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Saturday August 31st, 2013

Yang, L., Lin, C., Jin, C., Yang, J. C., Tanasa, B., Li, W., Merkurjev, D., Ohgi, K. A., Meng, D., Zhang, J., Evans, C. P. and Rosenfeld, M. G. (2013). lncRNA-dependent mechanisms of androgen-receptor-regulated gene activation programs. Nature 500: 598-602. PubMed ID: 23945587
Summary: A study of prostate cancer cells reveals a transcriptional activation role for long non-coding RNAs (PRNCR1 and PCGEM1) that bind to the androgen receptor. PRNCR1 (also known as PCAT8) and PCGEM1, bind successively to the androgen receptor and strongly enhance both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent androgen-receptor-mediated gene activation programs. Binding of PRNCR1 to the carboxy-terminally acetylated androgen receptor on enhancers and its association with DOT1L appear to be required for recruitment of the second lncRNA, PCGEM1, to the androgen receptor amino terminus that is methylated by DOT1L. Unexpectedly, recognition of specific protein marks by PCGEM1-recruited pygopus 2 PHD domain (see Drosophila Pygopus) enhances selective looping of androgen-receptor-bound enhancers to target gene promoters in these cells.

Kim, H., Wu, J., Ye, S., Tai, C. I., Zhou, X., Yan, H., Li, P., Pera, M. and Ying, Q. L. (2013).. Modulation of β-catenin function maintains mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell self-renewal Nat Commun 4: 2403. PubMed ID: 23985566
Summary: Wnt/β-catenin signalling has a variety of roles in regulating stem cell fates. Its specific role in mouse epiblast stem cell self-renewal, however, remains poorly understood. This study shows that Wnt/β-catenin functions in both self-renewal and differentiation in mouse epiblast stem cells. Stabilization and nuclear translocation of β-catenin (see Drosophila Armadillo) and its subsequent binding to T-cell factors (see Drosophila Pangolin) induces differentiation. Conversely, retention of stabilized β-catenin in the cytoplasm maintains self-renewal. Cytoplasmic retention of β-catenin is effected by stabilization of Axin2 (see Drosophila Axin), a downstream target of β-catenin, or by genetic modifications to β-catenin that prevent its nuclear translocation. The results elucidate a new role for β-catenin in stem cell self-renewal that is independent of its transcriptional activity and will have broad implications in understanding the molecular regulation of stem cell fate.

Friday August 30, 2013

Fang, W. Q., Chen, W. W., Fu, A. K. and Ip, N. Y. (2013). Axin directs the amplification and differentiation of intermediate progenitors in the developing cerebral cortex. Neuron 79: 665-679. PubMed ID: 23972596
Summary: The expansion of the mammalian cerebral cortex is safeguarded by a concerted balance between amplification and neuronal differentiation of intermediate progenitors (IPs). Nonetheless, the molecular controls governing these processes remain unclear. The scaffold protein Axin (see Drosophila Axin) was found to be a critical regulator that determines the IP population size and ultimately the number of neurons during neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex. The increase of the IP pool is mediated by the interaction between Axin and GSK-3 (see Drosophila Shaggy) in the cytoplasmic compartments of the progenitors. Importantly, as development proceeds, Axin becomes enriched in the nucleus to trigger neuronal differentiation via beta-catenin activation. The nuclear localization of Axin and hence the switch of IPs from proliferative to differentiative status are strictly controlled by the Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of Axin at Thr485 (see Drosophila Cdk5). These results demonstrate an important Axin-dependent regulatory mechanism in neurogenesis, providing potential insights into the evolutionary expansion of the cerebral cortex.

