muscle segment homeobox


Akimenko, M-A., et al. (1995). Differential induction of four msx homeobox genes during fin development and regeneration in zebrafish. Development 121: 347-357. PubMed ID: 7768177

Andersson, E., et al. (2006). Identification of intrinsic determinants of midbrain dopamine neurons. Cell 124(2): 393-405. PubMed ID: 16439212

Ashraf, S. I. and Ip, Y. T. (2001). The Snail protein family regulates neuroblast expression of inscuteable and string, genes involved in asymmetry and cell division in Drosophila. Development 128: 4757-4767. PubMed ID: 11731456

Bach, A., et al. (2003). Msx1 is required for dorsal diencephalon patterning. Development 130: 4025-4036. PubMed ID: 12874124

Balavoine, G. (1996). Identification of members of several homeobox genes in a planarian using a ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction technique. Nucleic Acids Res. 24(8): 1547-53. PubMed ID: 8628690

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Bei, M. and Maas, R. (1998). FGFs and BMP4 induce both Msx1-independent and Msx1-dependent signaling pathways in early tooth development. Development 125(21): 4325-4333. PubMed ID: 9753686

Bei, M., Kratochwil, K. and Maas, R. L. (2000). BMP4 rescues a non-cell-autonomous function of Msx1 in tooth development. Development 127: 4711-4718. PubMed ID: 11023873

Bendall, A. J., et al. (1998). Protein complex formation between Msx1 and Lhx2 homeoproteins is incompatible with DNA binding activity. Differentiation 63(3): 151-7. PubMed ID: 9697309

Bendall, A. J., et al. (1999). Msx1 antagonizes the myogenic activity of Pax3 in migrating limb muscle precursors. Development 126: 4965-4976. PubMed ID: 10529415

Brugger, S. M., et al. (2004). A phylogenetically conserved cis-regulatory module in the Msx2 promoter is sufficient for BMP-dependent transcription in murine and Drosophila embryos. Development 131: 5153-5165. PubMed ID: 15459107

Buescher, M. and Chia, W. (1997). Mutations in lottchen cause cell fate transformations in both neuroblast and glioblast lineages in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Development 124: 673-681. PubMed ID: 9043082

Bushdid, P. B., et al. (2001). NF-kappaB mediates fgf signal regulation of msx-1 expression. Dev. Bio. 237: 107-115. PubMed ID: 11518509

Chan-Thomas, P. S., et al. (1993). Expression of homeobox genes Msx-1 (Hox-7) and Msx-2 (Hox-8) during cardiac development in the chick. Dev. Dyn. 197: 203-16. PubMed ID: 8106021

Chatterjee, S. S., et al. (2011). The female-specific doublesex isoform regulates pleiotropic transcription factors to pattern genital development in Drosophila. Development 138(6): 1099-109. PubMed ID: 21343364

Cinnamon, E., et al. (2008), Multiple RTK pathways downregulate Groucho-mediated repression in Drosophila embryogenesis. Development 135: 829-837. PubMed ID: 18216172

Cowden, J. and Levine, M. (2003). Ventral dominance governs sequential patterns of gene expression across the dorsal-ventral axis of the neuroectoderm in the Drosophila embryo. Dev. Biol. 262: 335-349. PubMed ID: 14550796

D'Alessio, M. D. and Frasch, M. (1996). msh may play a conserved role in dorsoventral patterning of the neuroectoderm and mesoderm. Mech. Dev. 58: 217-231. PubMed ID: 8887329

Denes, A. S., et al. (2007). Molecular architecture of annelid nerve cord supports common origin of nervous system centralization in bilateria. Cell 129(2): 277-88. PubMed ID: 17448990

Dobias, S. L., et al. (1997). The evolution of Msx gene function: expression and regulation of a sea urchin Msx class homeobox gene. Mech. Dev. 61 (1-2): 37-48. PubMed ID: 9076676

Dodig, M., et al. (1999). Ectopic Msx2 overexpression inhibits and Msx2 antisense stimulates calvarial osteoblast differentiation. Dev. Biol. 209(2): 298-307. PubMed ID: 99262358

Du, H. and Chalfie, M. (2001). Genes regulating touch cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 158: 197-207. PubMed ID: 11333230

