning

foxo
forkhead domain transcription factor - a target of the insulin receptor signaling pathway - modulates growth and proliferation -
regulates RNA interference and protects from RNA virus infection - promotes Wingless signaling -
A Toll receptor-FoxO pathway represses Pavarotti/MKLP1 to promote microtubule dynamics in motoneurons

Fps oncogene analog [Preferred name: FER ortholog (H. sapiens)]
Fes/Fer non-receptor tyrosine kinases - regulates cell adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganisation through the modification
of adherens junctions - regulates dorsal closure

frayed
serine/threonine kinase - PAK family - required for normal axonal ensheathment

frazzled
Ig superfamily - functions as a Netrin receptor in axon pathfinding - promotes growth cone attachment at the source of a Netrin gradient in the visual system

fringe
secreted glycosyltransferase involved boundary formation - Notch antagonist that functions by targeting extracellular domain of Notch -
Chip and Beadex function antagonistically on Notch signaling through directly regulation of fringe transcription

frizzled
transmembrane - 7 pass - frizzled family - receptor for Wingless - tissue polarity gene - a part of Wnt signaling and planar cell polarity pathways

frizzled2
transmembrane - 7 pass - frizzled family - receptor for Wingless - tissue polarity gene - maturation
of a central brain flight circuit in requires Fz2/Ca++ signaling

frizzled3
transmembrane - 7 pass - frizzled family - antagonizes wingless signal

fruitless
zinc finger transcription factor - sex determination - regulates mating behavior - specifies sexually dimorphic neural circuitry in the brain

Fs (common alternative name: Follistatin)
modulates TGF-β ligand signaling - inhibits activin-β signaling but activates Dawdle

ftz transcription factor 1
transcription factor - nuclear receptor - zinc finger - bridges early and late gene expression during the process of metamorphosis -
acetylations of Ftz-F1 and histone H4K5 are required for the fine-tuning of ecdysone biosynthesis during metamorphosis

FTZ-F2 (preferred name: tramtrack)
transcription factor - zinc finger - represses neural cell fate in the peripheral nervous system - a master repressor of
enteroendocrine cell specification in intestinal stem cell lineages - regulates morphogenetic events during tracheal development

furrowed
selectin (carbohydrate binding protein) - mutants have defects in eye patterning and in cell determination of the ommatidia and bristles -
mediates intercellular planar cell polarity interactions via Frizzled stabilization

furry
conserved protein that is required for Tricornered activity in control of wing hair and bristle morphology -
controls dendritic branching and tiling in sensory neurons

fused
serine/threonine kinase - segment polarity gene - cytoplasmic component of Hedgehog signaling pathway - Phosphorylation of the
atypical kinesin Costal2 by Fused induces the partial disassembly of the Smoothened-Fused-Costal2-Cubitus interruptus complex in Hedgehog signalling

fushi tarazu
transcription factor - homeodomain - Antp class - pair rule gene - modulates Runt-dependent activation and repression of segment-polarity gene transcription

futsch
microtubule-associated protein regulating axon guidance - Futsch/MAP1B mRNA is a translational target
of TDP-43 and is neuroprotective in a Drosophila model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

G

GABA-B-R1, GABA-B-R2 and GABA-B-R3
metabotropic GABA-B receptors - G-protein coupled receptor - expressed by pheromone-sensing olfactory receptor neurons
which as a consequence exhibit strong presynaptic inhibition - mediates inter-glomerular inhibition - responsible
for decreased intracellular calcium of clock neurons blocking their calcium cycling

Gadd45
exhibits a genetic interaction with JNK pathway affecting egg asymmetry in the oocyte; induced by wounding in embryos

GAGA (preferred name: Trithorax like)
transcription factor - zinc finger - btb domain - a transcriptional activator that functions by influencing chromatin structure - directs histone H3.3
replacement that prevents the heterochromatin spreading - modulates transcriptional pausing and organization of upstream nucleosome

gamma-tubulin ring protein 84
gamma-tubulin associated protein required for aspects of microtubule nucleation, dynamics and organization both in interphase and mitosis

gammy legs (preferred name: pygopus)
nuclear PHD-finger protein - a core component of the Wingless signaling pathway that acts downstream of or at the level of Pangolin

gastrulation-defective
a maternally supplied protease involved in establishment of dorsal/ventral polarity - targets Snake

gata-2 (preferred name: pannier)
transcription factor - zinc finger - GATA family - a local repressor of achaete and scute that is required for the
normal pattern of sensory bristles - a dorsal eye selector gene that suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin
of the Drosophila eye - required to establish competence for heart progenitor formation

GATAe
GATA family zinc finger transcription factor - Required downstream of serpent for the expression of specific genes in the differentiated midgut -
regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and differentiation in adult midgut

gawky
RNA-binding protein - glycine-tryptophan (GW) repeat protein required for P-body integrity -
promotes mRNA deadenylation, decapping and degradation

GCN2
protein kinase that promotes avoidance of the essential amino acid-deficient diet - blocks translation initiation
through eIF2a phosphorylation - required for infection-induced host translational blockage

Gcn5 ortholog
a major histone H3 acetylase in Drosophila that plays a key role in the control of specific morphogenetic cascades during
developmental transitions - CP190 binds to and recruits Gcn5 and thereby activates chromatin

GDI interacting protein 3 (common alternative name: Armless)
ubiquitin-like protein that functions in protein degradation - required for Wingless target gene expression

Ge-1
a molecular scaffold that brings together decapping enzymes and activators that are involved in silencing of microRNA targets

geminin
limits DNA replication by preventing Mcm loading onto chromatin - an inhibitor of the origin binding protein Double parked/Cdt1

genderblind
glutamate permease - regulates ambient extracellular glutamate to suppress glutamatergic synapse strength - controls mate choice

