Poster Session II
Abstracts of Poster Presentations on
New Approaches to Science Education
Heads or Tails? Regenerating Worms for
Karen Crawford, David R. Angelini, Jonathan Champion and Michael R. Hitchings,
Department of Biology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, St. Mary's City, MD 20686
The California Blackworm, Lubriculus variegatus, will be presented
as a model system for observing and studying the mechanisms of spatialorganization
and pattern formation during regeneration in a freshwater invertebrate. In the
natural environment, Lumbriculus, a hermaphrodite, lives in freshwater
ponds, lakes and marshes, and undergoes asexual reproduction by spontaneous self-fragmentation
followed by regeneration.. Sexual reproduction is rare. Characteristics that make
Blackworms an especially attractive organism for study at any level, include:
its low cost and availability round at most pet stores, hardy nature and ease
of culture. Moreover, regeneration in this worm is reliable and fast, often complete
within a week or two. Head regeneration, results in the formation of 8 segments
from any anterior amputation site, while 20 to 100 segments may form from a posterior
amputation site. Regenerating fragments are easily viewed with a stereo microscope
or hand lens and new segments can be distinguished from older ones due to their
lack of pigmentation. Segment polarity in fragments is easily determined since
the blood flow in the dorsal aorta is wave-like and pulsatile from posterior toward
anterior segments. In addition, due to its placement along the edges of fresh
water Ecosystems, Lumbriculus may serve as an indicator species to chemical
runoff in the environment, lending itself well to toxicology studies. This work
was supported by a faculty development grant to KC from SMC.
Novel experimental biology
laboratory courses at Duquesne University: Are our superlabs really super?
J. Doctor, M. Melan, and K. Selcer. Dept. of Biology,
Duquesne U., Pittsburgh, PA, 15282, USA
A junior-level lab course sequence was designed to provide our undergraduate
biology majors at Duquesne University with multidisciplinary teaching labs that
reflect the integration among different areas of biology. These three-credit experimental
lab courses replaced more traditional labs in cell biology, genetics, developmental
biology, endocrinology, microbiology and physiology. Laboratory notebooks and
lab reports, in publication format, are key elements in evaluation of student
performance. The first semester emphasizes techniques and approaches in molecular,
biochemical, and cellular biology of organisms from bacteria to vertebrates. For
example, one module teaches the methodologies of protein chemistry (protein measurement,
gel electrophoresis, column chromatography, and immunodetection) through experimentation
on the induction of the serum protein vitellogenin in frogs by steroid hormones.
In the second semester, students elect to take one of three labs in cellular and
molecular biology, physiology, or microbiology. The second semester labs build
on the material from the first semester through experiments culminating in a mini-research
project that is presented as a poster or oral presentation. Lab modules with developmental
biology content are incorporated into the cellular and molecular biology lab course.
Over the past three years, these lab courses have substantially improved the ability
of our undergraduates to conduct research. Visit our website at www.duq.edu/superlab
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ASSET-a school/government/business/university partnership
to improve elementary school science education: views of a parent and a scientist.
J. Doctor. Dept. of Biology, Duquesne U., Pittsburgh, PA, 15282, USA
ASSET (Allegheny Schools Science Education and Technology, Inc.) is a non-profit
organization dedicated to improving K-6 science education in southwestern Pennsylvania.
This regional initiative brings together a partnership among teachers in local
school districts, parents, scientists, business and government leaders, and faculty
and students at Pittsburgh area colleges and universities. The ASSET partnership
incorporates the five elements of exemplary science programs as identified by
the National Science Resource Center including: (1) NSF-endorsed, hands-on, inquiry-based
curricular materials, (2) an ongoing system of professional development, (3) centralized
materials support, (4) assessment, and, (5) community involvement. As a parent
with three children in an elementary school that is a partner in the ASSET initiative,
I see firsthand the positive effects on the enthusiasm for, and the understanding
of, science in both students and teachers. As a scientist who is actively involved
with the ASSET initiative through participation in teacher workshops, I see the
progress that a regional initiative can make in improving science education for
our nation's children.