Duval, N., Daubas, P., Bourcier de Carbon, C., St Cloment, C., Tinevez, J. Y., Lopes, M., Ribes, V. and Robert, B. (2014). Msx1 and Msx2 act as essential activators of Atoh1 expression in the murine spinal cord. Development 141: 1726-1736. PubMed ID: 24715462

Esposito, R., Yasuo, H., Sirour, C., Palladino, A., Spagnuolo, A. and Hudson, C. (2017). Patterning of brain precursors in ascidian embryos. Development 144(2): 258-264. PubMed ID: 27993985

Esteves, F. F., Springhorn, A., Kague, E., Taylor, E., Pyrowolakis, G., Fisher, S. and Bier, E. (2014). BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms. PLoS Genet 10: e1004625. PubMed ID: 25210771

Feledy, J. A., et al. (1999). Inhibitory patterning of the anterior neural plate in Xenopus by homeodomain factors Dlx3 and Msx1. Dev. Biol. 212(2): 455-64

Ferrari, D., et al. (1998). Ectopic expression of Msx-2 in posterior limb bud mesoderm impairs limb morphogenesis while inducing BMP-4 expression, inhibiting cell proliferation, and promoting apoptosis. Dev. Biol. 197(1): 12-24

Foerst-Potts, L. and Sadler, T. W. (1997). Disruption of Msx-1 and Msx-2 reveals roles for these genes in craniofacial, eye, and axial development. Dev. Dyn. 209(1): 70-84

Gauchat, D., et al. (2000). Evolution of Antp-class genes and differential expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox genes in anterior patterning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97: 4493-4498.

Gomes, W. A. and Kessler, J. A. (2001). Msx-2 and p21 mediate the pro-apoptotic but not the anti-proliferative effects of BMP4 on cultured sympathetic neuroblasts. Dev. Bio. 237: 212-221. PubMed ID: 11518517

Graham, A., Koentges, G. and Lumsden, A. (1996). Neural crest apoptosis and the essablishment of craniofacial pattern: an honorable death. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 8: 76-83

Han, M., et al. (2003). Digit regeneration is regulated by Msx1 and BMP4 in fetal mice. Development 130: 5123-5132. PubMed ID: 12944425

Han, J., et al. (2007). Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech. Dev. 124(9-10): 729-45. PubMed ID: 17693062

Hens, J. R., et al. (2007). BMP4 and PTHrP interact to stimulate ductal outgrowth during embryonic mammary development and to inhibit hair follicle induction. Development 134(6): 1221-30. PubMed ID: 17301089

Houzelstein, D., et al. (1997). Insertional mutation of the mouse Msx1 homeobox gene by an nlacZ reporter gene. Mech. Dev. 65(1-2): 123-133

Houzelstein, D., et al. (1999). The homeobox gene Msx1 is expressed in a subset of somites, and in muscle progenitor cells migrating into the forelimb. Development 126(12): 2689-2701

Houzelstein, D., et al. (2000). The expression of the homeobox gene Msx1 reveals two populations of dermal progenitor cells originating from the somites. Development 127: 2155-2164

Hu, G., et al. (1998). Haploinsufficiency of MSX1: a mechanism for selective tooth agenesis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 18(10): 6044-6051

Hu, G., et al. (2001). Msx homeobox genes inhibit differentiation through upregulation of cyclin D1. Development 128: 2373-2384

Isshiki, T., Takeichi, M. and Nose, A. (1997). The role of the msh homeobox gene during Drosophila neurogenesis: implication for the dorsoventral specification of the neuroectoderm. Development 124(16): 3099-3109

Ishii, M., et al. (2003). Msx2 and Twist cooperatively control the development of the neural crest-derived skeletogenic mesenchyme of the murine skull vault. Development 130: 6131-6142. PubMed ID: 14597577

Ishii, M., Han, J., Yen, H. Y., Sucov, H. M., Chai, Y. and Maxson, R. E. (2005) Combined deficiencies of Msx1 and Msx2 cause impaired patterning and survival of the cranial neural crest. Development 132(22): 4937-50. PubMed ID: 16221730

Jagla, T., et al. (2002). Cross-repressive interactions of identity genes are essential for proper specification of cardiac and muscular fates in Drosophila. Development 129: 1037-1047. PubMed ID: 11861486

Kulessa, H., Turk, G. and Hogan, B. L. M. (2000). Inhibition of Bmp signaling affects growth and differentiation in the anagen hair follicle. EMBO J. 19: 6664-6674

