InteractiveFly: GeneBrief

Xrp1: Biological Overview | References


Gene name - Xrp1

Synonyms -

Cytological map position - 91D3-91D5

Function - bZip-domain transcription factor

Keywords - transcriptionally upregulated by an autoregulatory loop - triggers apoptosis in competitively looser cells - regulates translation and growth, delays development and is responsible for gene expression changes in mutant ribosomal proteins - induced by p53 following X-irradiation - partner of Inverted Repeat Binding Protein 18 - critical for repair of DNA breaks following transposase cleavage of DNA

Symbol - Xrp1

FlyBase ID: FBgn0261113

Genetic map position - chr3R:18,914,968-18,926,849

NCBI classification - Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of bZIP transcription factors: a DNA-binding and dimerization domain

Cellular location - nuclear



NCBI links: EntrezGene, Nucleotide, Protein
Recent literature
Boulan, L., Andersen, D., Colombani, J., Boone, E. and Leopold, P. (2019). Inter-organ growth coordination is mediated by the Xrp1-Dilp8 axis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. PubMed ID: 31006647
Summary:
How organs scale with other body parts is not mechanistically understood. This question was addressed using the Drosophila imaginal disc model. When the growth of one disc domain is perturbed, other parts of the disc and other discs slow down their growth, maintaining proper inter-disc and intra-disc proportions. The relaxin-like Dilp8 is required for this inter-organ coordination. This work also reveals that the stress-response transcription factor Xrp1 plays a key role upstream of dilp8 in linking organ growth status with the systemic growth response. In addition, the small ribosomal subunit protein RpS12 is required to trigger Xrp1-dependent non-autonomous response. This work demonstrates that RpS12, Xrp1, and Dilp8 form an independent regulatory module that ensures intra- and inter-organ growth coordination during development.
BIOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

The elimination of unfit cells from a tissue is a process known in Drosophila and mammals as cell competition. In a well-studied paradigm 'loser' cells that are heterozygous mutant for a haploinsufficient ribosomal protein gene are eliminated from developing tissues via apoptosis when surrounded by fitter wild-type cells, referred to as 'winner' cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of this phenomenon are not fully understood. This paper reports that a CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein (C/EBP), Xrp1, which is known to help maintaining genomic stability after genotoxic stress, is necessary for the elimination of loser clones in cell competition. In loser cells, Xrp1 is transcriptionally upregulated by an autoregulatory loop and is able to trigger apoptosis - driving cell elimination. Xrp1 acts in the nucleus to regulate the transcription of several genes that have been previously involved in cell competition. It is therefore speculated that Xrp1 might play a fundamental role as a molecular caretaker of the genomic integrity of tissues (Baillon, 2018).

Tissues are composed by genetically heterogeneous cells as a result of the accumulation of different mutations over time. Unfit and potentially detrimental cells are eliminated from tissues via apoptosis triggered by a process known in both insects and mammals as cell competition. The eliminated cells, referred to as 'loser' cells, are normally viable and capable of growing, but are eliminated when surrounded by fitter, 'winner' cells. In Drosophila melanogaster, the majority of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are haploinsufficient (hRPGs). When one copy of an hRPG is removed, this gives rise to the 'Minute' phenotype characterized by a general developmental delay and improper bristle development. When intermingled with wild-type winner cells, cells heterozygous for an hRPG become losers and are eliminated via apoptosis. Various genetic manipulations of a tissue can result in different and widely documented cell competition responses. Several pathways, such as the BMP, Toll, Wnt, JAK/STAT, Ras/MAPK and Hippo pathways, have been implicated in cell competition, suggesting the existence of a complex framework of actions that serve to induce apoptosis and eliminate loser cells. However, what actually triggers elimination yet remains elusive (Baillon, 2018).

Multicellular organisms maintain genomic stability via the activation of DNA repair mechanisms to identify and correct DNA damages. During this process, cell cycle progression is arrested to prevent the expansion of damaged cells. However, when DNA repair fails, apoptosis is induced to eliminate irremediably damaged cells. The p53 transcription factor plays an evolutionarily conserved role in the induction of apoptosis following DNA damage, however evidence points towards the existence of alternative routes for the induction of apoptosis in response to DNA damage (Baillon, 2018).

This study shows that, in a cell competition context, a possible alternative route to P53 for the induction of apoptosis goes via Xrp1, a gene encoding a b-ZIP DNA binding protein. The expression of Xrp1 is induced in various stress conditions, for instance in response to irradiation. Notably, Xrp1 mutant animals have been reported to have higher levels of loss-of-heterozygosity after ionizing radiations. Additionally Xrp1 plays a role in repair of DNA breaks after transposase cleavage. Therefore Xrp1 may have a role in sensing and responding to DNA damage (Baillon, 2018).

This study reports the discovery, in an EMS-based screen, of Xrp1 mutations that suppress the elimination of loser cells. This is consistent with earlier reports that proposed Xrp1 might affect cell competition. For the first time this study has discerned how Xrp1 might regulate cell competition. Xrp1 is homologous to mammalian C/EBPs, a class of transcription factors that is known to autoregulate their own transcription, to prevent proliferation and induce apoptosis. It was further shown that Xrp1 expression is upregulated in loser cells in response to the removal of one copy of a haploinsufficient ribosomal protein gene, where, similarly to C/EBP homologs, it regulates its own expression via a positive autoregulatory loop, the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and that of other genes that were previously implicated in cell competition (Baillon, 2018).

In order to identify genes whose function is necessary for the elimination of RPG heterozygous mutant loser cells, a forward genetic screen was performed using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in Drosophila melanogaster. A mosaic system was designed that allows direct screening through the larval cuticle for the persistence of otherwise eliminated RpL19+/- loser clones. This enabled screening of a high number of animals for mutations that either dominantly (anywhere in the genome) or recessively (on the right arm of the third chromosome) suppress cell competition. The induction of a single somatic recombination event between two FLP recognition targets (FRTs) generates a RPG heterozygous mutant cell that becomes homozygous for the mutagenized right arm of the third chromosome. Loser clones are induced at the beginning of larval development (L1). If no suppressive mutation is present, clones are efficiently eliminated over time and thus undetectable by the end of the third instar larval stage (L3) when the screening is performed. 20,000 mutagenized genomes were screened for the presence of mutations that prevent the elimination of loser clones. Eleven heritable suppressors were obtained, and attention was focused on three of the strongest suppressors that did not display any obvious growth-related phenotype. RpL19+/- clones were eliminated and little or no signal was observed. Their elimination, however, is prevented when cells are not heterozygous mutant for RpL19 or when different Xrp1 mutations (Xrp108 in the example) are additionally present. In the latter cases GFP signal is observed in wing discs (Baillon, 2018).