Endogenous alkaline phosphatase
expression in sea urchin embryos as a tool for investigating differentiation and
morphogenesis in the teaching laboratory
J. Drawbridge. Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648
I have developed a set of developmental biology teaching labs using the endogenous
expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in sea urchin embryos to ask questions
about differentiation and morphogenesis. In sea urchins, AP is made in the mid
and hindgut only and, therefore, serves as an endodermal marker. In addition,
staining for AP is simple, relatively nontoxic and should work on all echinoderm
species. In the first lab, students fix a developmental series of embryos (16-cell
to pluteus larvae) and perform a whole-mount stain for endogenous alkaline phosphatase
(AP). In the next lab, students prevent gastrulation by raising larvae in sulfate-free
sea water and repeat the staining. Students become experts at staging embryos
and determining the spatio-temporal expression of AP in the first lab. In the
second lab, they must use those observations to design and implement an experiment
that asks the question: Do gut cells make AP even though the archenteron doesn't
The Use of On-line Quizzes in an Undergraduate
Anatomy and Physiology Course.
S. Ellis1 and R. M. Akers2. 1Institute for Molecular Medicine and
Genetics, Medical College of Georgia Augusta, GA, 30912,
2USA. Department of Dairy Science, Virginia
Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA
To minimize the adverse effects of increased class size and reduced time
for lab activities, WWW-based quizzes were implemented in a sophomore-level Anatomy
and Physiology course. On-line quizzes included true/false, multiple choice, fill-in,
and matching questions. Diagrams and color images were included when appropriate.
Weekly quizzes were posted on a WWW server for a four day period that included
the weekend. Quizzes were graded with a modified PERL script from the Selena Sol
PERL archive. Following quiz submission, students immediately received their score,
correct answers, and ranking within the class. Students preferred the on-line
quizzes by a 5 to 1 margin and scored higher than when similar quizzes were administered
in previous years. Increased quiz scores could reflect cheating on the unproctored
quizzes, or could be attributable to the flexible scheduling, unlimited time allowances
and reduced stress associated with the on-line quizzes. Benefits of the on-line
quiz system include increased time for in-class instruction and work on laboratory
activities, reduced effort by graders, and immediate feedback for students. The
software required to implement the quiz system is free and can be run on nearly
any computer with a dedicated internet connection. Accessory PERL scripts have
been written to help even novice computer users manage the quiz system. Given
the trend towards increased class size and reduced teaching support at many universities,
the on-line quiz system can be a powerful addition to the teaching tools available
USING WEBSITES INSTEAD OF FINAL PAPERS: PAX6 EXPRESSION
IN THE POTATO EYE
S. F. Gilbert.
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 USA
We have experimented using the website as an alternative for seminar summaries
and final papers in sophomore and senior undergraduate developmental biology classes.
Web presentations have several advantages over the final paper format. First,
students can sort themselves into groups based on common themes. This allows them
to link their sites and at the same time mutually criticize each other's ideas
and presentations. Second, modifying a figure for the web allows the student to
understand the figure better. It is a much more active process than photocopying.
Third, the website can be reached by all the students in the class, rather than
just by the faculty member. Moreover, they can be seen by anyone on the web. Many
students keep their presentations after class by linking them to their personal
websites. The novelty of making a website is also a factor, and many students
have said that ability to make their own site was an important thing to learn.
The disadvantages to web presentations concern the drain on limited scanners and
other hardware during particular times in the school year.
Science Fair Projects Mentoring - A Way for Scientists
to Reach Elementary School Parents and Teachers.
Rebecca A. Hayes1 and Ida Chow2. I- B. T. Janney Elem. School,
Washington, DC. 2- Soc. for Devel. Biol., Bethesda, MD.
We report here our experience on an ongoing program at Janney
Elementary School where science fair projects have been a requirement for all
intermediate level students (4th-6th grades). The objectives are: - to help the
students develop inquiry-based, hypothesis-driven, testable-question projects
and provide individual or small group mentoring on their projects; - to alleviate
parents' anxiety ("fear for science" syndrome) and promote understanding
for the scientific process; - to help classroom teachers familiarize with the
scientific process while assisting with the children's projects ("alleviating
It is essential that the program has full support of the school
principal and most of the teachers. It is based on recruiting a few scientists
who will serve as content and process resources, and many parents who want to
learn about the scientific process and will have some time to mentor the students.
In order to be effective, our experience in the four years
of the program maintains that it is important that: - the program starts in the
Fall (science fairs are usually in Spring); - a time line for each step of the
process is established and followed; - initial training sessions are held to ascertain
a common ground for all the mentors, scientists and non-scientists.
