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Poster Session II

Abstracts of Poster Presentations on
New Approaches to Science Education

Heads or Tails? Regenerating Worms for Developmental Biology

Karen Crawford, David R. Angelini, Jonathan Champion and Michael R. Hitchings, Department of Biology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, St. Mary's City, MD 20686

The California Blackworm, Lubriculus variegatus, will be presented as a model system for observing and studying the mechanisms of spatialorganization and pattern formation during regeneration in a freshwater invertebrate. In the natural environment, Lumbriculus, a hermaphrodite, lives in freshwater ponds, lakes and marshes, and undergoes asexual reproduction by spontaneous self-fragmentation followed by regeneration.. Sexual reproduction is rare. Characteristics that make Blackworms an especially attractive organism for study at any level, include: its low cost and availability round at most pet stores, hardy nature and ease of culture. Moreover, regeneration in this worm is reliable and fast, often complete within a week or two. Head regeneration, results in the formation of 8 segments from any anterior amputation site, while 20 to 100 segments may form from a posterior amputation site. Regenerating fragments are easily viewed with a stereo microscope or hand lens and new segments can be distinguished from older ones due to their lack of pigmentation. Segment polarity in fragments is easily determined since the blood flow in the dorsal aorta is wave-like and pulsatile from posterior toward anterior segments. In addition, due to its placement along the edges of fresh water Ecosystems, Lumbriculus may serve as an indicator species to chemical runoff in the environment, lending itself well to toxicology studies. This work was supported by a faculty development grant to KC from SMC.
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Novel experimental biology laboratory courses at Duquesne University: Are our superlabs really super?

J. Doctor, M. Melan, and K. Selcer. Dept. of Biology, Duquesne U., Pittsburgh, PA, 15282, USA

A junior-level lab course sequence was designed to provide our undergraduate biology majors at Duquesne University with multidisciplinary teaching labs that reflect the integration among different areas of biology. These three-credit experimental lab courses replaced more traditional labs in cell biology, genetics, developmental biology, endocrinology, microbiology and physiology. Laboratory notebooks and lab reports, in publication format, are key elements in evaluation of student performance. The first semester emphasizes techniques and approaches in molecular, biochemical, and cellular biology of organisms from bacteria to vertebrates. For example, one module teaches the methodologies of protein chemistry (protein measurement, gel electrophoresis, column chromatography, and immunodetection) through experimentation on the induction of the serum protein vitellogenin in frogs by steroid hormones. In the second semester, students elect to take one of three labs in cellular and molecular biology, physiology, or microbiology. The second semester labs build on the material from the first semester through experiments culminating in a mini-research project that is presented as a poster or oral presentation. Lab modules with developmental biology content are incorporated into the cellular and molecular biology lab course. Over the past three years, these lab courses have substantially improved the ability of our undergraduates to conduct research. Visit our website at www.duq.edu/superlab
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ASSET-a school/government/business/university partnership to improve elementary school science education: views of a parent and a scientist.

J. Doctor. Dept. of Biology, Duquesne U., Pittsburgh, PA, 15282, USA

ASSET (Allegheny Schools Science Education and Technology, Inc.) is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving K-6 science education in southwestern Pennsylvania. This regional initiative brings together a partnership among teachers in local school districts, parents, scientists, business and government leaders, and faculty and students at Pittsburgh area colleges and universities. The ASSET partnership incorporates the five elements of exemplary science programs as identified by the National Science Resource Center including: (1) NSF-endorsed, hands-on, inquiry-based curricular materials, (2) an ongoing system of professional development, (3) centralized materials support, (4) assessment, and, (5) community involvement. As a parent with three children in an elementary school that is a partner in the ASSET initiative, I see firsthand the positive effects on the enthusiasm for, and the understanding of, science in both students and teachers. As a scientist who is actively involved with the ASSET initiative through participation in teacher workshops, I see the progress that a regional initiative can make in improving science education for our nation's children.
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Endogenous alkaline phosphatase expression in sea urchin embryos as a tool for investigating differentiation and morphogenesis in the teaching laboratory