Xrp1 suppressors did not belong to a lethal complementation group and the causative mutations were identified using a combination of positional mapping and whole-genome re-sequencing. In particular, three independent mutations in the introns of CG17836/Xrp1 were identified, all caused by substitutions of single nucleotides. These nucleotides are conserved within the Drosophila genus and inspection of the alignment revealed an embedment of these nucleotides in conserved sequence motifs. Of particular interest are the polypyrimidine motifs containing the nucleotide mutations in Xrp120 and Xrp108. These motifs flank the alternative first exon and are potential splice regulators. The CTCTCT motif in proximity of the 5' splice site of Xrp1 has been identified as a putative intronic splicing enhancer (ISE) predicted to serve as binding site for the polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) splicing regulator. The presence of these motifs prompted an investigation of the consequences of the Xrp108 allele on exonic junctions. The most prominent effect of this allele is a strong and consistent reduction in the expression of two similar Xrp1 transcripts, RC and RE, which only differ in the composition of their 5' UTRs. They share the transcriptional start site and contain the same long open reading frame that codes for the short isoform of Xrp1 (Baillon, 2018).

The behavior of RpL19+/- clones was checked in the presence and absence of Xrp1 function. To this end the twin spot MARCM system was used that enables differently marking twin clones generated by the same recombination event. In the genetic set up, mCherry expression marks loser clones whereas two copies of GFP mark wild-type twin clones. As expected, RpL19+/- loser clones are eliminated from the tissue. Elimination is also observed when RpL19+/- cells within these clones are additionally mutant for Xrp108 but contain a transgene comprising the genomic region of Xrp1. Importantly, when Xrp1 mutations are not rescued cell competition-driven elimination of RpL19+/- losers no longer occurs. In particular, the Xrp108 intronic mutation retrieved from the EMS screen is able to prevent loser cell elimination, and a similar result is obtained with a newly generated complete loss-of-function allele, Xrp161, as well as with Xrp126. Xrp161 contains a frame shift mutation upstream of the Xrp1 basic region-leucine zipper domain (b-ZIP), and is considered a null allele. Like other Xrp1 alleles analyzed it is homozygous viable and does not impair the development of mutant animals. To confirm that Xrp1 function is of general importance for the elimination of hRPG+/- cells, and not limited to RpL19+/- loser cells, the effect of Xrp1 mutations on RpL14+/- loser clones was tested. Similarly to RpL19+/- cells, RpL14+/- cells are normally eliminated from wing discs during larval development. No elimination occurs if these cells express RpL14 from a transgene, or when Xrp1 is mutated (Xrp161) (Baillon, 2018).

To further explore this notion direct genomic targets of Xrp1 were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) on wing imaginal discs. In order to do this, Xrp1 expression was induced in wing discs. The top targets revealed by ChIP-seq comprise a number of genes that are already implicated in cell competition, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Among the interesting genes Xrp1 itself was identified, suggesting the existence of a potential autoregulatory loop. To test this notion Xrp1 was overexpressed in the posterior compartment of the wing disc, and the transcriptional behavior of Xrp1 was checked with the aforementioned Xrp1-lacZ reporter. The upregulation of lacZ expression was observed in response to Xrp1 overexpression, indicating that Xrp1 can boost its own expression in a positive autoregulatory loop. These observations were confirmed by measuring mRNA levels of Xrp1 upon forced Xrp1 expression. With a similar strategy the response was observed of other putative transcriptional targets from the ChIP-seq experiment. Xrp1 was shown to promote the transcription of Dif, a Drosophila NFκB homolog gene that has previously been implicated in the cell competition-dependent induction of apoptosis via the induction of rpr transcription7. puc, Upd3, Nedd4 and rad50 were also tested: all of these genes were upregulated upon induction of Xrp1 expression. puc, Upd3 and Nedd4 are involved in the JAK/STAT and Hippo signaling pathways, both of which have previously been implicated in cell competition. Rad50 is instead required for double strand break repair (Baillon, 2018).

The most prominent sequence motif of Xrp1 derived from ChIP-seq data shows a strong similarity with the b-ZIP binding motif of the human C/EBP protein family. It was therefore checked whether Xrp1 shows homology to C/EBP transcription factors, being itself a bona fide transcription factor. Xrp1 was shown to share a 40% identity with the human C/EBPs (PSI-BLAST). Phylogenetic reconstruction allowed recognition of three Drosophila C/EBP homologs, one of which is Xrp1. Interestingly, human C/EBP-alpha is retained in the nucleolus and binds to ribosomal DNA, a feature that may be evolutionarily conserved since Xrp1 binds rDNA loci with high affinity. The encoded rRNA is found in the nucleoli (Baillon, 2018).

Therefore a working model is proposed in which Xrp1, under normal conditions, sits on rDNA in the nucleolus. In the presence of genotoxic stress or of a ribosomal imbalance, as in the context of Minute cell competition, Xrp1 acts nuclearly as a C/EBP transcription factor that stimulates its own transcription and the expression of pro-apoptotic target genes. When intermingled with wild-type cells, cells with only one copy of an hRPG are eliminated in a Xrp1-dependent manner. In the experimental system, the deletion of one copy of the RpL19 gene is catalyzed by the Flp/FRT recombination system, which leaves no apparent lesion in the DNA. Therefore, the initial recruitment of Xrp1 into the nucleus may not depend on DNA damage per se, but rather on the unbalanced physiology of the cell resulting from the loss of one copy of the hRPG. The nucleolus is the site of ribosome biogenesis and a major stress sensor organelle. RpL19+/~ cells experience a related nucleolar stress, since their nucleoli are enlarged as revealed by anti-fibrillarin staining. The most likely explanation for this is partially stalled ribosome assembly. Since genotoxic stress triggers Xrp1 expression, it is speculated that Xrp1 acts as a caretaker of genomic integrity. In support of this hypothesis, the growth of salvador~/~ mutant tumor clones is suppressed by the concurrent loss of one copy of the RpL19 gene. However, this suppression fails in the absence of Xrp1 function, indicating that the presumptive protective function that RPGs haploinsufficiency provides can also operate within tumorous cells. In addition, according to a Monte-Carlo simulation, the likelihood that one hRPG locus becomes heterozygous mutant before any other gene gets mutated to homozygosity is very high. Together with the observation that hRPGs are broadly distributed within the genome, this further supports the potential role of Xrp1 as a caretaker of genomic integrity. Although further research is required to better elucidate this phenomenon, it is nevertheless proposed that RPG haploinsufficiency provides a simple, yet effective, mechanism to protect the organism from the emergence of potentially deleterious cells (Baillon, 2018).