Genghis Kahn
similar to myotonic dystrophy protein kinase - regulates cytoskeletal dynamics - GTPase effector that is
required for columnar target specificity in the Drosophila visual system

germ cell-less
chromatin component - BTB/POZ domain protein- responsible for establishment of transcriptional quiescence
in germ cells - a key regulator of centrosome separation required for proper primordial germ cell development

giant
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - gap gene - regulates ecdysone production through specification of the PTTH-producing neurons

gigas
Rap1 GAP domain protein - tuberous sclerosis-2 homolog - regulates growth rate -
modifies the insulin pathway - maintains Drosophila germline stem cells by preventing differentiation

gilgamesh
Casein kinase 1 γ homolog - interacts Arrow to modify Wingless signaling - mutants show a defect in spermatid individualization -
required to potentiate Wingless signaling in limb development - acts in the posterior region of the eye disc to prevent precocious glial cell migration

glass
transcription factor - zinc finger - required for normal development of photoreceptor cells in a larval photoreceptor known as Bolwig's organ,
in the adult compound eye and in adult simple eyes, known as ocelli

glass bottom boat (common alternative name: Transforming growth factor beta at 60A)
TGF-beta superfamily - BMP 7 homolog - potentiates dpp signaling - High fat diet-induced Gbb signaling provokes insulin resistance
through the tribbles expression - gates the expression of synaptic homeostasis independent of synaptic growth control

glial cells missing
transcription factor - novel - required for glial cell fate - controlling hemocyte and tendon cell differentiation - controls initiation of collective cell migration by regulating Frazzled

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic family receptor-like
a GPI-anchored membrane protein with four GDNF family receptor-like domains - regulates oogenesis and male fertility -
expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems

Gliolectin
lectin (carbohydrate binding protein) - regulates cell adhesion in midline glia - enriched in Golgi bodies - a positive regulator of Notch signalling during wing development

Gliotactin
transmembrane - novel serine esterase homolog - functions in glia to ensure a secure blood-brain barrier -
located to tricellular junctions and is critical for the formation of tricellular and septate junctions and permeability barrier function

gluon
condensin subunit SMC4 - involved in mitotic chromatin condensation

Glutamate receptor IIA and Glutamate receptor IIB
transmembrane Ca2+ channel protein - expressed on muscular synaptic boutons targeted by motor neurons

Golden goal
transmembrane receptor that is dynamically expressed in all photoreceptor neurons and localizes
predominantly to growth cones - regulates axon-axon and axon-target interactions in R8
photoreceptor axon - acts as a functional partner of Flamingo for R8 photoreceptor axon targeting in the medulla

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (common alternative name: Adipokinetic hormone receptor)
GPCR - involved in storage-fat mobilization - essential to adjust normal body fat content
and ensure lifelong fat-storage homeostasis - functional analog of the mammalian glucagon receptor

gooseberry-neuro (common alternative name: gsb-p)
transcription factor - homeodomain - paired domain - regulates neuroblast cell fate - functions redundently with gooseberry

gooseberry (common alternative name: gsb-d)
transcription factor - homeodomain - paired domain - regulates neuroblast cell fate

Goosecoid
transcription factor - homeodomain - paired-like - regulates cell fate in the brain and stomatogastric nervous system

G protein αi subunit 65A
G protein α subunit involved in regulating asymmetric cell division - Ric-8 regulates Gαi cortical localization
to promote Gαi-dependent planar orientation of the mitotic spindle during asymmetric cell division

G protein β-subunit 13F
β subunit of heterotrimeric G protein complex - maternal expression involved in oogenesis - zygotic expression involved in
regulating the Wnt pathway, asymmetric cell division, wing maturation and maintaining cardiac integrity

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
Serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in a receptor-mediated signaling pathway that utilizes cAMP as a second messenger -
involved in oogenesis and implicated in learning

G protein α o subunit
G protein alpha subunit - regulates mesenchymal-epithelial transition that takes place in cardial cells and precursor cells of the visceral musculature

G protein α s subunit
s-α subunit of heterotrimeric G protein - regulates cyclic AMP second messenger system - functions in learning

grapes
kinase - Chk1 homolog - cell cycle checkpoint protein - grp replication-checkpoint
mutations and DNA damage trigger a Chk2-dependent block at the Drosophila midblastula transition

grain (common alternative name: dGATAc)
zinc finger - GATA family - required during development for shaping the adult legs and the larval posterior spiracles

grainy head
a maternally expressed bHLH transcription factor that regulates precise timing of gene expression
early in development - a key regulator of epidermal barrier formation and repair - a temporally
expressed regulator of neural cell identity functioning during embryonic and larval development

Gram-negative bacteria binding protein 3
a pattern recognition receptor that is required for the detection of fungal cell wall components -
required for Toll pathway activation in response to fungal infections

grappa
a histone methyltransferase that modifies the lysine 79 residue of histone H3 - necessary for the maintenance
phase of Bithorax complex expression - has characteristics of both polycomb- and trithorax-group genes

Grasp65
signaling protein that exhibits a dynamic association to the membrane of the early exocytic pathway and is involved building the Golgi stack

greatwall
kinase that coordinates with Polo for mitotic progression - absence of Gwl during meiosis results in excessive and/or premature Polo activity
leading to premature loss of sister chromatid cohesion

grim
pro-apoptotic protein whose N-terminus functions by disrupting IAP binding to caspases -
an additional mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic function carried out by a centrally located GH3 domain

grindelwald
tumour necrosis factor receptor - JNK signalling - integrates apoptotic functions from Eiger
with signaling from apical polarity determinants to induce JNK-dependent cell death or tumour growth