Humor and open-mindedness help to keep a good rapport among
the participants of the program.
Learning embryology / developmental
biology by reading classic and current research, discussing articles and concepts,
and doing original laboratory research
Judith E. Heady,
Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI
For five years I have taught my embryology/developmental
biology classes without lectures and with term-long group original research projects.
I have shared this with SDB at three Midwest Regional and National SDB Meetings.
Each time I use student feedback and my own analysis to refine the course. Recent
advances include change from whole class discussion to small group discussion
and presentation; from use of a textbook to use of research papers; and from essentially
student initiated projects to student initiated projects based on prior projects
or the literature. Over the years I have had students who have had projects that
refuted the current literature and have been of interest to researchers on other
campuses. Most students give the course high praise because, for instance, they
are able 'to feel like biologists" and they are "finally able to read
journal articles and understand them'. I give a pre-test and a posttest on some
basic concepts and find that students make significant gains even though they
are not tested by the usual recall examinations. An earlier form of the course
has been described (Heady, J.E. 1993 J of College Science Teaching 23,
87-91). A student project (done two years) on thyroxine, metamorphosis, and regeneration
has become the topic of a published laboratory exercise (Laboratory Experiments
in Physiology. Custom Laboratory Program, Edited by A. Mills, B. Johnson,
and D. Silverthorn, Prentice Hall, New York, in Press). This project interested
a University of Michigan Ann Arbor faculty member who is working on stress and
development. The use of in-class open notes / references essays as examinations
has been described in a book on assessment (in The Hidden Curriculum: Faculty-Made
Tests in Science Vol 2, by Sheila Tobias and Jacqueline Raphael, Plenum Press,
NY (1997), pp. 32-33).
Lecture/Lab Combo: P-granule
Immunostaining in C. elegans
Mary K. Montgomery. Macalester College, St. Paul, MN 55105 USA
P-granules are cytoplasmic components that segregate with the germ lineage
in C. elegans. They have been used in developmental biology courses to illustrate
the classical concept of a cytoplasmic determinant, although P-granules alone
are insufficient to bestow a germline fate on cells containing them. Nonetheless,
P-granule staining is relatively simple and can lead to discussions encompassing
segregation of maternal components, the nature of the germ line versus soma, and
the technique of antibody staining. Also, mutants are available through the CGC
(Caenorhabditis Genetics Center) that are defective for proper P-granule
such as the par mutants. Two monoclonal antibodies (made by Susan Strome, U. of
Indiana) axe commercially available, OIC1D4 and K76, both from the Developmental
Studies Hybridoma Bank at the U. of Iowa. Because immunostaining is a procedure
that requires more time than the typical 3h lab period, I have students continue
the protocol during scheduled lecture hours, which I call "Lecture/Lab Combos."
There is a significant amount of "down time" during staining, in which
students are simply transferring slides from one solution to another. I use the
down time to cover lecture material on topics listed above. Students do the initial
freeze cracking through application of primary Ab during the scheduled lab period;
washes and overnight application of secondary Ab during the next two lecture periods.
Requirements include an epifluorescent microscope. A detailed protocol can be
found under "course pages" at my website: http://www.macalester.edu/montgomery/
Placing undergraduate science
majors in K-12 classrooms: Learning to teach and teaching to learn
R. Nuccitelli, T.L. Rost, G. Lusebrink. University of California,
Davis, CA 95616-8535, USA
We have developed an outreach program that pairs junior and senior science
majors from UC Davis with a K-12 class in a nearby school district. The science
majors spend 6 contact hr per week helping to teach science and about 3 hr preparing
classes and commuting. An experienced elementary science teacher coordinates the
program, matching students with teachers, visiting their classrooms and helping
to instruct the students in teaching K-12 science. A two-hour class session is
held each week for the science majors to discuss their K-12 classroom experiences
and to learn hands-on activities at the K-12 level. This class is taught by two
professors and the program coordinator. Students were initially placed in a classroom
for a 10-week commitment, but we are finding that this period may be too short.
Most of the students wanted to continue for at least one more 10-week period.
The budget for this program is relatively small. We provide each K-12 teacher
$200-300 each and provide the student science majors $50-100 to cover their commuting
expenses. Placing 25 students in classrooms for 10 weeks costs about $5000 in
addition to the half-time salary of our elementary science teacher program coordinator.
Our science majors obtain 4 units of credit towards the B.S. for this internship.