A regulatory response to ribosomal protein mutations controls translation, growth, and cell competition

Ribosomes perform protein synthesis but are also involved in signaling processes, the full extent of which are still being uncovered. This study reports that phenotypes of mutating ribosomal proteins (Rps) are largely due to signaling. Using Drosophila, this study discovered that a bZip-domain protein, Xrp1, becomes elevated in Rp mutant cells. Xrp1 reduces translation and growth, delays development, is responsible for gene expression changes, and causes the cell competition of Rp heterozygous cells from genetic mosaics. Without Xrp1, even cells homozygously deleted for Rp genes persist and grow. Xrp1 induction in Rp mutant cells depends on a particular Rp with regulatory effects, RpS12, and precedes overall changes in translation. Thus, effects of Rp mutations, even the reductions in translation and growth, depend on signaling through the Xrp1 pathway and are not simply consequences of reduced ribosome production limiting protein synthesis. One benefit of this system may be to eliminate Rp-mutant cells by cell competition (Lee, 2018).

Ribosomes are the essential protein synthesis machines of the cell. Large and small subunits (LSU and SSU), 40S and 60S in eukaryotic cells, form an 80S complex together with mRNA and perform translation in the cytoplasm. Each ribosome subunit is a ribonucleoprotein complex containing one (SSU) or three (LSU) non-coding rRNA molecules and a battery of ribosomal proteins (Rps) and is assembled in the nucleolus for export to the cytoplasm. Rps can contribute to folding and assembly of the ribosomal subunits as well as their function in translation. Most Rps are essential, and cells homozygous for their mutations die, while heterozygous Rp mutants that lack one copy of the gene are abnormal in both humans and in Drosophila (Lee, 2018).

To what extent do the defects in Rp mutants reflect deficient translation, and to what extent do they reflect signaling pathways that monitor ribosome status? Aspects of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia, the ribosomopathy that occurs in humans heterozygous for mutations in a number of Rp genes, are thought to reflect chronic p53 signaling, activated by accumulation of a ribosome assembly intermediate and nucleolar stress. On the other hand, Diamond-Blackfan Anemia is also characterized by short stature and delayed maturation as well as skeletal defects, and it has sometimes been treated with L-leucine to stimulate protein synthesis. Reduced protein synthesis has been measured in both Drosophila embryos and in mouse fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells from heterozygous, Rp+/- genotypes (Lee, 2018).

This study made use of Drosophila to investigate the effects of Rp mutations further. Drosophila that are haploinsufficient for any of 66 of the 79 Rp genes exhibit a common phenotype, first recognized a century ago (the 'Minute' phenotype), which includes a reduction in the size and thickness of bristles on the adult body ('Minute' bristles) and a developmental delay associated with reduced translation and growth rate. Unlike the bristle structures, most mutant cells are of normal size, as are mutant flies themselves, suggesting that the extended growth period is sufficient to compensate for reduced cellular growth. In fact, mutant organs can be larger than normal, depending on the particular balance of growth between organs (Lee, 2018).

In Drosophila, and possibly in mammals, Rp+/- genotypes are subject to 'cell competition' in genetic mosaics. If growing imaginal discs (progenitor cells that grow in an undifferentiated state in the larva to give rise to the adult tissues) contain both wild-type and Rp+/- cells, the latter are progressively lost during growth. Conversely, wild-type cells growing in Rp+/- backgrounds come to dominate developmental compartments at the expense of the Rp+/- cells. Both competitive situations are associated with selective apoptosis of Rp+/- cells in proximity to wild-type, which is responsible for the loss of Rp+/- clones. There are other genotypes that can be competed from genetic mosaics, but neither is it clear that the mechanisms are the same nor whether deficits in translation or growth are required. There are also examples of 'super-competitor' genotypes that can eliminate nearby wild-type cells, even though wild-type cells should have normal ribosomes. In the mouse embryo, cells expressing more Myc or less p53 are super-competitors (Lee, 2018).

Cell competition is also seen in mammalian cell co-cultures, in many cases eliminating hyperplastic or preneoplastic cells. Such cells can also be eliminated from mosaics with otherwise normal tissues in vivo (Lee, 2018).

The current studies reported originated in a genetic screen designed to identify new components of cell competition. This led to isolation of a mutation affecting a basic leucine zipper (bZip)-domain protein gene, Xrp1 (Lee, 2016). Xrp1 was previously known as a putative transcription factor induced by p53 following X-irradiation of Drosophila and implicated in genome maintenance, although no point mutant alleles had been studied previously. Xrp1 was also characterized as a component of the protein complex that binds to the P element transposon in Drosophila and found to contribute to P element transposition (Franci, 2016). This study reports a major role for Xrp1 in multiple features of Rp mutants. Xrp1 expression is elevated in mutant cells by a signal from the ribosome and controls cellular translation rate and growth in addition to cellular competitiveness and almost the entire gene expression signature of Rp+/- cells. Xrp1 is even responsible for eliminating cells homozygously mutant for essential Rp genes that are deficient for new ribosome biogenesis. It is concluded that Xrp1 controls a cellular stress pathway that monitors Rps, regulates multiple cellular properties, and acts upstream of the major defects in global translation, which are in fact only indirectly related to the initial mutation of an Rp gene (Lee, 2018).

Xrp1, which behaved like a master-regulator of responses to Rp mutations. Even the acute lethality of Rp-/- cells depended on Xrp1. The only aspect of the Rp+/- phenotype that appeared largely independent of Xpr1 was the reduced size of the bristles, which was only slightly restored by Xrp1 mutations. Bristle size might depend on ribosome function directly or on a different regulatory gene that replaces Xrp1 in bristle precursors (Lee, 2018).