Schaaf, C. A., Misulovin, Z., Gause, M., Koenig, A. and Dorsett, D. (2013). The Drosophila Enhancer of Split Gene Complex: Architecture and Coordinate Regulation by Notch, Cohesin and Polycomb Group Proteins. G3 (Bethesda). PubMed ID: 23979932
Summary: The cohesin protein complex (see Rad21 (Verthandi) functionally interacts with Polycomb group (PcG) silencing proteins to control expression of several key developmental genes, such as the Drosophila Enhancer of split gene complex [E(spl)-C]. Depletion of cohesin or PRC1 increases binding of the Notch intracellular fragment (NICD) to genes in the E(spl)-C, correlating with increased transcription. The increased transcription likely reflects both direct effects of cohesin and PRC1 on RNA polymerase activity at the E(spl)-C, and increased expression of Notch ligands. By chromosome conformation capture it was found that the E(spl) C is organized into a self-interactive architectural domain that is co-extensive with the region that binds cohesin and PcG complexes. The self-interactive architecture is formed independently of cohesin or PcG proteins. It is posited that the E(spl)-C architecture dictates where cohesin and PcG complexes bind and act when they are recruited by as yet unidentified factors, thereby controlling the E(spl)-C as a coordinated domain.

Thursday August 29, 2013

An, Y., Kang, Q., Zhao, Y., Hu, X., Li, N. (2013). Lats2 Modulates Adipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation via Hippo Signaling. PLoS One 8: e72042. PubMed ID: 23977200
Summary: Lats2 (Drosophila homolog: Warts) is one of the core kinases of the Hippo pathway and plays major roles in cell proliferation by interacting with the downstream transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ (Drosophila homologs: Yorkie). Lats2 is an important modulator of mammalian adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via Hippo signaling. Upon activation, Lats2 phosphorylates YAP and TAZ, leading to their retention in the cytoplasm, preventing them from activating the transcription factor TEAD (Drosophila homolog: Scalloped) in the nucleus. Because TAZ remains in the cytoplasm, PPARγ regains its transcriptional activity. Furthermore, cytoplasmic TAZ acts as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling by suppressing DVL2, thereby preventing β-catenin from entering the nucleus to stimulate TCF/LEF transcriptional activity. Thus, Lats2 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation during adipose development.

Myant, K. B., Scopelliti, A., Haque, S., Vidal, M., Sansom, O. J., Cordero, J. B. (2013). Rac1 drives intestinal stem cell proliferation and regeneration/ Cell Cycle 12: [Epub ahead of print] PubMed ID: 23974108
Summary: Recent work demonstrates that Rac1-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production mediates intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study used the adult Drosophila midgut and the mouse small intestine to directly address the role of Rac1 in ISC proliferation and tissue regeneration in response to damage. The results demonstrate that Rac1 is necessary and sufficient to drive ISC proliferation and regeneration in an ROS-dependent manner. The data point to an evolutionarily conserved role of Rac1 in intestinal homeostasis and highlight the value of combining work in the mammalian and Drosophila intestine as paradigms to study stem cell biology.

Wednesday August 28, 2013

Younger, M. A., Muller, M., Tong, A., Pym, E. C., Davis, G. W. (2013). A Presynaptic ENaC Channel Drives Homeostatic Plasticity Neuron. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23973209
Summary: An electrophysiology-based forward genetic screen has identified two genes, pickpocket11 (ppk11) and pickpocket16 (ppk16), as being necessary for the homeostatic modulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Pickpocket genes encode Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium channel subunits (DEG/ENaC). ppk11 and ppk16 are necessary in presynaptic motoneurons for both the acute induction and long-term maintenance of synaptic homeostasis. ppk11 and ppk16 are cotranscribed as a single mRNA that is upregulated during homeostatic plasticity. Acute pharmacological inhibition of a PPK11-and PPK16-containing channel abolishes the expression of short- and long-term homeostatic plasticity. Finally, presynaptic calcium imaging experiments support a model in which a PPK11- and PPK16-containing DEG/ENaC channel modulates presynaptic membrane voltage and, thereby, controls calcium channel activity to homeostatically regulate neurotransmitter release.

Chin, M. L., Mlodzik, M. (2013). The Drosophila Selectin Furrowed Mediates Intercellular Planar Cell Polarity Interactions via Frizzled Stabilization. Dev Cell. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23973164
Summary: Establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in a tissue requires coordination of directional signals from cell to cell. It is thought that this is mediated by the core PCP factors, which include cell-adhesion molecules. This study demonstrates that furrowed, encoding the Drosophila selectin, is required for PCP generation. Furrowed. Physically interacts with and stabilizes Frizzled, and it mediates intercellular Frizzled-Van Gogh (Vang)/Strabismus interactions. Furrowed plays a homophilic cell-adhesion role that is distinct from its known carbohydrate-binding function described. In vivo studies suggest that Furrowed functions partially redundantly with Flamingo, mediating intercellular Frizzled-Vang interactions between neighboring cells.