Kwang, S. J., et al. (2002). Msx2 is an immediate downstream effector of Pax3 in the development of the murine cardiac neural crest. Development 129: 527-538. PubMed ID: 11807043

Lallemand, Y., et al. (2005). Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development. Development 132(13): 3003-14. PubMed ID: 15930102

Le Bouffant, R., et al (2011). Msx1 and Msx2 promote meiosis initiation. Development 138(24): 5393-402. PubMed ID: 22071108

Leyton, L., et al. (2001). Thy-1 binds to integrin ß3 on astrocytes and triggers formation of focal contact sites. Cur. Bio. 11: 1028-1038. PubMed ID: 11470407

Li, B., Kuriyama, S., Moreno, M. and Mayor, R. (2009). The posteriorizing gene Gbx2 is a direct target of Wnt signalling and the earliest factor in neural crest induction. Development 136(19): 3267-78. PubMed ID: 19736322

Li, Y., Zhao, D., Horie, T., Chen, G., Bao, H., Chen, S., Liu, W., Horie, R., Liang, T., Dong, B., Feng, Q., Tao, Q. and Liu, X. (2017). Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114(31): E6352-e6360. PubMed ID: 28716930

Liem, K. F., et al. (1995). Dorsal differentiation of neural plate cells induced by BMP-mediated signals from epidermal ectoderm. Cell 82: 969-979. PubMed ID: 7553857

Liu, Y. H., et al. (1999). Msx2 gene dosage influences the number of proliferative osteogenic cells in growth centers of the developing murine skull: A possible mechanism for MSX2-mediated craniosynostosis in humans. Dev. Biol. 205(2): 260-274. PubMed ID: 9917362

Liu, Y., Helms, A. W. and Johnson, J. E. (2004). Distinct activities of Msx1 and Msx3 in dorsal neural tube development. Development 131: 1017-1028. PubMed ID: 14973289

Lopes, M., et al. (2011). Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation. Development 138(14): 3055-66. PubMed ID: 21693521

Lord, P. C., et al. (1995). Normal expression and the effects of ectopic expression of the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene suggest a role in differentiation and patterning of embryonic muscles. Dev. Biol. 171: 627-640

Lu, C., Rincon-Limas, D. E. and Botas, J. (2000). Conserved overlapping and reciprocal expression of msh/Msx1 and apterous/Lhx2 in Drosophila and mice. Mech. Dev. 99(1-2): 177-181.

Ma, L., et al. (2003). 'Cyclic alopecia' in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft differentiation. Development 130: 379-389. PubMed ID: 12466204

MacKenzie, A., et al. (1997). Two enhancer domains control early aspects of the complex expression pattern of Msx1. Mech. Dev. 62 (1): 29-40. PubMed ID: 9106164

Maeda, R., et al. (1997). Xmsx-1 modifies mesodermal tissue pattern along dorsoventral axis in Xenopus laevis embryo. Development 124(13): 2553-2560. PubMed ID: 9216997

Marazzi, G., Wang, Y. and Sassoon, D. (1997). Msx2 is a transcriptional regulator in the BMP4-mediated programmed cell death pathway. Dev Biol 186(2): 127-138. PubMed ID: 9205134

McDonald, J. A., et al. (1998). Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila central nervous system: the vnd homeobox gene specifies ventral column identity. Genes Dev. 12: 3603-3612. PubMed ID: 9832511

Metscher , B. D. et al. (1997). Homeobox genes in axolotl lateral line placodes and neuromasts. Dev. Genes Evol. 207: 287-295 . PubMed ID:

Milán, P., et al. (2001). msh specifies dorsal cell fate in the Drosophila wing. Development 128: 3263-3268. PubMed ID: 11546743

Mizutani, C. M., Meyer, N., Roelink, H. and Bier, E. (2006). Threshold-dependent BMP-mediated repression: a model for a conserved mechanism that patterns the neuroectoderm. PLoS Biol. 4(10): e313. PubMed ID: 16968133

Monsoro-Burq, A.-H., et al. (1996). The role of bone morphogenetic proteins in vertebral development. Development 122, 3607-3616. PubMed ID: 8951076

Monsoro-Burq, A. H., Wang, E. and Harland, R. (2004). Msx1 and Pax3 cooperate to mediate FGF8 and WNT signals during Xenopus neural crest induction. Dev. Cell 8: 167-178. PubMed ID: 15691759