Grip
Scaffolding and signaling protein - participates in the reception of an attractive signal that emanates
from muscle epidermal attachment sites to direct the motility of developing muscles

groovin (preferred name: short stop)
cytoskeletal cross-linker protein - expressed in the tendons and is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation -
required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the Drosophila embryo

groucho
transcription factor - WD40 domain - E(spl) complex - partners transcriptional repressors by functioning as a co-repressor

Growth-blocking peptide
a secreted cytokine that mediates acute innate immune reactions through association with IMD - activates Phospholipase C
which promotes increases in the levels of inositol phosphates involved in intracellular signaling - regulates larval growth

Grunge
transcriptional cofactor for Even-skipped - positive regulator of teashirt - homolog of mammalian Atrophin

GTPase-activating protein 1
Ras GTPase-activating protein with PH domain and C2-domain - functions in cone cell precursors to down-regulate Ras1

Guanylyl cyclase at 76C
cGMP production - receptor-type protein possessing a single transmembrane
domain - required for Semaphorin-1a-Plexin A directed repulsive axon guidance

guftagu (common alternative name: Cul-3)
Cullen-3 homolog acting in protein degradation - loss of function has pleiotropic effects during development,
including defects in external sensory organ development, pattern formation and cell growth and survival - targets Cubitus interruptus

GUK-holder
Scaffolding protein involved in synaptic budding - interacts with the GUK domain of Discs large - required for the proper synaptic localization of Scribbled

gurken
TGFß homolog - EGF-R ligand - required for anterior-posterior and dorsoventral patterning of the egg and
embryo - Syntaxin A1 is associated with the Golgi membrane and is required for the transportation of Grk-containing
vesicles along the microtubules to their dorsal anterior destination in the oocyte

Gustatory receptor 5a (common alternative name:Trehalose-sensitivity)
G-protein coupled receptor - Taste receptor - input from sugar-sensitive neurons in the labellar, tarsal, and other gustatory
organs controls the proboscis extension reflex and the feeding behavior

Gustatory receptor 21a and Gustatory receptor 63a
GPCRs that confer CO2-chemosensation in Drosophila

Gustatory receptor 43a
nutrient sensor for hemolymph fructose - promotes feeding in hungry flies but suppresses feeding in satiated flies

Gustatory receptor 64a
taste receptor - response to sugar - a primary receptors used in the labellum to detect sugars

Gustatory receptor 66a
7 transmembrane protein - taste receptor - mediates aversion to bitter taste in the labellum, pharynx, legs, wings, and abdomen
- mediates suppression of feeding behavior by the insect repellent DEET - mediates aversion to caffeine

Gustatory receptor 68a
an essential component of pheromone-driven courtship behavior

gutfeeling (preferred name: Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme)
modifies the activity of Ornithine decarboxylase - regulates the nuclear entry and overall levels of Sex-lethal in early germ cells

H

H15 and midline
T-box transcription factors that participate in cardiac fate specificity - Midline regulates
axon guidance by blocking the reiteration of neuroblast rows within the Drosophila ventral nerve cord

Hairless
novel basic protein - a major antagonist of the Notch signaling-pathway - associates with Suppressor of Hairless, thereby inhibiting trans-activation of Notch target genes

hairy
transcription factor - bHLH - Hairy/E(spl) class - during embryogenesis it participates as a primary pair-rule gene in the establishment of segments -
in the larval stage it functions negatively in determining the pattern of sensory bristles on the adult fly.

Hairy/E(spl)-related with YRPW motif
bHLH-Orange protein family - expressed in a subset of newly born neurons that receive Notch signalling -
promotes one of two alternative fates adopted by sibling neurons

half pint (preferred name: poly-U-binding splicing factor)
RNA recognition motif protein - functions in both constitutive and alternative splicing - required during
oogenesis - functions in Myc transcriptional repression and cell growth control, via interaction with the transcription factor Haywire.

hamlet
zinc finger - regulates cell identity in the peripheral nervous system - a binary genetic switch that acts to repress a multiple dendritic arbor
and promote single-dendrite morphology - controls nociceptive behavior in sensory neurons

Hand
Member of a conserved family of bHLH transcription factors that performs a conserved function in cardiogenesis - also required for hematopoiesis

hangover
a nuclear RNA binding protein that regulates dunce transcript levels, bouton growth at the neuromuscular
junction, and cellular stress in response to ethanol, heat and paraquat

happyhour
a MAP4K3 that regulates TOR activity detected by phosphorylation of S6K and 4EBP - required for amino acids to stimulate
TOR complex activity - binds physically to the Rag GTPases - promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis

HDAC6
a microtubule-associated deacetylase - interacts with polyubiquitinated proteins to stimulate autophagy
as a compensatory degradation system when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is impaired

headcase
novel basic protein - expression prefigures the mitotic activation of imaginal tissue proliferation - regulates tracheal branching

head involution defective (common alternative name: Wrinkled)
death domain protein - programmed cell death - cell death function required for the movement of the dorsal fold
across the procephalon and clypeolabrum, a process that forms the frontal sac

heartbroken (preferred name: stumps)
novel signal transduction protein functioning downstream of two FGF receptors -
mutations are associated with defects in the migration and later specification of mesodermal and tracheal cells wg
via stabilization of the negative elongation factor complex - promotes anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome function during cell cycle exit -
acts to generate neuroblast cortical polarity - acts to prevent phenotypic variation

hedgehog
Hedgehog N-terminal signaling domain and C-terminal autoprocessing domain - helps establish embryonic segmentation - a segment polarity
intercellular signaling protein - cooperates with Frazzled to guide axons through a non-canonical signalling
pathway - A local difference in Hedgehog signal transduction increases mechanical
cell bond tension and biases cell intercalations along the Drosophila anteroposterior compartment boundary

held out wings
KH motif - putative RNA-binding protein - functions in the migration and attachment of somatic muscle cells - targets Dpp mRNA -
cell divisions in the embryonic mesoderm are repressed via posttranscriptional regulation of string/cdc25 by How - repression
of the Drosophila midkine and pleiotrophin homolog miple by HOW is essential for correct mesoderm spreading