This program is very popular and we have a waiting list of students anxious to
get in. We find that the experience both helps the K-12 students to learn science
and helps our science majors to better learn the material. The program is funded
by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and UC Davis and is modeled after a similar
program developed by Robert DeHaan at Emory University.
When Good Labs Go Wrong: How to Recover
From Failed Laboratory Exercises
D.D. Ricker. York College of Pennsylvania, York PA, 17405
The only thing worse than having an experiment fail is having it fail in
front of 20 students! Such has been my experience on occasion in my undergraduate
Developmental Biology course. With a background in mammalian reproductive physiology,
I can successfully incorporate labs involving mouse models. Unfortunately, my
limited experience with more classical developmental models (amphibians, sea urchins)
has resulted in lab experiences that were miserable failures for me as well as
my students. As these failures have recurred, my flight instinct has been strong
but my fight instinct eventually prevails. Instead of moving on to the next topic
on the syllabus, whenever an experiment fails, I insist that the students work
together as independent research teams to investigate why. Students are required
to establish sound research proposals to address their hypotheses and are given
2-4 lab periods in which to conduct their investigations. The capstone experience
for the students involves giving an in-class research presentation and composing
a publication-ready report detailing their results. Surprisingly, the students
embrace this experience and pursue their research with incredible determination.
For the past two years, the student evaluations of the course and of this research
experience have been overwhelmingly positive. Many proclaim it as their first
true research experience and, from it, many individual success stories have evolved.
The key ingredient to this experience is a shift from professor-driven to student-driven
learning. Giving the students ownership of the information and, hence, control
of their own education is an experience that is well worth the temporary insult
of having a lab experience fail.
Science As One of the Liberal Arts:
Linking Introductory Courses for Science Literacy
S.R. Singer, M.S. Rand, R.O. Elveton, K.M. Galotti, and L.K. Komatsu.
Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057, USA
We created an integrated, interdisciplinary program (Triad) for 45 first-term
students to enhance science literacy by placing science in a broader context.
Students enrolled in three introductory courses: biology, philosophy and psychology.
Syllabi and assignments for the entire term were coordinated around an "Origins
and Mind" theme. Weekly meetings of all faculty and students provided another
venue to explore the course theme. Students learned how biologists, philosophers
and psychologists asked and addressed questions about evolution, development,
sociobiology, brain-behavior relationships, and communication. Writing and critical
thinking skills across the disciplines were emphasized. The biology and psychology
courses used an integrated laboratory/lecture teaching model. We created a survey
to compare student experiences in the Triad with those of first-year students
enrolled in an introductory biology course not linked to their other courses.
Statements using a seven-point Likert scale (from strongly disagree to strongly
agree) were analyzed by independent-group t-tests. Open-ended items were coded
for themes, tested for interrater reliabilities and analyzed by independentgroups
t-tests. Both groups had similar educational goals and reported being equally
challenged. Triad students were better able to see why science courses are considered
liberal arts. They reported an increased ability to grasp theoretical issues and
to connect science to broader issues, such as the role of scientific explanation
in offering, or failing to offer, answers to central "human" issues.
They were more likely to recommend their courses to other students.
POSTERS: HOW TO EMPHASIZE YOUR MESSAGE
Kathryn W. Tosney. Dept. Biology, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Do only your most avid competitors examine your poster? Do they need magnifying
glasses to read the print? Do presumptive colleagues-or poster judges-cross their
eyes and hurry past? If so, examine this pair of posters, which use positive and
negative examples to show you how to increase clarity and impact. A poster is
not just a standard research paper stuck to a board. An effective poster uses
a different, visual grammar. It shows, not tells. It expresses your points in
graphical terms. It avoids visual chaos, with many jagged edges or various-sized
boards that distract the viewer. Instead, it guides the viewer by using a visual
logic, with an hierarchical structure that emphasizes the main points. It displays
the essential content-the messagesin the title, main headings and graphics. It
indicates the relative importance of elements graphically: each main point is
stated in large type-face headings; details are subordinated visually, using smaller
type-face. The main headings explain the points, rather than merely stating "results"
and letting the viewer hunt for-or even worse, invent-the message. All elements,
even the figure legends, are visible from 4 feet away. These and additional hints
are displayed on these posters, which graphically illustrate consequences of different
display styles to show you how different presentations can clarify-or scuttle-your
POSTERS: HOW TO OBSCURE YOUR MESSAGE
Kathryn W. Tosney. Dept. Biology, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
The second poster in this two-poster set uses graphic examples to visually
demonstrate modes of poster presentation that obscure your message. If you follow
these directions, you will maximize the probability that no one will understand
your data, its presentation, or its possible significance. Topics covered will
include directions on how to 1) assure that only your most rapid competitors view
your work, 2) develop the most impenetrable layout, 3) obscure the logical sequence
of your presentation, 4) increase wordiness without increasing meaning, 5) de-emphasize
the most important points, 6) visually distract your audience, 7) make text difficult
to read, 8) avoid drawing conclusions, 9) focus on methods rather than concepts,
and 10) read your poster to your audience. You may also find hints here that clarify
why you find it impossible to understand some of your colleagues' poster presentations.