J. Drawbridge. Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648

I have developed a set of developmental biology teaching labs using the endogenous expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in sea urchin embryos to ask questions about differentiation and morphogenesis. In sea urchins, AP is made in the mid and hindgut only and, therefore, serves as an endodermal marker. In addition, staining for AP is simple, relatively nontoxic and should work on all echinoderm species. In the first lab, students fix a developmental series of embryos (16-cell to pluteus larvae) and perform a whole-mount stain for endogenous alkaline phosphatase (AP). In the next lab, students prevent gastrulation by raising larvae in sulfate-free sea water and repeat the staining. Students become experts at staging embryos and determining the spatio-temporal expression of AP in the first lab. In the second lab, they must use those observations to design and implement an experiment that asks the question: Do gut cells make AP even though the archenteron doesn't form?
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The Use of On-line Quizzes in an Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course.

S. Ellis1 and R. M. Akers2. 1Institute for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia Augusta, GA, 30912,
2USA. Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA

To minimize the adverse effects of increased class size and reduced time for lab activities, WWW-based quizzes were implemented in a sophomore-level Anatomy and Physiology course. On-line quizzes included true/false, multiple choice, fill-in, and matching questions. Diagrams and color images were included when appropriate. Weekly quizzes were posted on a WWW server for a four day period that included the weekend. Quizzes were graded with a modified PERL script from the Selena Sol PERL archive. Following quiz submission, students immediately received their score, correct answers, and ranking within the class. Students preferred the on-line quizzes by a 5 to 1 margin and scored higher than when similar quizzes were administered in previous years. Increased quiz scores could reflect cheating on the unproctored quizzes, or could be attributable to the flexible scheduling, unlimited time allowances and reduced stress associated with the on-line quizzes. Benefits of the on-line quiz system include increased time for in-class instruction and work on laboratory activities, reduced effort by graders, and immediate feedback for students. The software required to implement the quiz system is free and can be run on nearly any computer with a dedicated internet connection. Accessory PERL scripts have been written to help even novice computer users manage the quiz system. Given the trend towards increased class size and reduced teaching support at many universities, the on-line quiz system can be a powerful addition to the teaching tools available to educators.
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S. F. Gilbert. Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 USA

We have experimented using the website as an alternative for seminar summaries and final papers in sophomore and senior undergraduate developmental biology classes. Web presentations have several advantages over the final paper format. First, students can sort themselves into groups based on common themes. This allows them to link their sites and at the same time mutually criticize each other's ideas and presentations. Second, modifying a figure for the web allows the student to understand the figure better. It is a much more active process than photocopying. Third, the website can be reached by all the students in the class, rather than just by the faculty member. Moreover, they can be seen by anyone on the web. Many students keep their presentations after class by linking them to their personal websites. The novelty of making a website is also a factor, and many students have said that ability to make their own site was an important thing to learn. The disadvantages to web presentations concern the drain on limited scanners and other hardware during particular times in the school year.
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Science Fair Projects Mentoring - A Way for Scientists to Reach Elementary School Parents and Teachers.

Rebecca A. Hayes1 and Ida Chow2. I- B. T. Janney Elem. School, Washington, DC. 2- Soc. for Devel. Biol., Bethesda, MD.

We report here our experience on an ongoing program at Janney Elementary School where science fair projects have been a requirement for all intermediate level students (4th-6th grades). The objectives are: - to help the students develop inquiry-based, hypothesis-driven, testable-question projects and provide individual or small group mentoring on their projects; - to alleviate parents' anxiety ("fear for science" syndrome) and promote understanding for the scientific process; - to help classroom teachers familiarize with the scientific process while assisting with the children's projects ("alleviating the load").

It is essential that the program has full support of the school principal and most of the teachers. It is based on recruiting a few scientists who will serve as content and process resources, and many parents who want to learn about the scientific process and will have some time to mentor the students.

In order to be effective, our experience in the four years of the program maintains that it is important that: - the program starts in the Fall (science fairs are usually in Spring); - a time line for each step of the process is established and followed; - initial training sessions are held to ascertain a common ground for all the mentors, scientists and non-scientists.