Helicase at 25E (common alternative name: UAP56)
DExH/D RNA helicase required in the nucleus for mRNA export - required in the cytoplasm for remodeling
the transacting factors that dictate mRNA cytoplasmic destination

Helix loop helix protein 106 (common alternative name: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein, SREBP)
bHLH-leucine zipper transcription factor - membrane bound HLH106 is released by phosphatidylethanolamine, exerting feedback control
on the synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids - cleavage by Drice releases an SREBP fragment to travel to the nucleus
where it mediates the increased transcription of target genes needed for lipid synthesis and uptake

hemiperous
a serine/threonine protein kinase (MapKK/JunKK) involved in dorsal closure - involved in the
Jun-N-terminal kinase pathway by phosphorylating Basket - required for the correct differentiation of epithelia

HEM-protein (common alternative name: kette)
alternatively a membrane associated and a cytosolic protein that transduces information to the neuronal cytoskeleton affecting axon
guidance - coordinates myoblast junction dissolution and the Scar-WASp ratio during myoblast fusion

Hen1
RNA methyltransferase - carries out methylation of small interfering RNAs, the final step in assembly of RISC occurring
after the Argonaute-bound siRNA duplex is converted to single-stranded RNA

Hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (common alternative name: Hrs)
endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated receptors - targeting of EGFR, PVR, Notch, Hedgehog and Dpp receptors for degradation

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4
zinc finger transcription factor - mutants show defects in midgut, Malpighian tubule and salivary gland development - regulates
lipid mobilization and β-oxidation - Sir2 acts through HNF4 to maintain insulin signaling and metabolic homeostasis

hephaestus
polypyrimidine tract binding protein - controls alternative splicing - required to attenuate Notch activity after ligand-dependent activation during wing development - functions in male germline

hermaphrodite
C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor - plays a permissive role in sex determination and differentiation - required for female sexual differentiation

heterochromatin protein 1 (preferred name: Suppressor of variegation 205)
chromodomain - Polycomb group - chromatin associated protein - required both for activation of heterochromatic genes and silencing
of euchromatic genes - HP1a and Piwi collaborate to maintain the association of achiasmate homologs in Drosophila oocytes -
maintenance of heterochromatin by the large subunit of the replication-coupled histone chaperone CAF-1
requires its interaction with HP1a - histone variant H2A.V works in concert with HP1 to promote kinetochore-driven microtubule formation

Heterochromatin Protein 1c
chromodomain protein - chromatin interactor and organizer - transcriptional co-regulator -
transcriptional activator - a components of a multiprotein complex involved in nervous system development - regulator of telomere function

Heterochromatin Protein 1e
testis-specific HP1 protein that acts during spermiogenesis by exerting post-fertilization control
to ensure faithful chromosome segregation in the embryo

Hexamethylene bisacetamide inducible
negative regulator of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters - ensures the integrity of Hedgehog signaling
in the wing disc - component of a macromolecular complex that keeps TEFb in a catalytically inactive state

HGTX
homeobox, NK decapeptide domain transcription factor - acts within a subclass of early born neurons to link
neuronal subtype identity to neuronal morphology and connectivity - acts in parallel with
exex to promote the development and differentiation of motor neurons that innervate ventral body wall muscles

hibris
Ig repeat transmembrane protein with fibronectin type III domain - a receptor involved in muscle cell fusion

HIF prolyl hydroxylase (alternative name: fatiga)
oxygen sensor - a specific prolyl-4-hydroxylases required for hydroxylation of key prolyl residues in the HIFα sequence -
Fe (II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase superfamily protein that uses O2 as a co-substrate for catalysis -
involved in tracheal development, oogenesis and drives cell growth downstream of Cyclin D

Hig-anchoring scaffold protein
component of synaptic cleft of brain cholinergic synapses, regulates levels of Discs large and nAChR subunits
at postsynaptic terminals, required for trapping Hikaru genki at the synapse

High mobility group protein D
transcription factor - HMG domain protein - responsible for transcriptional silencing during early development - required for proper morphogenesis of sensory neuron dendrites

highwire
synaptic protein - B-box zinc finger superfamily - a negative regular of synaptic growth - regulates guidance of sister axons in the mushroom body

hiiragi (also known as poly(A) polymerase)
involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNA - controls the formation of the wing margin

hikaru genki
synaptic protein - IG superfamily - required at during pupariation for the formation of normal neural circuitry - exhibits segregated distribution within
synaptic clefts and plays a distinct roles in synaptogenesis - localizes to cholinergic synaptic clefts and regulates postsynaptic organization in the Drosophila brain.

hindsight (preferred name: pebbled)
multiple zinc finger transcription factor - regulates some aspect of amnioserosal signalling to surrounding ectoderm promoting
germ band retraction - functions in both the specification and differentiation of stem cells in the adult midgut of Drosophila

hippo
a serine/threonine kinase - acts in conjunction with Salvador and Warts to restrict cell growth - promotes cell death by decreasing the level of Thread, an inhibitor of apoptosis - polycomb
genes interact with the tumor suppressor genes hippo and warts in the maintenance of sensory neuron dendrites

