Yeast homologs of Drosophila Reptin, are essential components of a chromatin remodeling complex

Two highly conserved RuvB-like putative DNA helicases, p47/TIP49b and p50/TIP49a, have been identified in the eukaryotes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae TIH2, which corresponds to mammalian p47/TIP49b, is required for vegetative cell growth and localizes in the nucleus. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Tih2p tightly interacts with Tih1p, the counterpart of mammalian p50/TIP49a, which has been shown to interact with the TATA-binding protein and the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex. Furthermore, the mutational study of the Walker A motif, which is required for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, showed that this motif plays indispensable roles in the function of Tih2p. When a temperature-sensitive tih2 mutant, tih2-160, was incubated at the nonpermissive temperature, cells were rapidly arrested in the G(1) phase. Northern blot analysis revealed that Tih2p is required for transcription of G(1) cyclin and of several ribosomal protein genes. The similarities between the mutant phenotypes of tih2-160 and those of taf145 mutants suggest a role for TIH2 in the regulation of RNA polymerase II-directed transcription (Lim, 2000).

Eukaryotic Rvb1p and Rvb2p are two highly conserved proteins related to the helicase subset of the AAA+ family of ATPases. Conditional mutants in both genes show rapid changes in the transcription of over 5% of yeast genes, with a similar number of genes being repressed and activated. Both Rvb1p and Rvb2p are required for maintaining the induced state of many inducible promoters. ATP binding and hydrolysis by Rvb1p and Rvb2p is individually essential in vivo, and the two proteins are associated with each other in a high molecular weight complex that shows ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity in vitro. These findings show that Rvb1p and Rvb2p are essential components of a chromatin remodeling complex and determine genes regulated by the complex (Jonsson, 2001).

Biogenesis of small nucleolar RNA-protein complexes (snoRNPs) consists of synthesis of the snoRNA and protein components, snoRNP assembly, and localization to the nucleolus. Recently, two nucleoplasmic proteins from mice were observed to bind to a model box C/D snoRNA in vitro, suggesting that they function at an early stage in snoRNP biogenesis. Both proteins have been described in other contexts. The proteins, called p50 and p55 in the snoRNA binding study, are highly conserved and related to each other. Both have Walker A and B motifs characteristic of ATP- and GTP-binding and nucleoside triphosphate-hydrolyzing domains, and the mammalian orthologs have DNA helicase activity in vitro. Here, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of p50 (Rvb2, Tih2p, and other names) is required for production of C/D snoRNAs in vivo and, surprisingly, H/ACA snoRNAs as well. Point mutations in the Walker A and B motifs cause temperature-sensitive or lethal growth phenotypes and severe defects in snoRNA accumulation. Notably, depletion of p50 (called Rvb2 in this study) also impairs localization of C/D and H/ACA core snoRNP proteins Nop1p and Gar1p, suggesting a defect(s) in snoRNP assembly or trafficking to the nucleolus. Findings from other studies link Rvb2 orthologs with chromatin remodeling and transcription. Taken together, the present results indicate that Rvb2 is involved in an early stage of snoRNP biogenesis and may play a role in coupling snoRNA synthesis with snoRNP assembly and localization (King, 2001).

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two highly conserved proteins, Rvb1p/Tih1p and Rvb2p/Tih2p, have been demonstrated to be major components of the chromatin-remodeling INO80 complex. The mammalian orthologues of these two proteins have been shown to physically associate with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) in vitro but not clearly in vivo. This study shows that yeast proteins interact with TBP under both conditions. To assess the functional importance of these interactions, the effect of mutating both TIH2/RVB2 and SPT15, which encodes TBP, was examined on yeast cell growth. Intriguingly, only those spt15 mutations that affected the ability of TBP to bind to the TATA box caused synthetic growth defects in a tih2-ts160 background. This suggests that Tih2p might be important in recruiting TBP to the promoter. A DNA microarray technique was used to identify genes differentially expressed in the tih2-ts160 strain grown at the restrictive temperature. Only 34 genes were significantly and reproducibly affected; some up-regulated and others down-regulated. The transcription of several of these Tih2p target genes was compared in both wild type and various mutant backgrounds. The transcription of some genes depends on functions possessed by both Tih2p and TBP, and these functions are substantially impaired in the spt15/tih2-ts160 double mutants that confer synthetic growth defects (Ohdate, 2003).

The Rvb1p and Rvb2p (or TIP48 and TIP49) nuclear ATP binding proteins are universally conserved in eukaryotes and essential for viability of yeasts. Rvbp associate with each other as a double hexamer, with YHR034c and with two complexes involved in chromatin remodeling, and Loss of Rvb1p or Ino80p affects many yeast promoters similarly. Rvbp are not essential for the recruitment of Ino80p to promoters but are essential for the catalytic activity of Loss of Rvbp leads to loss of the functionally critical Arp5p in Rvb2p associates with Arp5p in vitro in a reaction dependent on the presence of ATP and Ino80p. Therefore, Rvbp are required for the structural and functional integrity of the Ino80 chromatin remodeling complex (Jonsson, 2004).