Humor and open-mindedness help to keep a good rapport among the participants of the program.
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Learning embryology / developmental biology by reading classic and current research, discussing articles and concepts, and doing original laboratory research

Judith E. Heady, Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128

For five years I have taught my embryology/developmental biology classes without lectures and with term-long group original research projects. I have shared this with SDB at three Midwest Regional and National SDB Meetings. Each time I use student feedback and my own analysis to refine the course. Recent advances include change from whole class discussion to small group discussion and presentation; from use of a textbook to use of research papers; and from essentially student initiated projects to student initiated projects based on prior projects or the literature. Over the years I have had students who have had projects that refuted the current literature and have been of interest to researchers on other campuses. Most students give the course high praise because, for instance, they are able 'to feel like biologists" and they are "finally able to read journal articles and understand them'. I give a pre-test and a posttest on some basic concepts and find that students make significant gains even though they are not tested by the usual recall examinations. An earlier form of the course has been described (Heady, J.E. 1993 J of College Science Teaching 23, 87-91). A student project (done two years) on thyroxine, metamorphosis, and regeneration has become the topic of a published laboratory exercise (Laboratory Experiments in Physiology. Custom Laboratory Program, Edited by A. Mills, B. Johnson, and D. Silverthorn, Prentice Hall, New York, in Press). This project interested a University of Michigan Ann Arbor faculty member who is working on stress and development. The use of in-class open notes / references essays as examinations has been described in a book on assessment (in The Hidden Curriculum: Faculty-Made Tests in Science Vol 2, by Sheila Tobias and Jacqueline Raphael, Plenum Press, NY (1997), pp. 32-33).
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Lecture/Lab Combo: P-granule Immunostaining in C. elegans

Mary K. Montgomery. Macalester College, St. Paul, MN 55105 USA

P-granules are cytoplasmic components that segregate with the germ lineage in C. elegans. They have been used in developmental biology courses to illustrate the classical concept of a cytoplasmic determinant, although P-granules alone are insufficient to bestow a germline fate on cells containing them. Nonetheless, P-granule staining is relatively simple and can lead to discussions encompassing segregation of maternal components, the nature of the germ line versus soma, and the technique of antibody staining. Also, mutants are available through the CGC (Caenorhabditis Genetics Center) that are defective for proper P-granule segregation, such as the par mutants. Two monoclonal antibodies (made by Susan Strome, U. of Indiana) axe commercially available, OIC1D4 and K76, both from the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank at the U. of Iowa. Because immunostaining is a procedure that requires more time than the typical 3h lab period, I have students continue the protocol during scheduled lecture hours, which I call "Lecture/Lab Combos." There is a significant amount of "down time" during staining, in which students are simply transferring slides from one solution to another. I use the down time to cover lecture material on topics listed above. Students do the initial freeze cracking through application of primary Ab during the scheduled lab period; washes and overnight application of secondary Ab during the next two lecture periods. Requirements include an epifluorescent microscope. A detailed protocol can be found under "course pages" at my website: http://www.macalester.edu/montgomery/
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Placing undergraduate science majors in K-12 classrooms: Learning to teach and teaching to learn

R. Nuccitelli, T.L. Rost, G. Lusebrink. University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8535, USA

We have developed an outreach program that pairs junior and senior science majors from UC Davis with a K-12 class in a nearby school district. The science majors spend 6 contact hr per week helping to teach science and about 3 hr preparing classes and commuting. An experienced elementary science teacher coordinates the program, matching students with teachers, visiting their classrooms and helping to instruct the students in teaching K-12 science. A two-hour class session is held each week for the science majors to discuss their K-12 classroom experiences and to learn hands-on activities at the K-12 level. This class is taught by two professors and the program coordinator. Students were initially placed in a classroom for a 10-week commitment, but we are finding that this period may be too short. Most of the students wanted to continue for at least one more 10-week period. The budget for this program is relatively small. We provide each K-12 teacher $200-300 each and provide the student science majors $50-100 to cover their commuting expenses. Placing 25 students in classrooms for 10 weeks costs about $5000 in addition to the half-time salary of our elementary science teacher program coordinator. Our science majors obtain 4 units of credit towards the B.S. for this internship. This program is very popular and we have a waiting list of students anxious to get in. We find that the experience both helps the K-12 students to learn science and helps our science majors to better learn the material. The program is funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and UC Davis and is modeled after a similar program developed by Robert DeHaan at Emory University.
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When Good Labs Go Wrong: How to Recover From Failed Laboratory Exercises