Monsoro-Burq, A. H., Wang, E. and Harland, R. (2005). Msx1 and Pax3 cooperate to mediate FGF8 and WNT signals during Xenopus neural crest induction. Dev. Cell 8(2): 167-78. PubMed ID: 15691759

Mozer, B. A. (2001), Dominant Drop mutants are gain-of-function alleles of the muscle segment homeobox gene (msh) whose overexpression leads to the arrest of eye development. Dev. Bio. 233: 380-393. PubMed ID: 11336502

Nose, A., Isshiki, T. and Takeichi, M. (1998). Regional specification of muscle progenitors in Drosophila: the role of the msh homeobox gene. Development 125(2): 215-223. PubMed ID: 9486795

Novak, A., et al. (1998). Cell adhesion and the integrin-linked kinase regulate the LEF-1 and beta-catenin signaling pathways. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95(8): 4374-4379. PubMed ID: 9539744

Odelberg, S. J., Kollhoff, A. and Keating, M. T. (2000). Dedifferentiation of mammalian myotubes induced by msx1. Cell 103: 1099-1109. PubMed ID: 11163185

Pizette, S., Abate-Shen, C. and Niswander, L. (2001). BMP controls proximodistal outgrowth, via induction of the apical ectodermal ridge, and dorsoventral patterning in the vertebrate limb. Development 128: 4463-4474. PubMed ID: 11714672

Poss, K. D., et al. (2000). Roles for Fgf signaling during Zebrafish fin regeneration, Dev. Biol. 222: 347-358. PubMed ID: 10837124

Raghavan, S., et al. (2000). Conditional ablation of beta1 integrin in skin. Severe defects in epidermal proliferation, basement membrane formation, and hair follicle invagination. J. Cell Biol. 150(5): 1149-60. PubMed ID: 10974002

Reecy, J. M., et al. (1997). Chicken nkx-2.8: A novel homeobox gene expressed in early heart progenitor cells and pharyngeal pouch-2 and -3 endoderm. Dev. Biol. 188(2):295-311

Rice, R., et al. (2003). Progression of calvarial bone development requires Foxc1 regulation of Msx2 and Alx4. Dev. Biol. 262: 75-87. PubMed ID: 14512019

Seibert, J., Volland, D. and Urbach. R. (2009). Ems and Nkx6 are central regulators in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila brain. Development 136(23): 3937-47. PubMed ID: 19906861

Sharman, A. C., Shimeld, S. M. and Holland, P. W. (1999). An amphioxus Msx gene expressed predominantly in the dorsal neural tube. Dev. Genes Evol. 209(4): 260-3. PubMed ID: 10079370

Shimeld, S. M., McKay, I. J. and Sharpe, P. T. (1996). The murine homeobox gene Msx-3 shows highly restricted expression in the developing neural tube. Mech. Dev. 55(2): 201-10. PubMed ID: 8861099

Seibert, J. and Urbach, R. (2010). Role of en and novel interactions between msh, ind, and vnd in dorsoventral patterning of the Drosophila brain and ventral nerve cord. Dev. Biol. 346(2): 332-45. PubMed ID: 20673828

Sierra, O. L., et al. (2004). MINT, the Msx2 interacting nuclear matrix target, enhances Runx2-dependent activation of the osteocalcin fibroblast growth factor response element. J. Biol. Chem. 279(31): 32913-23. PubMed ID: 15131132

Smith, S. T. and Jaynes, J. B. (1996). A conserved region of Engrailed, shared among all en-, gsc-, Nk1-, Nk2- and msh-class homeoproteins, mediates active transcriptional repression in vivo. Development 122(10): 3141-3150

Song, L., et al. (2009). Lrp6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling is required for lip formation and fusion. Development 136(18): 3161-71. PubMed ID: 19700620

Su, M. W., et al. (1991). Progressively restricted expression of a new homeobox-containing gene during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Development 111(4): 1179-87. PubMed ID: 1679007

Suzuki, A., et al. (1997). Xenopus msx1 mediates epidermal induction and neural inhibition by BMP4. Development 124(16): 3037-3044. PubMed ID: 9272945

Takahashi, T., et al. (1997). A minimal murine msx-1 gene promoter. Organization Of its cis-regulatory motifs and their role in transcriptional activation in cells in culture and in transgenic mice. J. Biol. Chem. 272(36): 22667-22678. PubMed ID: 9278425