Hira (alternative name Sesame)
histone chaperone - required for nucleosome assembly during sperm nucleus decondensation - GAGA factor and
FACT-dependent replacement of methylated histone H3 by H3.3 occurs through association with Hira

Histone deacetylase 3
chromatin component - deacetylates histone H4 - counteracts the overgrowth induced by InR, PI3K or S6K over-expression -
a target of the PI3K pathway - helps retain chromatin compaction and gene silencing in nuclear lamina-interacting multigenic chromatin domains

Histone gene-specific Epigenetic Repressor in late S phase
chromatin component - a molecular switch linking epigenetic gene silencing to cell cycle-dependent histone production

Histone H1
Chromatin component - linker histone - stabilize a higher order 30 nm diameter chromatin fiber that is fundamental to the structural organization of chromosomes

Histone H2A
Chromatin component - a core histone that can be modified by ubiquitination - a target of polycomb gene silencing - involved in trans-histone
regulation through histone H3 - H2A monoubiquitination promotes histone H3 methylation in Polycomb repression

Histone H2B
Nucleosome core histone component, chromatin assembly, target of ubiquitination by the dosage compensation and SWI/SNF complexes,
regulates of neuronal connectivity in the visual system, regulates Notch target genes and repression of key differentiation genes

Histone H2A variant
replacement histone participates in an ordered cascade of events leading to the establishment of
heterochromatin - controls poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation in chromatin

Histone H3
Nucleosome component - core histone - Histone H3 Serine 28 is essential for efficient Polycomb-mediated gene repression - transposon silencing
is a major developmental function of H3K9 - JIL-1 targets Histone H3 during dosage compensation

Histone H3.3A
H3 histone subtype - deposition is coupled to transcription and continues while a gene is active -
histone replacement suggests a mechanism to maintain both the structure of chromatin and access to DNA at active genes

Histone H4
Nucleosome component - core histone - acetylation of Histone H4 plays a positive role in promoting access of transcription factors
to nucleosomal DNA - depletion of Histone deacetylase 3 antagonizes PI3K-mediated overgrowth through the acetylation of histone H4
at lysine 16 - H4 lysine 20 monomethyl mark, set by PR-Set7 and stabilized by L(3)mbt, is necessary for proper interphase chromatin organization

HLH54F
bHLH transcription factor - earliest specific regulator of caudal visceral mesoderm development

HMG Coenzyme A reductase (common alternative name: columbus)
catalyzes the biosynthesis of a mevalonate precursor for isoprenoids - functions in the hedgehog signaling pathway,
implicated in the production of a signal by the somatic gonadal precursor cells that attracts migrating germ cells

Hnf4
zinc finger transcription factor - mutants show defects in midgut, Malpighian tubule and salivary gland development - activated by fatty acids
released from triglycerides, inducing enzymes that drive fatty acid oxidation for energy production

Holes in muscle
WRPW motif protein that binds Groucho to inhibit both muscle differentiation and Mef2 activity during development

homeodomain interacting protein kinase
serine/threonine kinase - homolog of mammalian Homeodomain interacting protein kinase - acts as a positive regulator of Wingless pathway
by stabilizing Armadillo - promotes Notch signal transduction in the eye by inhibition of the co-repressor Groucho

homer
scaffolding protein required for the function of neural networks controlling locomotor activity and behavioral plasticity

homeless (preferred name: spindle E)
homeless DE-H family of RNA-dependent ATPases - the failure to transport Bicoid and Oskar mRNAs is the earliest defect in RNA transport observed in spn-E mutants

homothorax
homeodomain transcription factor - HM domain protein - required for Extradenticle nuclear localization -
a partner of Hox genes - required for segmentation and proper head involution

hopscotch (common alternative name: jak kinase and janus kinase)
janus family tyrosine kinase - regulates even-skipped during segmentation -
mutation creates an activated oncogene, causing hematopoietic neoplasms, overproliferation, and premature differentiation.

Hormone receptor-like in 38
nuclear receptor superfamily - participates in a second ecdysteroid signaling pathway that responds to a distinct class of ecdysteroids
in a manner that is independent of EcR

Hormone receptor-like in 39
nuclear receptor superfamily - master regulator of a program for the production of female reproductive glands and other secretory tissues

Hormone receptor-like in 46 (common alternative name: DHR3)
transcription factor - nuclear receptor superfamily - a second tier regulator involved in Drosophila molting -
acts negatively on Ecdysone receptor and postively on genes expressed subsequently in the molting hierarchy

Hormone receptor 51 (common alternative name: Unfulfilled)
nuclear receptor superfamily - a thiolate heme-binding protein - necessary for mushroom body axon extension and branching
mutants modulate wing expansion and fertility through underlying neurological defects

Hormone-receptor-like in 78
nuclear receptor superfamily - mutants are blocked in their ability to trigger the mid-third instar regulatory hierarchy

Hormone receptor-like in 96
nuclear receptor superfamily - regulation of cholesterol and triacylglycerol homeostasis, genetic control of xenobiotic stress responses

HP1c
HP1 family member - mchromatin interactor and organizer - physically interacts with DNA-binding zinc-finger transcription factors
Without children and Relative-of-WOC to act as a transcriptional activator

Hr4
steroid hormone receptor - coordinates growth and maturation in Drosophila by mediating endocrine responses
to achieve critical weight during larval development

huckebein
tf - zinc finger - terminal gap gene - limits the extent of mesodermal development - required for proper endoderm formation