D.D. Ricker. York College of Pennsylvania, York PA, 17405

The only thing worse than having an experiment fail is having it fail in front of 20 students! Such has been my experience on occasion in my undergraduate Developmental Biology course. With a background in mammalian reproductive physiology, I can successfully incorporate labs involving mouse models. Unfortunately, my limited experience with more classical developmental models (amphibians, sea urchins) has resulted in lab experiences that were miserable failures for me as well as my students. As these failures have recurred, my flight instinct has been strong but my fight instinct eventually prevails. Instead of moving on to the next topic on the syllabus, whenever an experiment fails, I insist that the students work together as independent research teams to investigate why. Students are required to establish sound research proposals to address their hypotheses and are given 2-4 lab periods in which to conduct their investigations. The capstone experience for the students involves giving an in-class research presentation and composing a publication-ready report detailing their results. Surprisingly, the students embrace this experience and pursue their research with incredible determination. For the past two years, the student evaluations of the course and of this research experience have been overwhelmingly positive. Many proclaim it as their first true research experience and, from it, many individual success stories have evolved. The key ingredient to this experience is a shift from professor-driven to student-driven learning. Giving the students ownership of the information and, hence, control of their own education is an experience that is well worth the temporary insult of having a lab experience fail.
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Science As One of the Liberal Arts: Linking Introductory Courses for Science Literacy

S.R. Singer, M.S. Rand, R.O. Elveton, K.M. Galotti, and L.K. Komatsu. Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA

We created an integrated, interdisciplinary program (Triad) for 45 first-term students to enhance science literacy by placing science in a broader context. Students enrolled in three introductory courses: biology, philosophy and psychology. Syllabi and assignments for the entire term were coordinated around an "Origins and Mind" theme. Weekly meetings of all faculty and students provided another venue to explore the course theme. Students learned how biologists, philosophers and psychologists asked and addressed questions about evolution, development, sociobiology, brain-behavior relationships, and communication. Writing and critical thinking skills across the disciplines were emphasized. The biology and psychology courses used an integrated laboratory/lecture teaching model. We created a survey to compare student experiences in the Triad with those of first-year students enrolled in an introductory biology course not linked to their other courses. Statements using a seven-point Likert scale (from strongly disagree to strongly agree) were analyzed by independent-group t-tests. Open-ended items were coded for themes, tested for interrater reliabilities and analyzed by independentgroups t-tests. Both groups had similar educational goals and reported being equally challenged. Triad students were better able to see why science courses are considered liberal arts. They reported an increased ability to grasp theoretical issues and to connect science to broader issues, such as the role of scientific explanation in offering, or failing to offer, answers to central "human" issues. They were more likely to recommend their courses to other students.
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Kathryn W. Tosney. Dept. Biology, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Do only your most avid competitors examine your poster? Do they need magnifying glasses to read the print? Do presumptive colleagues-or poster judges-cross their eyes and hurry past? If so, examine this pair of posters, which use positive and negative examples to show you how to increase clarity and impact. A poster is not just a standard research paper stuck to a board. An effective poster uses a different, visual grammar. It shows, not tells. It expresses your points in graphical terms. It avoids visual chaos, with many jagged edges or various-sized boards that distract the viewer. Instead, it guides the viewer by using a visual logic, with an hierarchical structure that emphasizes the main points. It displays the essential content-the messagesin the title, main headings and graphics. It indicates the relative importance of elements graphically: each main point is stated in large type-face headings; details are subordinated visually, using smaller type-face. The main headings explain the points, rather than merely stating "results" and letting the viewer hunt for-or even worse, invent-the message. All elements, even the figure legends, are visible from 4 feet away. These and additional hints are displayed on these posters, which graphically illustrate consequences of different display styles to show you how different presentations can clarify-or scuttle-your message.
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Kathryn W. Tosney. Dept. Biology, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