Rp/+ genotypes express a phenotype of reduced translation, slow cellular growth rate, and reduced competitiveness in comparison to wild-type cells. All of these effects of the Rp+/- genotypes depended on the bZip-domain protein Xrp1. The signal to increase Xrp1 transcription depended on the RpS12 protein, which appears to signal the existence of a ribosomal defect or ribosomal protein imbalance (Kale, 2018). Xrp1 was responsible for reducing the bulk translation rate in Rp+/- cells, and this must include a reduction in the translational activity of mature ribosomes. Reduced translation was likely responsible for the slow growth of Rp+/- cells, although Xrp1 might also affect growth independently of translation. Xrp1 also controlled the competitiveness of Rp+/- cells in mosaics with wild-type cells, which provides a possibility for eliminating Rp+/- cells in favor of non-mutant replacements. It is hypothesized that one or more target genes control competitiveness, either in response to Xrp1 itself, or indirectly in response to the changes in translation or growth rates. By utilizing cell competition, a decision could be made to eliminate defective cells only where better cells were available to replace them (Lee, 2018).

A null allele of Xrp1 was isolated in a screen for mutations preventing cell competition. Xrp1 transcription and Xrp1 protein were found to be selectively elevated in Rp+/- cells and to be required cell-autonomously to render these cells less competitive than wild-type cells. Later it was found that Xrp1 also acted to reduce the growth rate of Rp+/- cells. In the absence of Xrp1, or even when Xrp1 gene dose was reduced to one copy, Rp+/- cells grew more like wild-type cells. Xrp1 contributed substantially to the developmental delay of Rp+/- animals, which without Xrp1 could reach adulthood only slightly later than wild-type animals, despite lacking one copy of essential Rp genes (Lee, 2018).

Xrp1 probably reduces growth by reducing the overall translation rate. Rp+/- cells had lower translation rates than wild-type cells, but it was Xrp1, not haploinsufficiency for an important Rp gene, that reduced translation rate, because the difference from wild-type disappeared when Xrp1 was mutated simultaneously. Although ribosome numbers have not been counted directly, the proportion of rRNAs was not reduced in most Rp+/- genotypes, suggesting that an Xrp1-dependent reduction in translational activity per ribosome may occur. A mutation in RpL27A was the exception that did appear to reduce LSU number, but this was not rescued in RpL27A+/-Xrp1+/- discs and so was not responsible for the Xrp1-dependent growth inhibition. The persistence of Rp-/- mutant clones in the absence of Xrp1 also suggests changes in ribosome activity. Rp-/- cells should be deficient in synthesizing new ribosomes, so the prolonged survival of Rp-/-Xrp1-/- clones cannot easily be explained through restored ribosome biogenesis (Lee, 2018).

These findings suggest Xrp1 influences the rate of translation by cytoplasmic ribosomes, but they do not exclude additional roles in ribosome biogenesis. For example, late third instar wing discs from wild-type, RpS18+/-, and RpS18+/-Xrp1+/- larvae contained indistinguishable ribosome numbers, but these genotypes developed at different rates. Based on the time taken for adults to emerge, it is estimated that the ribosomes in late third instar wing discs had accumulated over ~80 hr, ~115 hr, and ~100 hr of larval life, respectively, so this is consistent with different rates of ribosome biogenesis generating similar absolute numbers of ribosomes over different durations of larval development. A reduced rate of ribosome biogenesis was reported previously in the mouse RpL24Bst/+mutant (Lee, 2018).

Regarding the overall rate of organismal development, it is well known that progress through the insect life cycle is controlled, in part, through systemic signals ultimately controlling ecdysone levels. This is not the primary means that Xrp1 affects imaginal disc growth because this occurs cell-autonomously. Additional non-autonomous effects of Xrp1 on organismal development are not ruled out. For example, Dilp8, a secreted factor that regulates organismal growth, undergoes Xrp1-dependent upregulation in Rp+/- wing discs (Lee, 2018).

Hundreds of genes show altered mRNA levels in Rp+/- wing discs, but it has not been clear how these changes arise. This study now reports that >80% of altered mRNA levels were Xrp1-dependent. Some of these genes might be indirect targets of Xrp1; for example, Xrp1-dependent changes in overall translation rate may change gene transcription through a variety of mechanisms. The Xrp1-dependent changes include oxidative stress responses, which are reported to make cells less competitive, and also DNA repair genes (Lee, 2018).

How is Xrp1 induced by Rp mutations? Xrp1 is a transcriptional target of p53 in the response to irradiation, but p53 is not required for the elimination of Rp+/- cells by cell competition (Kale, 2015). Accordingly, this study showed that p53 was not required to elevate Xrp1 in Rp+/- wing discs. Reduced overall translation was unlikely to induce Xrp1 because Xrp1 was actually responsible for this. Perhaps more subtle changes in the translation of specific mRNAs occur first and induce Xrp1 expression. Another possibility is that a signal is sent when ribosome assembly is altered, for example, through an accumulated assembly intermediate. This study reports that a particular Rp, RpS12, that was already recognized as a gene required for cell competition (Kale, 2018), was required to elevate Xrp1 transcription. Although the molecular mechanism by which RpS12 can affect transcription is not yet known, this demonstrates that a link between a particular Rp and the Xrp1 gene triggers most of the response that occurs to mutations in other Rp genes, upstream of overall changes in bulk translation rates, which are a later consequence of the Xrp1 pathway. All the DNA repair gene expression in Rp+/- wing discs was also downstream of Xrp1 and may reflect Xrp1's other role in the response to irradiation (Brodsky, 2004, Akdemir, 2007). How DNA repair genes contribute to aspects of the Rp+/- phenotype remains to be determined (Lee, 2018).

The importance of Xrp1 extends to homozygous Rp mutant cells. Remarkably, even Rp-/- cells survived and underwent limited growth if Xrp1 was completely removed. It is not believed that imaginal disc cells can grow and divide without ribosomes and protein synthesis, but since ribosome turnover occurs very slowly, Rp-/- recombinant cells probably retain most of the ribosome complement from the Rp+/- mother cell at first. They would be deficient in replenishing their ribosome complement, however, which would dilute with further growth and cell division. Previous studies indicate that when ribosome activity diminishes below a critical threshold, Rp-/- cells undergo apoptosis (Kale, 2015). The absence of Xrp1 allowed Rp-/- cells to survive longer, by allowing more translation by the remaining ribosomes and possibly by preventing competitive elimination of Rp-/- cells by Rp+/- cells (Lee, 2018).