Of course, if your motivation is not to obscure your work, but instead to emphasize
it, you will want to view these examples as pitfalls that you can avoid. Viewing
these examples as BAD examples will help you create a poster that graphically
communicates your message.
Caenorhabditis elegans to Teach Organelle Localization in an Undergraduate
The free living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis
elegans, offers numerous advantages as a teaching organism, including its
small size, ease of maintenance, ready availability, and number of mutant strains.
With C. elegans, we have devised a laboratory exercise using fluorescence
microscopy to study endocytosis and phagocytosis in the digestive system.
Instructors prepare the worms prior to class in each of three treatments.
Some worms are fed FITC-conjugated microspheres, which can only be absorbed by
phagocytosis. Others are fed RITC-conjugated dextran, which can be absorbed
by pinocytosis. The last group of animals is suspended in acridine orange,
a fluorochrome that concentrates in acidic organelles. Students examine
worms from each treatment, as well as controls, to determine which cellular transport
mechanism this nematode uses for food absorption and to relate their locations
to acidic compartments, i.e. lysosomes. This exercise gives the students
an opportunity to study organelles in a living metazoan, offers perspective on
organelle size and distribution in cells; allows them to manipulate the widely
used C. elegans; and introduces them to epi-illumination fluorescence microscopy.
Because fluorescent images can be aesthetically pleasing and spectacularly colorful,
students appreciate and enjoy learning cell and developmental biology in this
exciting, interesting context.
Use of Lotus Notes LearningSpace as
an Interactive Tool for Teaching Developmental Biology.
Michael A. Wride, Becky S. Wong, Leon W. Browder. Department of Biochemistry
and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 4N1.
In 1998, the senior-level undergraduate developmental biology course at the
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, was developed as a pilot
course incorporating a number of collaborative and interactive learning method&
The Lotus Notes Leamingspace program was the means by which the course was managed
by the instructor and teaching assistant Through to LearningSpace server on the
Internet the students accessed the course material provided from the modules in
"Dynamic Development! (a part of the Virtual Embryo" web site: (http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/virtualembryo/dev_biol.hml
). Through the LeamingSpace Course Room an the
Internet students could access their grades and become involved in on-line discussions
with other classmates. In addition, LearningSpace and "Dynamic Development!
were used in tutorial sessions in which students watched video clips of developing
embryos and carried out on-line assignments and quizzes, which were subsequently
graded on-line. Study groups (of four students each) were formed to encourage
a collaborative approach amongst peers, and each gap was assigned the name of
a famous developmental biologist. The students then made a presentation in class
on this person and their contributions to developmental biology to promote an
appreciation for the diversity and the great advances made in this field Other
class assignments included presentations of papers from the current literature
and discussions about contemporary issues, such as the ethics of reproductive
technology and cloning. In addition, four undergraduate student mentors, who had
previously taken the course, obtained credit for facilitating discussions and
question-and-answer sessions during classes and tutorials These student mentors
became an integral part of the course. Through the use of web-based modules, the
students adopted a setf-directed approach to learning. Therefore, instead of traditional
lectures, classes were given over to lively discussions and presentations following
a short introduction on the material to be covered The use of LearningSpace as
a link to the web-based modules, along with the collaborative and interactive
approach adopted in classes, was an excellent way to convey the excitement of
developmental biology to the students, to encourage their active participation
in the course, and to stimulate their enthusiasm about the subject.
projects in large, undergraduate developmental biology laboratory courses
Lois A. Abbott, MCD Biology, Univ. of Colorado-Boulder
Advanced undergraduates recognize their need
for more experience with research methods in modem biology and practical research
techniques as they prepare for jobs in biotech companies or for graduate school.