The second poster in this two-poster set uses graphic examples to visually demonstrate modes of poster presentation that obscure your message. If you follow these directions, you will maximize the probability that no one will understand your data, its presentation, or its possible significance. Topics covered will include directions on how to 1) assure that only your most rapid competitors view your work, 2) develop the most impenetrable layout, 3) obscure the logical sequence of your presentation, 4) increase wordiness without increasing meaning, 5) de-emphasize the most important points, 6) visually distract your audience, 7) make text difficult to read, 8) avoid drawing conclusions, 9) focus on methods rather than concepts, and 10) read your poster to your audience. You may also find hints here that clarify why you find it impossible to understand some of your colleagues' poster presentations. Of course, if your motivation is not to obscure your work, but instead to emphasize it, you will want to view these examples as pitfalls that you can avoid. Viewing these examples as BAD examples will help you create a poster that graphically communicates your message.
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Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Teach Organelle Localization in an Undergraduate Lab Course

George Clokey and Lance Urven Department of Biological Sciences University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Whitewater, WI 53190 http://facstaff.uww.edu/biology/biology.html

The free living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, offers numerous advantages as a teaching organism, including its small size, ease of maintenance, ready availability, and number of mutant strains.  With C. elegans, we have devised a laboratory exercise using fluorescence microscopy to study endocytosis and phagocytosis in the digestive system.  Instructors prepare the worms prior to class in each of three treatments.  Some worms are fed FITC-conjugated microspheres, which can only be absorbed by phagocytosis.  Others are fed RITC-conjugated dextran, which can be absorbed by pinocytosis.  The last group of animals is suspended in acridine orange, a fluorochrome that concentrates in acidic organelles.  Students examine worms from each treatment, as well as controls, to determine which cellular transport mechanism this nematode uses for food absorption and to relate their locations to acidic compartments, i.e. lysosomes.  This exercise gives the students an opportunity to study organelles in a living metazoan, offers perspective on organelle size and distribution in cells; allows them to manipulate the widely used C. elegans; and introduces them to epi-illumination fluorescence microscopy.  Because fluorescent images can be aesthetically pleasing and spectacularly colorful, students appreciate and enjoy learning cell and developmental biology in this exciting, interesting context.
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Use of Lotus Notes LearningSpace as an Interactive Tool for Teaching Developmental Biology.

Michael A. Wride, Becky S. Wong, Leon W. Browder. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 4N1.

In 1998, the senior-level undergraduate developmental biology course at the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, was developed as a pilot course incorporating a number of collaborative and interactive learning method& The Lotus Notes Leamingspace program was the means by which the course was managed by the instructor and teaching assistant Through to LearningSpace server on the Internet the students accessed the course material provided from the modules in "Dynamic Development! (a part of the Virtual Embryo" web site: (http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/virtualembryo/dev_biol.hml). Through the LeamingSpace Course Room an the Internet students could access their grades and become involved in on-line discussions with other classmates. In addition, LearningSpace and "Dynamic Development! were used in tutorial sessions in which students watched video clips of developing embryos and carried out on-line assignments and quizzes, which were subsequently graded on-line. Study groups (of four students each) were formed to encourage a collaborative approach amongst peers, and each gap was assigned the name of a famous developmental biologist. The students then made a presentation in class on this person and their contributions to developmental biology to promote an appreciation for the diversity and the great advances made in this field Other class assignments included presentations of papers from the current literature and discussions about contemporary issues, such as the ethics of reproductive technology and cloning. In addition, four undergraduate student mentors, who had previously taken the course, obtained credit for facilitating discussions and question-and-answer sessions during classes and tutorials These student mentors became an integral part of the course. Through the use of web-based modules, the students adopted a setf-directed approach to learning. Therefore, instead of traditional lectures, classes were given over to lively discussions and presentations following a short introduction on the material to be covered The use of LearningSpace as a link to the web-based modules, along with the collaborative and interactive approach adopted in classes, was an excellent way to convey the excitement of developmental biology to the students, to encourage their active participation in the course, and to stimulate their enthusiasm about the subject.
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Research projects in large, undergraduate developmental biology laboratory courses