Tuesday August 27, 2013

Mann, K., Gordon, M. D., Scott, K. (2013). A Pair of Interneurons Influences the Choice between Feeding and Locomotion in Drosophila Neuron 79: 754-765. PubMed ID: 23972600
Summary: This study examine the modulation of feeding behavior in Drosophila and identified a pair of interneurons in the ventral nerve cord that is activated by stimulation of mechanosensory neurons and inhibits feeding initiation, suggesting that these neurons suppress feeding while the fly is walking. Conversely, inhibiting activity in these neurons promotes feeding initiation and inhibits locomotion. These studies demonstrate the mutual exclusivity between locomotion and feeding initiation in the fly, isolate interneurons that influence this behavioral choice, and provide a framework for studying the neural basis for behavioral exclusivity in Drosophila.

Jeong, Y. T., Shim, J., Oh, S. R., Yoon, H. I., Kim, C. H., Moon, S. J., Montell, C. (2013). An odorant-binding protein required for suppression of sweet taste by bitter chemicals. Neuron 79: 725-737. PubMed ID: 23972598
Summary: Animals often must decide whether or not to consume a diet that contains competing attractive and aversive compounds. This study used Drosophila to investigate a mechanism that influences this decision. Addition of bitter compounds to sucrose suppressed feeding behavior, and this inhibition depended on an odorant-binding protein (OBP) termed OBP49a. In wild-type flies, bitter compounds suppress sucrose-induced action potentials, and the inhibition is impaired in Obp49a mutants. OBP49a is expressed in accessory cells and acted non-cell-autonomously to attenuate nerve firings in sugar-activated GRNs when bitter compounds were combined with sucrose. These findings demonstrate an unexpected role for an OBP in taste and identify a molecular player involved in the integration of opposing attractive and aversive gustatory inputs.

Monday August 26, 2013

Barembaum, M., Bronner, M. E. (2013). Identification and dissection of a key enhancer mediating cranial neural crest specific expression of transcription factor, Ets-1. Dev Biol. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed ID: 23969311
Summary: This study has isolated and interrogated a cis-regulatory element, conserved between birds and mammals, that drives reporter expression in a manner that recapitulates that of endogenous Ets-1 (Drosophila homolog: Pointed) expression in the neural crest. Within a minimal Ets-1 enhancer region, mutation of putative binding sites for SoxE, homeobox, Ets, TFAP2 or Fox proteins results in loss or reduction of neural crest enhancer activity. Morpholino-mediated loss-of-function experiments show that Sox9, Pax7, Msx1/2, Ets-1, TFAP2A and FoxD3, all are required for enhancer activity. In contrast, mutation of a putative cMyc/E-box sequence (CACGTG) augments reporter expression, consistent with this being a repressor binding site. Taken together, these results uncover new inputs into Ets-1, revealing critical links in the cranial neural crest gene regulatory network.

Chen, K., Johnston, J., Shao, W., Meier, S., Staber, C., Zeitlinger, J.. A global change in RNA polymerase II pausing during the Drosophila midblastula transition. Elife 2: e00861 PubMed ID: 23951546
Summary: ChIP-seq experiments were performed on tightly staged Drosophila embryos, and massive recruitment of RNA polymerase II with widespread pausing was shown to occur de novo during the midblastula transition. However, ~100 genes are strongly occupied by Pol II before this timepoint and most of them do not show Pol II pausing, consistent with a requirement for rapid transcription during the fast nuclear cycles. This global change in Pol II pausing correlates with distinct core promoter elements and associates a TATA-enriched promoter with the rapid early transcription. This suggests that promoters are differentially used during the zygotic genome activation, presumably because they have distinct dynamic properties.