Despite the unquestioned importance of Rps in ribosome structure and function, the current results indicate that the effects of Rp mutations in Drosophila are largely due to a regulatory response. Even the reduced translation in Rp mutant genotypes, which has also been observed in other organisms, is downstream of Xrp1 and does not play a primary role as a sensor of Rp mutations. Even when Rp genes are homozygously mutated, which seemingly should affect overall translation very quickly, Xrp1 normally kills the Rp-/-cells before such effects become evident. Rp+/- cells can also be killed by Xrp1, but indirectly, by cell competition, when wild-type cells are nearby (Lee, 2018).

Mutations that reduce translation or ribosome biogenesis by other routes are phenotypically distinct from Rp mutants. For example, mutations in the myc gene homolog or in components of the Drosophila TOR pathway lead to smaller flies, unlike Rp+/- flies. In mammals as well, mutations that affect ribosome biogenesis independently of Rp genes lead to human disease, but the symptoms of such ribosomopathies differ from Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. These differences may occur because translation is affected indirectly in mutations of Rp genes and is not the primary trigger for all the cellular responses leading to pathology (Lee, 2018).

Although it may at first seem surprising that mutations in Rps that are so directly involved in translation affect the cell through another mechanism, perhaps it is advantageous to mount such a coordinated response, for example to enable cell competition. Much as it is adaptive to eliminate cells with damaged DNA through apoptosis, perhaps cell competition is a mechanism to eliminate one or a few cells with defective ribosomes in favor of other, more normal cells (Lee, 2018).

A potential link between p53, cell competition and ribosomopathy in mammals and in Drosophila

The term cell competition has been used to describe the phenomenon whereby particular cells can be eliminated during tissue growth only when more competitive cells are available to replace them. Multiple examples implicate differential activity of p53 in cell competition in mammals, but p53 has not been found to have the same role in Drosophila, where the phenomenon of cell competition was first recognized. Recent studies now show that Drosophila cells harboring mutations in Ribosomal protein (Rp) genes, which are eliminated by cell competition with wild type cells, activate a p53 target gene, Xrp1. In Diamond Blackfan Anemia, human Rp mutants activate p53 itself, through a nucleolar stress pathway. These results suggest a link between mammalian and Drosophila Rp mutants, translation, and cell competition (Baker, 2019).

P53 is a transcription factor that is well known as the guardian of the genome. When activated by DNA-damage, p53 coordinates cell cycle arrest that facilitates DNA repair, or, if damage is more extreme, apoptosis that removes irretrievably damaged cells. In undamaged cells, baseline p53 activity is low, in part due to rapid turnover controlled by the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2. Activity increases rapidly after modification by the DNA Damage Response kinases ATM and Chk2. P53 regulates the expression of many genes, some direct targets but others indirect (Baker, 2019).

Recently, evidence has been accumulating for another function of p53, in the process of cell competition. Cell competition involves the selective elimination of particular cells based on intrinsic differences from their cellular context, e.g., elimination of certain genotypes of cells from genetic mosaics that would survive and proliferate in a genetically homogenous environment. Cell competition does not reflect a cell-autonomous cell death process, such as can be caused high levels of p53 activity, but requires interaction with distinct neighboring cells that are fitter and able to replace the out-competed cells. Cell competition is of interest because of its possible roles in tumor development and tumor surveillance, both situations where cells of distinct genotypes confront one another and influence one another's growth and survival. Cell competition may also help prevent developmental defects and monitor stem cell populations for inappropriate differentiation (Baker, 2019).

It is not yet directly demonstrated that mammalian Rp+/- cells are eliminated by cell competition. In Drosophila, DNA damage activates the putative transcription factor Xrp1 through p53. Rp+/- genotypes activate Xrp1 through RpS12 instead, which in mosaic tissues marks these cells for elimination and replacement by wild type (Rp+/+) cells. Both p53 in mammals and Xrp1 in Drosophila predispose cells to elimination by competition, if more normal cells are present (Baker, 2019).

The classic example of cell competition is the elimination in Drosophila of Rp+/- cells from mosaic imaginal discs (undifferentiated larval tissues that contain the rapidly proliferating progenitors for adult structures) that also contain wild type cells. Another example includes competition between imaginal disc cells that express different levels of the proto-oncogene Myc. In the latter case even wild type cells can be eliminated by cells expressing more Myc ('supercompetitors'). A further example concerns cells that are mutated for the scribbled gene (scrib). The conserved Scrib protein is required for epithelial cell polarity and in scrib mutants the imaginal discs become neoplastic. By contrast, clones of scrib mutant cells are eliminated from mosaic imaginal discs by competition with the wild type cells before they become neoplastic (Baker, 2019).

One of the first cell competition phenomena described from mammals involved hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Mild irradiation, that by itself would have negligible effect on hematopoietic stem cell viability and function, significantly disadvantages these cells for months afterwards in competitive situations where stem cells with less p53 activity also present. In a study of embryonic development, p53 knock-down ES cells injected into E3.5 day blastocysts strongly compete with co-injected control ES cells by E14.5, indicating that even the baseline p53 activity of normal blastocyst cells can be disadvantageous in the presence of cells lacking even that activity. One study also identified circumstances where p53 knockdown could be disadvantageous. Mild p53 activity is also shown to be disadvantageous in studies of mdm2 family members. These ubiquitin ligases are major negative regulators of p53. Whereas Mdm2+/- Mdm4+/- double heterozygous mice show only a mild increase in p53 activity and undergo normal embryogenesis, they are at a disadvantage in chimeras and outcompeted by normal cells in which p53 activity maintains a lower baseline (Baker, 2019).

In tissue cultures, mammalian Scribbled is also involved in cell competition. Scrib knock-down has little effect on MDCK cells in homogenous culture, but when these cells are co-cultured with wild-type MDCK cells then the knock-down cells are selectively eliminated by apoptosis. Gene profiling led to the discovery that p53 was activated during the competition, and in fact was required for the Scrib knockdown cells to be eliminated. Accordingly, even in otherwise normal MDCK cells, mild p53 activity by itself was sufficient for these cells to be eliminated in mixed culture. P53 activity is also found to be required for competitive elimination of mouse embryo cells mutated for Bmpr1a, and for tetraploid cells (Baker, 2019).

In summary, p53 activity is a common feature of cell competition in mammals. In addition to cell-autonomous roles in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis that follow DNA damage, low levels of p53 activity that normally are compatible with cell growth and survival have an effect in chimeras or mixed cultures where other cells are present that have lower p53 activity levels. In some cases, such as competition between MDCK cells with and without Scrib expression, or mouse embryo cells that are tetraploid or mutated for Bmpr1a, changes in p53 activity are induced by other genetic changes (Baker, 2019).