Hugin
controls growth and metabolism - encodes at least two distinct neuropeptides; one, hug-γ, has homology
to an ecdysone triggering hormone and a second, Drm-PK-2, is a pyrokinin with myostimulatory activity

hu-li tai shao
homolog of mammalian adducin - necessary for actin localization to ring canals during oogenesis

hunchback
transcription factor - zinc finger - a gap gene later expressed in neuroblasts - required for
proper temporal generation of cellular sublineages during neurogenesis

huntingtin
cytoskeletal scaffolding protein required for axonal transport - loss of Huntingtin
stimulates capture of retrograde dense-core vesicles to increase synaptic neuropeptide store

Hus1-like
forms a clamp-like 9-1-1 complex with Rad9 and Rad1 - plays a central role in the DNA-damage-induced checkpoint
response - required for S-phase and meiotic checkpoints

Hyperkinetic
cytoplasmic protein that acts as the β subunit and redox sensor of Shaker voltage-dependent K+ channels -
functional in neural pathway in arousal and circadian rhythms - interacts with Ether go-go channels

hyperplastic discs
a HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase that is likely to act by targeting Cubitus interruptus and an unknown activator of hedgehog expression for proteolysis

hyrax
the Cdc73 component of the Polymerase-Associated Factor 1 (PAF1) complex - required for nuclear transduction of the Wnt/Wg signal -
manifests its effects on transcription through modulating chromatin structure

I

iab-4 (common alternative name: infraabdominal)
directly inhibits Ubx activity in vivo - ectopic expression induces a classical homeotic mutant phenotype,
the transformation of halteres into wings

Ice
a effector caspase - activated during spermatogenesis and necessary
for the removal of cytoplasm and the generation of functional sperm

IGF-II mRNA-binding protein
zipcode-binding protein - regulator of RNA transport in oocytes and neurons - regulates aging of the Drosophila testis stem-cell niche -
contributes to the localized expression of gurken mRNA in the oocyte - counteracts endogenous small interfering RNAs to stabilize mRNAs

ik2 (common alternative name: DmIKKε)
IKK-related kinase - a regulator of caspase activation in a nonapoptotic context - promotes degradation of DIAP1 (Thread)
through direct phosphorylation - required for proper sensory organ precursor development -
acts on the cytoskeleton to regulate egg DV and AP polarity

imaginal discs arrested
homolog of APC5, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/cyclosome) - required for proliferation of imaginal disc cells -
required for the localisation of Miranda and its associated cargo proteins to the neuroblast basal cortex

Imitation SWI
transcription factor - ATPase domain - bromodomain - gene activator - a component of a nucleosome remodeling protein complex

immune deficiency
a death domain protein involved in signal transduction during antibacterial immune response

immune response deficient 5 and kenny (common alternative names: IKKβ and IKKγ)
IkappaB kinase, respectively IKK catalytic and regulatory subunits - induction of antimicrobial peptide genes

I'm not dead yet
plasma membrane transporter of Krebs cycle intermediates - midgut - regulation of lifespan - regulation of mitochondrial function

importin alpha1
one of a family of proteins that mediates nuclear transport by linking nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins to importin beta1

inactivation no afterpotential D
scaffolding protein - PDZ domain protein - involved in visual signal transduction

inactivation no afterpotential E
diacylglycerol lipase involved in visual signal transduction and lipid metabolism

inactive
transient receptor potential vanilloid channel - expressed in chordotonal neurons where it is involved in temperature preference -
expressed in antenna were it is involved in hearing

Inducer of meiosis 4
methyltransferase- internal modification of mRNA - regulates alternative splicing and Notch
signaling - regulates sex determination and dosage compensation - modulates neural functions

inebriated
neurotransmitter:sodium symporter - mutations appear to cause increased excitability of the motor neuron by causing defective reuptake of a substrate neurotransmitter

infraabdominal (preferred name: nuclear untranslated RNA gene iab-4)
directly inhibits Ubx activity in vivo - ectopic expression induces a classical homeotic mutant phenotype,
the transformation of halteres into wings

Inhibitor of apoptosis 2
N-terminal baculovirus IAP repeat domain and C-terminal RING ubiquitin ligase domain protein - required for immune response to bacteria -
promotes cytoplasmic cleavage and nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB homolog Relish - controls the level of caspase activity by forming
a covalent adduct with the catalytic machinery of drICE

Inner centromere protein
a component of the chromosome passenger complex - regulates activity of Aurora B kinase through a positive-feedback
loop - as a microtubule-binding protein Incenp has a well-defined centromere-targeting domain at its
N-terminus, suggesting a role in targeting the kinase to particular locations within the mitotic cell

Innexin 2
gap junction protein; blood-brain barrier glia - mediates the influence of metabolic changes on stem cell behavior;
response of glia nutritional signals - functions in oogenesis, visual transmission in lamina glia,
and proventriculus development; crucial for epithelial organization and polarity of the embryonic epidermis

Inositol 1,4,5,-tris-phosphate receptor
calcium channel - required for embryonic and larval development - involved in muscle development and is implicated in chemosensory functions

Inositol-requiring enzyme-1
protein kinase, endonuclease, a regulator of the unfolded protein response, leading to the activation
of the transcription factor Xbp1 - regulated Ire1-dependent decay - regulation of RNA splicing - photoreceptor differentiation and rhabdomere morphogenesis

inscuteable
novel protein - SH3 binding domain, ankyrin repeats and cytoskeletal attachment domain - involved in establishment apical/basal polarity

insensitive
a nuclear factor that physically interacts with Suppressor of Hairless and inhibits Notch signalling during peripheral nervous system development

Insulin-like peptide 6
an insulin-like peptide that is produced by the fat body - induced by metabolic stress -
promotes growth in conditions of nutritional deprivation or following developmentally induced cessation of feeding