Sunday August 25, 2013

Perez-Gomez, R., Slovakova, J., Rives-Quinto, N., Krejci, A. and Carmena, A. (2013). Serrate-Notch-Canoe complex mediates glial-neuroepithelial cell interactions essential during Drosophila optic lobe development J Cell Sci. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed ID: 23970418
Summary: Neuron-glia interactions are fundamental for the correct establishment of a functional brain. This study found that the glia of the Drosophila larval brain display an essential non-autonomous role during the development of the optic lobe. The Notch ligand Serrate (Ser) is expressed in the glia and it forms a complex in vivo with Notch and Canoe, which colocalize at the adherens junctions of neuroepithelial cells. Ser is tissue-autonomously required in the glia where it activates Notch to regulate glial proliferation, and non-autonomously in the neuroepithelium where Ser induces Notch signaling to avoid the premature activation of the EGFR/Ras pathway and hence of L'sc.

Haikala, V., Joesch, M., Borst, A. and Mauss, A. S. (2013). Optogenetic control of fly optomotor responses. J Neurosci 33: 13927-13934. PubMed ID: 23966712
Summary: When confronted with a large-field stimulus rotating around the vertical body axis, flies display a following behavior called 'optomotor response.' As neural control elements, the large tangential horizontal system (HS) cells of lobula plate, part of the optic lobe, have been prime candidates for long. This study applied optogenetic stimulation of HS cells to evaluate their behavioral role in Drosophila. To minimize interference of the optical activation of channelrhodopsin-2 with the visual perception of the flies, a bistable variant called ChR2-C128S was used. Selective optogenetic activation of HS cells were shown to elicit robust yaw head movements and yaw turning responses in fixed and tethered flying flies, respectively.

Saturday August 24, 2013

Goh, G. Y., Martelli, K. L., Parhar, K. S., Kwong, A. W., Wong, M. A., Mah, A., Hou, N. S. and Taubert, S. (2013). The conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15 is required for oxidative stress responses in C. elegans. Aging Cell [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23957350
Summary: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important signaling roles in metazoans, but also cause significant molecular damage. In the nematode C. elegans, the transcription factor SKN-1 (Drosophila homolog: Erect wing) is considered a master regulator for detoxification and oxidative stress responses. MDT-15, a subunit of the conserved Mediator complex, is also required for oxidative stress responses in nematodes. Specifically, mdt-15 is required to express SKN-1 targets upon chemical and genetic increase of SKN-1 activity. mdt-15 is also required to express genes in SKN-1-dependent and -independent fashions downstream of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (see Drosophila Insulin receptor signaling) and for the longevity of daf-2/insulin receptor mutants (see Drosophila Insulin-like receptor). These findings reveal novel conserved players in the oxidative stress response and suggest a broad cytoprotective role for MDT-15.

Couto, A., Oda, S., Nikolaev, V. O., Soltesz, Z. and de Bono, M. (2013). In vivo genetic dissection of O2-evoked cGMP dynamics in a Caenorhabditis elegans gas sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23940325
Summary: This study combine cGMP and Ca2+ biosensors to image and dissect a cGMP signaling network in a C. elegans oxygen-sensing neuron. Increased cGMP leads to a sustained Ca2+ response in the neuron that depends on cGMP-gated ion channels. Ca2+-dependent negative feedback loops, including activation of phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE-1; see Drosophila Dunce), dampen the rise of cGMP. A different negative feedback loop, mediated by phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE-2) and stimulated by cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG; see Drosophila Foraging), unexpectedly promotes cGMP accumulation following a rise in O2, apparently by keeping in check gating of cGMP channels and limiting activation of Ca2+-dependent negative feedback loops. This work provides in vivo insights into the architecture of neuronal cGMP signaling.