Until recently there had been little evidence for any molecular similarity between what little was known of the mechanisms of cell competition signaling in Drosophila and mammals. In particular, p53 is not required in Rp+/- cells for their elimination from mosaic imaginal discs (Kale, 2015), and cells lacking p53 do not eliminate wild type cells in Drosophila. The p53 gene is also not required in wild type cells for their elimination by cells expressing more Myc. P53 does seem to have another effect. In cells expressing more myc: under competitive conditions, it shifts their metabolism and promotes their survival and ability to eliminate nearby wild type cells (Baker, 2019).

Recently, however, a hint that cell competition in mammals and Drosophila might share something in common has emerged. Rp+/- cells that undergo cell competition in Drosophila elevate expression of a bZip domain protein, Xrp1, which contributes to many of the altered properties of Rp+/- genotypes. This includes their reduced overall translation rate, slower cellular growth rate, and slower rate of organismal developmental, as well as their susceptibility to elimination by cell competition (Lee, 2018). Importantly, the Xrp1 locus had already been identified as the most highly-induced transcriptional target of p53 following irradiation. Xrp1 may contribute to the DNA damage response downstream of p53, since it is required for aspects of genome stability (Akdemir, 2007). Multiple genes that were previously described as p53 targets are upregulated in Rp+/- cells in an Xrp1-dependent manner, suggesting that they may actually be Xrp1 targets (Kucinski, 2017; Lee, 2018). Thus, it is possible that in Drosophila p53 itself is not essential for elimination of Rp+/- cells by cell competition because relevant target genes can be activated by Xrp1, bypassing p53 (Baker, 2019).

Interestingly, p53 itself is activated in mammalian cells with Rp mutations, such as in patients with Diamond-Blackfan Anemia, one of several ribosomopathies associated with ribosome biogenesis defects, and in Rp knockout mouse models. The mammalian Rp+/- cells experience a nucleolar stress in which RpL5 and RpL11, rendered in excess by the reduced rate of ribosome biogenesis in cells with mutations in any of the other ribosomal protein genes, bind to and inhibit MDM2 (in mice; HDM2 in humans), thereby reducing p53 turnover. No DM2 protein is conserved in Drosophila, where p53 turnover is regulated by an unrelated ubiquitin ligase that has not been reported to interact with any ribosomal proteins, so Rp mutations could not activate p53 by this mechanism in Drosophila. Instead, the elevated expression of Xrp1 depends on a different ribosomal protein, RpS12, whose role in cell competition was recently discovered in parallel with that of Xrp1 (Kale, 2018). The molecular mechanism of Xrp1 activation by RpS12 is not known at present. RpL5 and RpL11 are special ribosomal proteins in that they complex with the 5 S rRNA that is transcribed separately from other rRNAs and by RNA polymerase III rather than RNA polymerase I. The resulting 5 S RNP is somewhat stable which facilitates accumulation in the presence of other ribosome biogenesis defects. By contrast, very little is yet known about the function and regulation of the RpS12 protein, which binds to the 18 S rRNA of the small subunit (Baker, 2019).

These new results suggest that cell competition mechanisms in Drosophila and mammals may not be as distinct as may have seemed. The cell interactions that lead to cell competition may depend on pathways that can be activated by p53 in both mammals and in Drosophila, but whereas they are activated by p53 in several mammalian examples, in Drosophila Rp+/- cells they are activated by a more downstream transcription factor, by-passing p53. Many questions remain. In the Drosophila pathway, how does RpS12 communicate ribosome biogenesis defects to the Xrp1 gene? How important is Xrp1 for the DNA Damage Response downstream of p53? To what extent does p53 act through downstream factors in mammalian cell competition, where there is an RpS12 protein but no obvious homolog of Xrp1? It would be interesting now to know whether Rp+/- cells are eliminated by cell competition in mammals, as might be expected since differential p53 activity can be a cause of cell competition. RpL24+/- cells are certainly disfavored in chimeras with wild-type cells, but it has not been distinguished whether this simply represents a passive consequence of their differential translation and growth rates, or an additional active process of targeted elimination as is seen in Drosophila (Baker, 2019).

While the translation defect of Rp+/- cells in mammals has often been considered independent of the p53 activity, in fact p53 does affect translation through a variety of mechanisms, including regulation of ribosome biogenesis, regulation of general translation initiation, and regulation of specific mRNAs. In Drosophila, Xrp1 reduces the translation rate of Rp+/- cells (Lee, 2018). Given the effect of Xrp1 on translation in Drosophila, the possible effect of p53, or other regulatory signals activated by ribosome biogenesis defects, on protein synthesis in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia patient cells would bear further investigation (Baker, 2019).

Cell competition represents an emerging aspect of p53 function that is not cell-autonomous but only apparent between cells with different p53 activity levels. Now it seems that at least one p53-independent example of cell competition may depend on common targets activated by a p53-independent route. It may be interesting to determine whether cell competition contributes to the tumor suppressor function of p53 in mammals, which appears not strictly dependent on well-known cell cycle and cell survival targets. It was recently reported that human RpS12 gene dose is frequently reduced in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, in a manner mutually exclusive to loss of p53. In principle this could be consistent with a function of human RpS12 related to that of p53, although this remains to be investigated (Baker, 2019).

Inter-organ growth coordination is mediated by the Xrp1-Dilp8 axis in Drosophila

How organs scale with other body parts is not mechanistically understood. This question was addressed using the Drosophila imaginal disc model. When the growth of one disc domain is perturbed, other parts of the disc and other discs slow down their growth, maintaining proper inter-disc and intra-disc proportions. The relaxin-like Dilp8 is required for this inter-organ coordination. This work also reveals that the stress-response transcription factor Xrp1 plays a key role upstream of dilp8 in linking organ growth status with the systemic growth response. In addition, the small ribosomal subunit protein RpS12 is required to trigger Xrp1-dependent non-autonomous response. This work demonstrates that RpS12, Xrp1, and Dilp8 form an independent regulatory module that ensures intra- and inter-organ growth coordination during development (Boulan, 2019).