Lois A. Abbott, MCD Biology, Univ. of Colorado-Boulder

Advanced undergraduates recognize their need for more experience with research methods in modem biology and practical research techniques as they prepare for jobs in biotech companies or for graduate school. Most "real life" development experiments require more time than fits with the traditional 3 or 4 hours of lab once a week. In our large developmental biology laboratory courses (50 to 150 divided into sections of 16 to 20), we have experimented with several organizational innovations that have increased the students' opportunities to learn by active participation in investigations.

The innovations we use include having the students work in groups so that they can divide tasks in the protocol among members of the group, scheduling labs early in the week and then keeping the lab room open so that students can continue observations and experiments throughout the week, encouraging students to discuss the work so that they "teach" each other, and more emphasis on analysis and reporting data. Using this organization students have done experiments like those on the poster -- in situ hybridization on chick embryos, immunostaining for chick neural crest, visualization of CNS mutations in Drosophila neurogenic mutants, reporter gene experiments in Drosophila imaginal discs. After they complete their experiments students work with their groups to analyze their data and research the literature for appropriate interpretations. They then present their work to their fellow students in slide talks or poster sessions.
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Critical Thinking, The Scientific Method, and Page 25 of Gilbert

D.S.Adams. Smith College, Northampton, MA, 01063, USA

We all expect our students to come away from our classes knowing some of the facts; but more importantly we want our students to come away knowing how to think critically. Less clear is how to teach the process, perhaps because few of us learned it explicitly, perhaps because for those of us who make it to the level of teacher, critical thinking was in some sense intuitive and automatic. This is not the case for the majority of students. The good news is that because the scientific method is a formalization of critical thinking, it can be used as a simple model that removes critical thinking from the realm of the intuitive and puts it at the center of a straightforward, easily implemented, teaching strategy. I describe here the techniques I use to help students practice their thinking skills. These techniques axe simply an expansion of the Evidence and Antibodies Sidelight in Gilbert's Developmental Biology (1997, Sinauer Associates); that is, I harp on correlation, necessity, and sufficiency, and the kinds of experiments required to gather each type of evidence. In my own class, an upper division Developmental Biology lecture class, I use these techniques, which include both verbal and written reinforcement, to encourage students to evaluate claims about cause and effect, that is, to distinguish between correlation and causation; however, I believe that with very slight modifications, these tricks can be applied in a much greater array of situations.
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Chris Patton, David Epel, Henrik Kibak (California State University, Monterey Bay) and Pam Miller (Seaside High School, Seaside CA), Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, Pacific Grove CA 93950. (This poster presented Sunday, 13 June 1999, only)
Site address: http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/
Sea urchin gametes provide exceptional classroom material for illustrating fertilization, cell division and early development. These events are sufficiently rapid that students can observe these processes in the normal classroom time period. The material is also ideal for inquiry-based science since the students can ask questions about the phenomena and then proceed to get answers to their questions. This web site comprises an over-275-page resource that is useful for both teacher and student. The site was originally developed for the high school and provides information on how to use sea urchins in the classroom, model lab exercises, lesson plans and extensive audiovisual material such as videos, animations and prepared overheads. The site, however, has also proved extremely useful for college laboratory exercises and indeed a large number of users are college instructors and their students. Particularly useful are numerous animations that succinctly describe phenomena of early development. The site also provides ideas for advanced labs where students carry out such experiments as isolation of the mitotic apparatus, ascertain the effects of UV radiation or pollution on development or induce artificial parthenogenesis. Development of the site was supported in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
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Developmental and Physiological Aspects of the Chicken Heart
Jacqueline S. McLaughlin and Elizabeth R. McCain* Berks-Lehigh Valley College, Pennsylvania State University, Fogelsville, PA 18051 *Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104 (This poster presented Sunday, 13 June 1999, only)
Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effect of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explanation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis to test concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

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Poster Session II

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