Most "real life" development experiments require more time than fits
with the traditional 3 or 4 hours of lab once a week. In our large developmental
biology laboratory courses (50 to 150 divided into sections of 16 to 20), we have
experimented with several organizational innovations that have increased the students'
opportunities to learn by active participation in investigations.
The innovations we use include having the students
work in groups so that they can divide tasks in the protocol among members of
the group, scheduling labs early in the week and then keeping the lab room open
so that students can continue observations and experiments throughout the week,
encouraging students to discuss the work so that they "teach" each other,
and more emphasis on analysis and reporting data. Using this organization students
have done experiments like those on the poster -- in situ hybridization on chick
embryos, immunostaining for chick neural crest, visualization of CNS mutations
in Drosophila neurogenic mutants, reporter gene experiments in Drosophila imaginal
discs. After they complete their experiments students work with their groups to
analyze their data and research the literature for appropriate interpretations.
They then present their work to their fellow students in slide talks or poster
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The Scientific Method, and Page 25 of Gilbert
D.S.Adams. Smith College, Northampton, MA, 01063, USA
We all expect our students to come away from our classes knowing some of
the facts; but more importantly we want our students to come away knowing how
to think critically. Less clear is how to teach the process, perhaps because few
of us learned it explicitly, perhaps because for those of us who make it to the
level of teacher, critical thinking was in some sense intuitive and automatic.
This is not the case for the majority of students. The good news is that because
the scientific method is a formalization of critical thinking, it can be used
as a simple model that removes critical thinking from the realm of the intuitive
and puts it at the center of a straightforward, easily implemented, teaching strategy.
I describe here the techniques I use to help students practice their thinking
skills. These techniques axe simply an expansion of the Evidence and Antibodies
Sidelight in Gilbert's Developmental
Biology (1997, Sinauer Associates);
that is, I harp on correlation, necessity, and sufficiency, and the kinds of experiments
required to gather each type of evidence. In my own class, an upper division Developmental
Biology lecture class, I use these techniques, which include both verbal and written
reinforcement, to encourage students to evaluate claims about cause and effect,
that is, to distinguish between correlation and causation; however, I believe
that with very slight modifications, these tricks can be applied in a much greater
array of situations.
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SEA URCHIN EMBRYOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE WEB SITE PROVIDING
INFORMATION ON SEA URCHIN GAMETES FOR CELL AND DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES
Chris Patton, David Epel, Henrik Kibak (California State University, Monterey
Bay) and Pam Miller (Seaside High School, Seaside CA), Hopkins Marine Station
of Stanford University, Pacific Grove CA 93950. (This poster presented
Sunday, 13 June 1999, only)
Site address: http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/
Sea urchin gametes provide exceptional classroom material for illustrating fertilization,
cell division and early development. These events are sufficiently rapid that
students can observe these processes in the normal classroom time period. The
material is also ideal for inquiry-based science since the students can ask questions
about the phenomena and then proceed to get answers to their questions. This web
site comprises an over-275-page resource that is useful for both teacher and student.
The site was originally developed for the high school and provides information
on how to use sea urchins in the classroom, model lab exercises, lesson plans
and extensive audiovisual material such as videos, animations and prepared overheads.
The site, however, has also proved extremely useful for college laboratory exercises
and indeed a large number of users are college instructors and their students.
Particularly useful are numerous animations that succinctly describe phenomena
of early development. The site also provides ideas for advanced labs where students
carry out such experiments as isolation of the mitotic apparatus, ascertain the
effects of UV radiation or pollution on development or induce artificial parthenogenesis.
Development of the site was supported in part by a grant from the National Science
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Developmental and Physiological Aspects
of the Chicken Heart
Jacqueline S. McLaughlin and Elizabeth R. McCain* Berks-Lehigh Valley College,
Pennsylvania State University, Fogelsville, PA 18051 *Muhlenberg College, Allentown,
PA 18104 (This poster presented Sunday, 13 June 1999, only)
Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the
development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system.æ
Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood
flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effect of reproductive
toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explanation of
the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart
chambers are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis to test concerning the
effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart
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Poster Session II
FOR DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
Modified Monday, June 7, 1999
© Society for Developmental Biology