Xrp1 genetically interacts with the ALS-associated FUS orthologue caz and mediates its toxicity

Cabeza (caz) is the single Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of the human FET proteins FUS, TAF15, and EWSR1, which have been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. This study identified Xrp1, a nuclear chromatin-binding protein, as a key modifier of caz mutant phenotypes. Xrp1 expression was strongly up-regulated in caz mutants, and Xrp1 heterozygosity rescued their motor defects and life span. Interestingly, selective neuronal Xrp1 knockdown was sufficient to rescue, and neuronal Xrp1 overexpression phenocopied caz mutant phenotypes. The caz/Xrp1 genetic interaction depended on the functionality of the AT-hook DNA-binding domain in Xrp1, and the majority of Xrp1-interacting proteins are involved in gene expression regulation. Consistently, caz mutants displayed gene expression dysregulation, which was mitigated by Xrp1 heterozygosity. Finally, Xrp1 knockdown substantially rescued the motor deficits and life span of flies expressing ALS mutant FUS in motor neurons, implicating gene expression dysregulation in ALS-FUS pathogenesis (Mallik, 2018).

Drosophila IRBP bZIP heterodimer binds P-element DNA and affects hybrid dysgenesis

In Drosophila, P-element transposition causes mutagenesis and genome instability during hybrid dysgenesis. The P-element 31-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) contain sequences essential for transposase cleavage and have been implicated in DNA repair via protein-DNA interactions with cellular proteins. The identity and function of these cellular proteins were unknown. Biochemical characterization of proteins that bind the TIRs identified a heterodimeric basic leucine zipper (bZIP) complex between an uncharacterized protein that is termed 'Inverted Repeat Binding Protein (IRBP) 18' and its partner Xrp1. The reconstituted IRBP18/Xrp1 heterodimer binds sequence-specifically to its dsDNA-binding site within the P-element TIRs. Genetic analyses implicate both proteins as critical for repair of DNA breaks following transposase cleavage in vivo. These results identify a cellular protein complex that binds an active mobile element and plays a more general role in maintaining genome stability (Francis, 2016).

A role for the IRBP complex in the P-element transposition reaction has been postulated since initial identification of its sequence-specific DNA-binding properties (Staveley, 1995; Beall, 1994; Beall, 1996; Rio, 1988). The organizational overlap between IRBP DNA binding and transposase cleavage sites makes the IRBP complex a prime cellular candidate to influence some aspect of the P-element transposition cycle. Several putative IRBP proteins copurified with observed IRBP DNA-binding activity or unambiguously promoted DNA repair posttransposase P-element cleavage (Ku 70 and mus309/DmBLM). None, however, could reconstitute site-specific DNA binding to the P-element 31-bp TIRs (Francis, 2016).

This report identifies a bZIP heterodimer between a C/EBP family member IRBP18 and a drosophilid-specific protein Xrp1 as the sequence-specific DNA-binding subunits of a larger multiprotein IRBP complex that binds to the P-element TIRs. These proteins work in concert to facilitate efficient DNA repair following P-element transposase-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, these proteins are required more generally in the cellular DNA damage response and DSB repair in the absence of P elements (Francis, 2016).

Repair of P-element~induced DNA breaks occurs predominantly through two distinct DSB repair pathways: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or a variant of classical homologous recombinational repair, synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), The choice between these two pathways is dictated by cell-cycle location, the availability of pathway substrates, and tissue type. Because the IRBP homozygous mutant males are sterile, it is not possible at present to use any of the established DNA repair reporter strains to determine in which DNA repair pathway IRBP18 and Xrp1 participates. Future would should determine if the IRBP18/Xrp1 heterodimer can bind directly to different DNA repair intermediates and thus provide a direct link between the bZIP heterodimer and DNA repair (Francis, 2016).

A role for bZIP proteins and specifically mammalian C/EBP proteins in DNA repair is well established. In human and mouse keratinocytes, UV-B UV DNA damage induces p53-dependent transcriptional activation of both the C/EBPα and β genes. C/EBPα expressed in prostate cancer cells where it interacts with the DNA repair proteins Ku p70/p80 heterodimer and the poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Notably, Drosophila p53 up-regulates three bZIP proteins (CG6272/IRBP18, CG17836/Xrp1, and CG15479/Mabiki) upon DNA damage. CG15479/Mabiki is a novel regulator of caspase-independent cell death of excess cells in the expanded head region of 6x-bcd embryos and is thought to work in concert with other caspase-independent cell death mechanisms to ensure proper development. Genetic deletion of the CG17836/Xrp1 gene resulted in a DNA repair phenotype when challenged with ionizing radiation (Akdemir, 2007). Additionally, the Dmp53 DNA damage-induced apoptotic response was unaffected in the Xrp1 mutants, suggesting that Xrp1 functions to preserve genome stability through a pathway independent of apoptosis (Akdemir, 2007). Although this study has demonstrated that IRBP18 and Xrp1 share a similar function in DNA repair, more experiments are needed to understand how these proteins work downstream of p53 transactivation (Francis, 2016).

D. melanogaster uses multiple endogenous mechanisms to limit P-element transposition. Expression of catalytically active transposase is restricted to the germline by tissue-specific pre-mRNA splicing regulation. The germline piwi-interacting RNA pathway has been demonstrated to repress transposition in trans and plays a critical role in host adaptation to newly invaded P elements. It is proposde that the IRBP18/Xrp1 heterodimer recognizes new P elements and that its native function is to facilitate repair of breaks to maintain genomic stability during a genotoxic event such as ionizing radiation or the massive P-element mobilization that occurs following a hybrid dysgenic cross (Francis, 2016).

bZIP proteins are well suited to recognize newly invaded foreign DNA due to their inherit ability to form multiple heterodimers. IRBP18 and Xrp1, for example, form heterodimers with other several other bZIP proteins; the net result is expansion of the repertoire of DNA sequences that can be bound. This library of bZIP dimers can be deployed to recognize foreign DNA as part of a survival mechanism against the genome instability created by foreign DNA invasion. In humans, mice and Drosophila p53 transactivate steady-state levels of several bZIP proteins in response to DNA damage. It is unclear how changes in steady-state levels of these DNA repair proteins determine dimer formation or function. What is clear is that bZIP proteins are important players in DNA repair and maintenance of genome stability. In this respect, the IRBP18/Xrp1 heterodimer is a newly identified component of the interconnected pathways to combat the genotoxic effects of mass invasion/mobilization of transposons (Francis, 2016).