Insulin-like peptide 8
ensures developmental stability and robustness - delays metamorphosis by inhibiting ecdysone biosynthesis thus slowing growth
in the imaginal discs - coordinates tgrowth status of tissues with developmental timing

Insulin-like receptor
receptor tyrosine kinase - a key component of an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that plays an essential role in controlling body, organ, and cell size

Insulin-related peptide
Insulin-like growth factor that functions as a growth stimulator - regulates of trehalose metabolism

integrin - ß PS (preferred name myospheroid)
transmembrane - integrin - ß subunit - a major component of the cell's machinery
for adherence to substrate, based on a calcium dependent process that produces a focal adhesion plaque

Integrin linked kinase
s/t kinase with ankyrin repeats - required for integrin-mediated adhesion - links the cytoskeleton via integrins to the plasma membrane

interference Hedgehog
IGcam membrane protein - binds Hedgehog and mediates Hedgehog response

intermediate neuroblasts defective
homeodomain protein - determines the identity of the ventral most column of neuroblasts

invected
transcription factor - homeodomain - engrailed class - cooperates with engrailed in establishing posterior compartment identity

Inverse regulator a (preferred name: Protein 1 of cleavage and polyadenylation factor 1)
RNA binding motif protein - dismantles elongation complexes by a RNA Polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) dependent mechanism
- forms a bridge between the CTD and RNA

Ionotropic receptor 8a
a member of a novel family of chemosensory receptor ion channels - variant ionotropic glutamate receptor-like protein - expressed on antennal neurons

Ionotropic receptor 25a
Ionotropic Receptor (IR) family of variant ionotropic glutamate receptors part of an input pathway to the circadian clock that detects small
temperature differences - required for humidity preference - co-receptor subunit in chemosensation and thermosensation

Ionotropic receptor 64a
chemosensory receptor ion channel - detection of acid

Ionotropic receptor 76b
chemosensory detection of various amines and salt - a probable co-receptor subunit

Ionotropic receptor 84a
chemosensory ionotropic glutamate receptor family protein, regulation of male courtship behavior, response to aromatic odors

IplI-aurora-like kinase (preferred name: Aurora B)
signaling protein involved in chromatin condensation during mitosis

Ipou (preferred name: Abnormal chemosensory jump 6)
transcription factor - homeodomain and POU domain - determines odorant response profile of subsets of olfactory neurons

islet (preferred name: tailup)
transcription factor - homeodomain and LIM domain - required in combination with other transcription factors for serotonergic and dopaminergic neuron identity

ISWI (preferred name: Imitation SWI)
transcription factor - ATPase domain - bromodomain - gene activator - a component of a nucleosome remodeling protein complex

J

jaguar
Drosophila myosin VI, a pointed end directed molecular motor - involved in asymmetric cell division -
regulates actin dynamics during sperm individualization

jak kinase (preferred name: hopscotch, common alternative name: janus kinase)
janus family tyrosine kinase - regulates even-skipped during segmentation -
mutation creates an activated oncogene, causing hematopoietic neoplasms, overproliferation, and premature differentiation.

jelly belly
a secreted ligand that contains an LDL receptor repeat - required for visceral mesoderm development

jetlag
an F-box protein with leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a putative component of a SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex -
essential for resetting the clock by transmitting light signals from Cryptochrome to Timeless resulting in the degredation of Timeless

JIL-1 kinase
protein serine/threonine kinase involved in dosage compensation - phosphorylates the His3 Serine 10 residue - antagonizes
heterochromatization - regulates levels of gene expression by controlling the distribution of the epigenetic histone His3 Lysine 9 dimethylation

jing
zinc finger transcription factor - a downstream target of slbo required for border cell migration -
also plays an essential role in controlling CNS midline and tracheal cell differentiation

jing-interacting gene regulatory 1
a putative DNA-binding protein containing a MADF domain - hosts miR-92a in the intron and miR-92b
in the 3'UTR - miRNA limits expression in neuroblasts and is essential for maintenance of a neuroblast pool

Jumeaux (preferred name: Domina)
forkhead/winged-helix class - a suppressor of position effect variegation that also affects and regulates eye and
bristle development - acts upstream of a Polo-kinase dependent pathway - its roles included asymmetric
protein localization, chromatin modification, dendrite formation and organ (eye, wing and bristle) development

Jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2 (alternative name: Jarid2)
component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, which is involved in methylation of histone 3 at K27, required for transcriptional repression

Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) (preferred name: basket)
MAP kinase homolog - regulates cell shape change and epidermal layer movement during dorsal closure - developmental
axon pruning requires destabilization of cell adhesion by JNK signaling - Notch and Mef2 synergize to promote proliferation
and metastasis through JNK signal activation in Drosophila

Jun related antigen (common alternative name: DJun)
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - cooperates with the ETS domain protein Pointed to induce R7 fate in
the developing eye - normal dendrite growth in Drosophila motor neurons requires the AP-1 (a Fos, Jun heterodimer) transcription factor

K

kakapo - preferred name: short stop
cytoskeletal cross-linker protein - expressed in the tendons and is essential for muscle-dependent tendon cell differentiation -
required for sensory and motor axons to reach their targets in the Drosophila embryo

karst (common alternative name: betaHeavy Spectrin)
cytoskeletal protein - structural and docking protein - a junctional protein involved in cell adhesion -
Spectrin regulates Hippo signaling by modulating cortical actomyosin activity

karyopherin α1 (common alternative name: importin α1)
one of a family of proteins that mediates nuclear transport by linking nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing proteins to importin β1 - Imediates Yorkie nuclear import via an N-terminal non-canonical nuclear localization signal