Friday August 23, 2013

Matkovic, T., Siebert, M., Knoche, E., Depner, H., Mertel, S., et al. (2013).. The Bruchpilot cytomatrix determines the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles J Cell Biol 202: 667-683. PubMed ID: 23960145
Summary: Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse at a specialized membrane domain called the active zone (AZ), covered by a conserved cytomatrix. This paper explores functions of the cytomatrix, starting with the biochemical identification of two Bruchpilot isoforms. It is proposed that the macromolecular architecture created by the alternating pattern of the BRP isoforms determines the number of Ca(2+) channel-coupled SV release slots available per AZ and thereby sets the size of the readily releasable pool

Feijao, T., Afonso, O., Maia, A. F. and Sunkel, C. E. (2013). Stability of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and the role of different KMN network components in Drosophila Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23959943
Summary: Kinetochores bind spindle microtubules and also act as signaling centers that monitor this interaction. The interaction between microtubules and chromosomes involves a conserved super-complex of proteins, known as the KMN network, composed by the KNL1 (Spc105), Mis12 and Ndc80 complexes. This study demonstrates that different KMN network components perform different roles in chromosome segregation and the mitotic checkpoint signaling.

Thursday August 22, 2013

Johnson, T. K., Crossman, T., Foote, K. A., Henstridge, M. A., Saligari, M. J., et al. (2013).. Torso-like functions independently of Torso to regulate Drosophila growth and developmental timing Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23959885
Summary: At the termini of the embryo activation of the Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase Torso (Tor) is achieved by the localized expression of the maternal gene Torso-like. Torso also functions in the prothoracic gland as the receptor for prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) that initiates metamorphosis. Tsl also localizes to the prothoracic gland and influences developmental timing. tsl and tor have opposing effects on body size. Although tsl null mutants exhibit a similar length delay in time to pupariation to tor mutants, in tsl:tor double mutants this delay is strikingly enhanced. Thus, loss of tsl is additive rather than epistatic to loss of tor.

Degoutin, J. L., Milton, C. C., Yu, E., Tipping, M., Bosveld, F., Yang, L., Bellaiche, Y., Veraksa, A. and Harvey, K. F. (2013). Riquiqui and Minibrain are regulators of the Hippo pathway downstream of Dachsous. Nat Cell Biol. [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23955303
Summary: This study identifies two regulators of the Drosophila Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) pathway that function downstream of the Dachsous intracellurlar domain: the WD40 repeat protein Riquiqui (Riq) and the DYRK-family kinase Minibrain (Mnb). Ds physically interacts with Riq, which binds to both Mnb and Warts. Riq and Mnb promote Yorkie-dependent tissue growth by stimulating phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Warts.

Wednesday August 21, 2013

Demare, L. E., Leng, J., Cotney, J., Reilly, S. K., Yin, J., Sarro, R., Noonan, J. P. (2013). The genomic landscape of cohesin-associated chromatin interactions Genome Res 23: 1224-1234. PubMed ID: 23704192
Summary: The cohesin (see Drosophila Rad21) subunit SMC1A, in developing mouse limb, participates in tissue-specific enhancer-promoter interactions and interactions that demarcate regions of correlated regulatory output. Interactions between promoters and distal sites are poised in embryonic stem cells and resolve to tissue-specific activated or repressed chromatin states in the mouse embryo.

Minor, P. J., He, T. F., Sohn, C. H., Asthagiri, A. R. and Sternberg, P. W. (2013). FGF signaling regulates Wnt ligand expression to control vulval cell lineage polarity in C. elegans. Development [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed ID: 23946444
Summary: The C. elegans vulva, with its invariant cell lineage and interaction of multiple cell signaling pathways, provides an excellent model for the study of cell polarity within an organized epithelial tissue. This study shows that the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway (see Drosophila FGF pathway) acts in concert with the Frizzled homolog LIN-17 (see Drosophila Frizzled) to influence the localization of β-catenin/SYS-1, a component of the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway, indirectly through the regulation of the Wnt cwn-1. The source of the FGF ligand (see Drosophila Branchless) is the primary vulval precursor cell (VPC) P6.p, which controls the orientation of the neighboring secondary VPC P7.p by signaling through the sex myoblasts (SMs), activating the FGF pathway. The FGF pathway regulates the expression of cwn-1 in the SMs. These results demonstrate an interaction between FGF and Wnt in C. elegans development and vulval cell lineage polarity, and highlight the promiscuous nature of Wnts and the importance of Wnt gradient directionality within C. elegans.