Ectopic antenna induction by overexpression of CG17836/Xrp1 encoding an AT-hook DNA binding motif protein in Drosophila

Drosophila imaginal discs are an excellent model system for studies of developmental plasticity. In imaginal discs, most cells adhere strictly to their specific identity, but some cells undergo transdetermination, a process wherein the determined identity switches to another disc-specific identity. In this study, gain-of-function screening was performed and a gene, CG17836/Xrp1, was identified that induces ectopic antennae in the eye field upon overexpression at the early eye disc stage. An essential factor in the distalization process, Distalless, and its upstream regulators Wingless, Hedgehog, and Decapentaplegic, are ectopically induced by CG17836/Xrp1 overexpression in eye discs, and this provides molecular evidence of the formation of ectopic antennae. Further, forced expression of CG17836/Xrp1 induced severe cell-proliferation defects. These findings suggest that CG17836/Xrp1 is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in eye discs and affects disc identity specification (Tsurui-Nishimura, 2013).

p53 directs focused genomic responses in Drosophila

p53 is a fundamental determinant of cancer susceptibility and other age-related pathologies. Similar to mammalian counterparts, Drosophila p53 integrates stress signals and elicits apoptotic responses that maintain genomic stability. To illuminate core-adaptive functions controlled by this gene family, the Drosophila p53 regulatory network was examined at a genomic scale. In development, the absence of p53 impacted constitutive expression for a surprisingly broad scope of genes. By contrast, stimulus-dependent responses governed by Drosophila p53 were limited in scope. The vast majority of stress responders were induced and p53 dependent (RIPD) genes. The signature set of 29 'high stringency' RIPD genes identified in this study were enriched for intronless loci, with a non-uniform distribution that includes a recently evolved cluster unique to Drosophila melanogaster. Two RIPD genes, with known and unknown biochemical activities, were functionally examined. One RIPD gene, designated XRP1, maintains genome stability after genotoxic challenge and prevents cell proliferation upon induced expression. A second gene, RnrL, is an apoptogenic effector required for caspase activation in a model of p53-dependent killing. Together, these studies identify ancient and convergent features of the p53 regulatory network (Akdemir, 2007).


REFERENCES

Search PubMed for articles about Drosophila Xrp1

Akdemir, F., Christich, A., Sogame, N., Chapo, J. and Abrams, J. M. (2007). p53 directs focused genomic responses in Drosophila. Oncogene 26(36): 5184-5193. PubMed ID: 17310982

Baillon, L., Germani, F., Rockel, C., Hilchenbach, J. and Basler, K. (2018). Xrp1 is a transcription factor required for cell competition-driven elimination of loser cells. Sci Rep 8(1): 17712. PubMed ID: 30531963

Baker, N. E., Kiparaki, M. and Khan, C. (2019). A potential link between p53, cell competition and ribosomopathy in mammals and in Drosophila. Dev Biol 446(1): 17-19. PubMed ID: 30513308

Beall, E. L., Admon, A. and Rio, D. C. (1994). A Drosophila protein homologous to the human p70 Ku autoimmune antigen interacts with the P transposable element inverted repeats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(26): 12681-12685. PubMed ID: 7809101

Beall, E. L. and Rio, D. C. (1996). Drosophila IRBP/Ku p70 corresponds to the mutagen-sensitive mus309 gene and is involved in P-element excision in vivo. Genes Dev 10(8): 921-933. PubMed ID: 8608940

Boulan, L., Andersen, D., Colombani, J., Boone, E. and Leopold, P. (2019). Inter-organ growth coordination is mediated by the Xrp1-Dilp8 axis in Drosophila. Dev Cell. PubMed ID: 31006647

Brodsky, M. H., Weinert, B. T., Tsang, G., Rong, Y. S., McGinnis, N. M., Golic, K. G., Rio, D. C. and Rubin, G. M. (2004). Drosophila melanogaster MNK/Chk2 and p53 regulate multiple DNA repair and apoptotic pathways following DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol 24(3): 1219-1231. PubMed ID: 14729967

Francis, M. J., Roche, S., Cho, M. J., Beall, E., Min, B., Panganiban, R. P. and Rio, D. C. (2016). Drosophila IRBP bZIP heterodimer binds P-element DNA and affects hybrid dysgenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(46): 13003-13008. PubMed ID: 27799520

Kale, A., Ji, Z., Kiparaki, M., Blanco, J., Rimesso, G., Flibotte, S. and Baker, N. E. (2018). Ribosomal Protein S12e Has a Distinct Function in Cell Competition. Dev Cell 44(1): 42-55 e44. PubMed ID: 29316439

Kucinski, I., Dinan, M., Kolahgar, G. and Piddini, E. (2017). Chronic activation of JNK JAK/STAT and oxidative stress signalling causes the loser cell status. Nat Commun 8(1): 136. PubMed ID: 28743877

Lee, C. H., Rimesso, G., Reynolds, D. M., Cai, J. and Baker, N. E. (2016). Whole-genome sequencing and iPLEX MassARRAY genotyping map an EMS-induced mutation affecting cell competition in Drosophila melanogaster. G3 (Bethesda) 6(10): 3207-3217. PubMed ID: 27574103

Lee, C. H., Kiparaki, M., Blanco, J., Folgado, V., Ji, Z., Kumar, A., Rimesso, G. and Baker, N. E. (2018). A regulatory response to ribosomal protein mutations controls translation, growth, and cell competition. Dev Cell 46(4): 456-469. PubMed ID: 30078730

Mallik, M., Catinozzi, M., Hug, C. B., Zhang, L., Wagner, M., Bussmann, J., Bittern, J., Mersmann, S., Klambt, C., Drexler, H. C. A., Huynen, M. A., Vaquerizas, J. M. and Storkebaum, E. (2018). Xrp1 genetically interacts with the ALS-associated FUS orthologue caz and mediates its toxicity. J Cell Biol. PubMed ID: 30209068

Rio, D. C. and Rubin, G. M. (1988). Identification and purification of a Drosophila protein that binds to the terminal 31-base-pair inverted repeats of the P transposable element. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(23): 8929-8933. PubMed ID: 2848246

Staveley, B. E., Heslip, T. R., Hodgetts, R. B. and Bell, J. B. (1995). Protected P-element termini suggest a role for inverted-repeat-binding protein in transposase-induced gap repair in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 139(3): 1321-1329. PubMed ID: 7768441

Tsurui-Nishimura, N., Nguyen, T. Q., Katsuyama, T., Minami, T., Furuhashi, H., Oshima, Y. and Kurata, S. (2013). Ectopic antenna induction by overexpression of CG17836/Xrp1 encoding an AT-hook DNA binding motif protein in Drosophila. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77(2): 339-344. PubMed ID: 23391928


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date revised: 3 March, 2019

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