Katanin-60
AAA+ family enzyme that suppresses polymerization of microtubule plus-ends - regulates cell migration -
acts in mitosis to stimulates microtubule plus-end depolymerization and Pacman-based chromatid motility

kayak (common alternative name: Fos-related antigen)
transcription factor - basic leucine zipper - regulates dorsal closure - also required downstream from Decapentaplegic signaling for the regulation of labial
in the midgut - Fos and Jun potentiate individual release sites and mobilize the reserve synaptic-vesicle pool at the Drosophila larval motor synapse

kekkon-1
Ig domain protein, Leucine-rich repeat protein - plays a role in axonal outgrowth in the central nervous system -
acts in a negative feedback loop to modulate the activity of the Egfr tyrosine kinase during oogenesis

kelch
cytoskeletal protein - actin cross-linker - during oogenesis, phosphorylation of Kelch is critical for the proper morphogenesis of actin during
ring canal growth - actin cytoskeletal organization in Drosophila germline ring canals depends on Kelch function in a Cullin-RING E3 ligase.

ken and barbie
BTB-POZ domain transcription factor with C-terminal zinc finger - recruits NURF by physical
interaction to engender transcriptional repression - involved in genital disc development

kenny and immune response deficient 5 (common alternative names: IKKγ and IKKβ)
IkappaB kinase, respectively IKK regulatory and catalytic subunits - induction of antimicrobial peptide genes

Keren
ligand for Epidermal growth factor receptor - homolog of Spitz with partially independent functional activity -
provides an autocrine mitogenic stimulus in midgut progenitor cells

ketel (preferred name: Female sterile (2) Ketel)
Importin-β - an essential component of nuclear protein import, spindle formation and nuclear envelope assembly

kette (preferred name: HEM-protein)
alternatively a membrane associated and a cytosolic protein that transduces information to the neuronal cytoskeleton affecting
axon guidance - Kette/Nap1/Hem-2 coordinates myoblast junction dissolution and the Scar-WASp ratio during myoblast fusion

kibra
signaling protein that functions together with Merlin and Expanded in a protein complex that regulates the Hippo kinase cascade
via direct binding to Hippo and Salvador

kinase suppressor of ras
Ras pathway scaffolding protein - Ksr associates independently with Raf and Mek, and these interactions facilitate formation of a RAF/MEK complex
thus promoting signaling through the Ras pathway

Kinesin associated protein 3
the non-motor accessory subunit of Kinesin II - involved in intraflagellar transport - required for the axoneme growth and maintenance of the cilia
in Drosophila type I sensory neurons - expressed in Johnston's organ and required for hearing

Kinesin heavy chain
plus end directed vesicular transport motor protein - microtubule-microtubule sliding by kinesin-1 is essential for normal cytoplasmic streaming
in Drosophila oocytes - heterotrimeric kinesin-2, together with kinesin-1, steers vesicular acetylcholinesterase movements toward the synapse

Kinesin-like protein at 10A
mitotic kinesin required to depolymerize microtubules at their pole-associated minus ends thereby moving chromatids by means of
poleward flux - a stem cell centrosome-enriched kinesin that balances asymmetries in Drosophila male germline stem cell division

Kinesin-like protein at 61F
motor protein - crosslinking and sliding activities during mitosis facilitate accumulation within antiparallel interpolar MTs
at the equator, where the motor generates force to drive spindle poleward flux and pole-pole separation

kin of irre (common alternative name: dumbfounded)
IG superfamily - required for myoblast aggregation and fusion - Roughest, Hibris, Kin of Irre
and Sticks and Stones are required for long range spacing of the Drosophila wing disc sensory sensilla

kismet
member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors - facilitates an early step in transcriptional elongation by Pol II - Kis roles
include developmental patterning of the embryo, cell proliferation, eye development, synaptic transmission, axonal pruning, and memory

klarsicht
controls bidirectional transport of lipid droplets, nuclear migration and transport of secretory vesicles - regulates
microtubule stability and integrin receptor localization during collective cell migration

klumpfuss
transcription factor - zinc finger - early growth response family - involved in determination
of the identities of secondary precursor cells within neuroblast lineages in the central nervous system - a genetic cascade
involving klumpfuss, nab and castor specifies the abdominal leucokinergic neurons in the Drosophila CNS

knirps
transcription factor - steroid receptor - zinc finger - a gap gene that later organizes the development of the
second wing vein - Groucho corepressor functions as a cofactor for the Knirps short-range transcriptional repressor

knot (common alternative name: collier)
EBF/Olf-1 homolog, HLH protein - required for the formation of the hypopharyngeal
lobe - directly promotes Drosophila blood cell progenitor maintenance independently of the niche

Krüppel
transcription factor - zinc finger transcriptional repressor - gap gene required later for proper generation of neural sublineages - enriched
in the larval eye and controls photoreceptor differentiation by promoting Rh5 and Rh6 expression

Kruppel homolog 1
zinc finger transcription factor - mediates some of the juvenile hormone signaling in the adult abdominal epidermis
and is upstream of broad in this pathway

kugelei (common alternative names: fat-like, fat2)
a cadherin related to Fat - required for the planar polarity of actin filament orientation
at the basal side of ovarian follicle cells - acts non-autonomously in follicle cells in the transmission of polarity information
required for morphogenesis and maintenance of tubular structures of ectodermal origin

kurtz
non-visual β-arrestin that functions in GPCR desensitization - regulates the Hedgehog pathway, the Notch pathway,
MAPK signaling and Toll signaling - modifies exploratory activity and olfactory sensitivity

kuzbanian
disintegrin and metalloprotease motifs - neurogenic gene - crucial for proper heart formation

Genes A-D-- Genes L-R -- Genes S-Z

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