Tuesday August 20, 2013

Maisak, M. S., Haag, J., Ammer, G., Serbe, E., Meier, M., et al. (2013). A directional tuning map of Drosophila elementary motion detectors Nature 500: 212-216. PubMed ID: 23925246
Summary: Specific subpopulations of T4 and T5 cells within the optic lobe are directionally tuned to one of the four cardinal directions; that is, front-to-back, back-to-front, upwards and downwards. Depending on their preferred direction. T4 and T5 cells terminate in specific sublayers of the lobula plate. T4 and T5 functionally segregate with respect to contrast polarity: whereas T4 cells selectively respond to moving brightness increments (ON edges), T5 cells only respond to moving brightness decrements (OFF edges). Starting with lobular layers L1 and L2, the visual input is split into separate ON and OFF pathways, and motion along all four cardinal directions is computed separately within each pathway. The output of these eight different motion detectors is then sorted such that ON (T4) and OFF (T5) motion detectors with the same directional tuning converge in the same layer of the lobula plate, jointly providing the input to downstream circuits and motion-driven behaviours

Zhang, W., Yan, Z., Jan, L. Y. and Jan, Y. N. (2013). Sound response mediated by the TRP channels NOMPC, NANCHUNG, and INACTIVE in chordotonal organs of Drosophila larvae Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110: 13612-13617. PubMed ID: 23898199
Summary: The larval response to sound/vibration requires chordotonal organs (Cho) and, to a lesser extent, class IV da neurons. Calcium imaging and electrophysiological experiments reveal that Cho neurons, but not class IV da neurons, are excited by natural sounds or pure tones, with tuning curves and intensity dependence appropriate for the behavioral responses. This study implicates the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels Nompc, Nanchung, and Inactive, but not the dmPIEZO channel, in the mechanotransduction and/or signal amplification for the detection of sound by the larval Cho neurons.

Monday August 19, 2013

Sarraf-Zadeh, L., Christen, S., Sauer, U., Cognigni, P., Miguel-Aliaga, I., Stocker, H., Kohler, K. and Hafen, E. (2013). Local requirement of the Drosophila insulin binding protein imp-L2 in coordinating developmental progression with nutritional conditions Dev Biol 381: 97-106. PubMed ID: 23773803
Summary: The secreted Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), a growth inhibitor in Drosophila inhibits the activity of the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (see Insulin-related peptide) by direct binding and is expressed by specific cells in the brain, the ring gland, the gut and the fat body. The results suggest that Imp-L2-expressing neurons sense the nutritional state of Drosophila larvae and coordinate dietary information and ecdysone production to adjust developmental timing under starvation conditions.

Yu, Z., Wu, H., Chen, H., Wang, R., Liang, X., Liu, J., Li, C., Deng, W. M. and Jiao, R. (2013). CAF-1 promotes Notch signaling through epigenetic control of target gene expression during Drosophila development.Development 140: 3635-3644. PubMed ID: 23942516
Summary: In response to induced Notch activation, CAF-1-p105 associates with the Notch intracellular domain to activate the expression of Notch target genes. Association of CAF-1-p105 with Su(H) on chromatin establishes an active local chromatin status for transcription by maintaining a high level of histone h3 acetylation

Sunday August 18, 2013

Iovino, N., Ciabrelli, F. and Cavalli, G. (2013). PRC2 controls Drosophila oocyte cell fate by repressing cell cycle genes. Dev Cell. PubMed ID: 23932903
Summary: Enhancer of zeste in the germline abolishes spatial and temporal control of the cell cycle and induces sterility via transdetermination of the oocyte into a nurse-like cell. This fate switch depends on loss of silencing of two PRC2 target genes, Cyclin E and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dacapo

Huang, H. L., Wang, S., Yin, M. X., Dong, L., Wang, C., et al. (2013). Par-1 regulates tissue growth by influencing hippo phosphorylation status and hippo-salvador association PubMed ID: 23940457
Summary: The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Par-1 regulates the Hippo pathway by physically interacting with Hpo and Salvador and regulates the phosphorylation of Hpo to restrict its activity.

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