Thesleff, I. and Sharpe, P. (1997). Signalling networks regulating dental development. Mech. Dev. 67(2): 111-123. PubMed ID: 9392510

Thomas, T., et al. (1998). A signaling cascade involving endothelin-1, dHAND and Msx1 regulates development of neural-crest-derived branchial arch mesenchyme. Development 125(16): 3005-3014. PubMed ID: 9671575

Tríbulo, C., et al. (2004). Regulation of Msx genes by a Bmp gradient is essential for neural crest specification. Development 130: 6441-6452. 14627721

Tribulo, C., Aybar, M. J., Sanchez, S. S. and Mayor, R. (2004). A balance between the anti-apoptotic activity of Slug and the apoptotic activity of msx1 is required for the proper development of the neural crest. Dev. Biol. 275(2): 325-42. PubMed ID: 15501222

Tucker, A. S., Al Khamis, A. and Sharpe, P. T. (1998). Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme. Dev. Dyn. 212(4): 533-9

Urbach, R. and Technau, G. M. (2003). Segment polarity and DV patterning gene expression reveals segmental organization of the Drosophila brain. Development 130: 3607-3620. PubMed ID: 12835379

Urbach, R., Volland, D., Seibert, J. and Technau, G. M. (2006). Segment-specific requirements for dorsoventral patterning genes during early brain development in Drosophila. Development 133(21): 4315-30. PubMed ID: 17038517

Vainio, S., et al. (1993). Identification of BMP-4 as a signal mediating secondary induction between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during early tooth development. Cell 75(1): 45-58

Von Ohlen, T. L. and Moses, C. (2009). Identification of Ind transcription activation and repression domains required for dorsoventral patterning of the CNS. Mech. Dev. 126: 552-562. PubMed ID: 19348939

Villa-Cuesta, E. and Modolell, J. (2005). Mutual repression between msh and Iro-C is an essential component of the boundary between body wall and wing in Drosophila. Development 132(18): 4087-96. PubMed ID: 16093324

Von Ohlen, T. and Doe, C. Q. (2000). Convergence of Dorsal, Dpp, and Egfr signaling pathways subdivides the Drosophila neuroectoderm into three dorsal-ventral columns. Dev. Bio. 224: 362-372. PubMed ID: 10926773

Wang, W. Van De Water, T. and Lufkin, T. (1998). Inner ear and maternal reproductive defects in mice lacking the Hmx3 homeobox gene. Development 125(4): 621-634. PubMed ID: 9435283

Watanabe, Y., et al. (1998). Two domains in vertebral development: antagonistic regulation by SHH and BMP4 proteins. Development 125(14): 2631-2639. PubMed ID: 9636078

Weiss, J. B., Ohlen, T. V., Mellerick, D. M., Dressler, G., Doe, C. Q. and Scott, M. P. (1998). Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila central nervous system: the intermediate neuroblasts defective homeobox gene specifies intermediate column identity. Genes Dev 12: 3591-3602. PubMed ID: 9832510

Wu, L., et al. (1997). Miz1, a novel zinc finger transcription factor that interacts with Msx2 and enhances its affinity for DNA. Mech. Dev. 65(1-2): 3-17. PubMed ID: 9256341

Zhang, H., et al. (1997). Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17(5): 2920-32. PubMed ID: 9111364

Zhang, H., Catron, K. M. and Abate-Shen, C. (1996). A role for the Msx-1 homeodomain in transcriptional regulation: Residues in the N-terminal arm mediate TATA binding protein interaction and transcriptional repression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1764-69. PubMed ID: 8700832

Zhang, Y., et al. (2000). A new function of BMP4: dual role for BMP4 in regulation of Sonic hedgehog expression in the mouse tooth germ. Development 127: 1431-1443. PubMed ID: 10704389

Zhang, Z., et al. (2002). Rescue of cleft palate in Msx1-deficient mice by transgenic Bmp4 reveals a network of BMP and Shh signaling in the regulation of mammalian palatogenesis. Development 129: 4135-4146. PubMed ID: 12163415

Zhao, G., Wheeler, S. R. and Skeath, J. B. (2007). Genetic control of dorsoventral patterning and neuroblast specification in the Drosophila central nervous system. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 51(2): 107-15. PubMed ID: 17294361

muscle segment homeobox: Biological Overview | Evolutionary Homologs | Regulation | Developmental Biology | Effects of mutation

date revised: 15 November 2017 

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