The conserved histone variant H2AZ has an important role in the regulation of gene expression and the establishment of a buffer to the spread of silent heterochromatin. How histone variants such as H2AZ are incorporated into nucleosomes has been obscure. Swr1, a Swi2/Snf2-related adenosine triphosphatase, is the catalytic core of a multisubunit, histone-variant exchanger that efficiently replaces conventional histone H2A with histone H2AZ in nucleosome arrays. Swr1 is required for the deposition of histone H2AZ at specific chromosome locations in vivo, and Swr1 and H2AZ commonly regulate a subset of yeast genes. These findings define a previously unknown role for the adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling machinery (Mazuguchi, 2004).

The NuA4 complex of yeast acetylates lysines in histone H4 and H2A

TIP49a is a novel mammalian DNA helicase showing structural similarity with the bacterial recombination factor RuvB. In this study a new TIP49a-related gene, termed TIP49b, was isolated from human and yeast cells. TIP49b also resembled RuvB, thus suggesting that TIP49a and TIP49b are included in a gene family. Like TIP49a, TIP49b is abundantly expressed in the testis and thymus. Enzyme assays revealed that TIP49b is an single-stranded DNA-stimulated ATPase and ATP-dependent DNA helicase. Most of the enzymatic properties of TIP49b were the same as those of TIP49a, whereas the polarity of TIP49b DNA helicase activity (5' to 3') is the opposite to that of TIP49a. TIP49b and TIP49a bind to each other and are included in the same complex of approximately 700 kDa in a cell. It was found that TIP49b is an essential gene for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as is the TIP49a gene, suggesting that TIP49b does not complement the TIP49a function and vice versa. From these observations, it is suggested that TIP49b plays an essential role in the cellular processes involved in DNA metabolism (Kanemaki, 1999).

The packaging of the eukaryotic genome in chromatin presents barriers that restrict the access of enzymes that process DNA. To overcome these barriers, cells possess a number of multi-protein, ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes, each containing an ATPase subunit from the SNF2/SWI2 superfamily. Chromatin remodelling complexes function by increasing nucleosome mobility and are clearly implicated in transcription. This study analysed SNF2/SWI2- and ISWI-related proteins to identify remodelling complexes that potentially assist other DNA transactions. A complex was purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that contains the Ino80 ATPase. The INO80 complex contains about 12 polypeptides including two proteins related to the bacterial RuvB DNA helicase, which catalyses branch migration of Holliday junctions. The purified complex remodels chromatin, facilitates transcription in vitro and displays 3' to 5' DNA helicase activity. Mutants of ino80 show hypersensitivity to agents that cause DNA damage, in addition to defects in transcription. These results indicate that chromatin remodelling driven by the Ino80 ATPase may be connected to transcription as well as DNA damage repair (Shen, 2000).

Although the acetylation of histones has a well-documented regulatory role in transcription, its role in other chromosomal functions remains largely unexplored. This study shows that distinct patterns of histone H4 acetylation are essential in two separate pathways of double-strand break repair. A budding yeast strain with mutations in wild-type H4 acetylation sites shows defects in nonhomologous end joining repair and in a newly described pathway of replication-coupled repair. Both pathways require the ESA1 histone acetyl transferase (HAT), which is responsible for acetylating all H4 tail lysines, including ectopic lysines that restore repair capacity to a mutant H4 tail. Arp4, a protein that binds histone H4 tails and is part of the Esa1-containing NuA4 HAT complex, is recruited specifically to DNA double-strand breaks that are generated in vivo. The purified Esa1-Arp4 HAT complex acetylates linear nucleosomal arrays with far greater efficiency than circular arrays in vitro, indicating that it preferentially acetylates nucleosomes near a break site. Together, these data show that histone tail acetylation is required directly for DNA repair and suggest that a related human HAT complex may function similarly (Bird, 2002).

Deletions of three yeast genes, SET2 (see Drosophila Set2), CDC73, and DST1, involved in transcriptional elongation and/or chromatin metabolism were used in conjunction with genetic array technology to screen approximately 4700 yeast deletions and identify double deletion mutants that produce synthetic growth defects. Of the five deletions interacting genetically with all three starting mutations, one encoded the histone H2A variant Htz1 and three encoded components of a novel 13 protein complex, SWR-C, containing the Snf2 family ATPase, Swr1. The SWR-C also copurified with Htz1 and Bdf1, a TFIID-interacting protein that recognizes acetylated histone tails. Deletions of the genes encoding Htz1 and seven nonessential SWR-C components caused a similar spectrum of synthetic growth defects when combined with deletions of 384 genes involved in transcription, suggesting that Htz1 and SWR-C belong to the same pathway. Recruitment of Htz1 to chromatin requires the SWR-C. Moreover, like Htz1 and Bdf1, the SWR-C promotes gene expression near silent heterochromatin (Krogan, 2003).

Drosophila Enhancer of Polycomb, E(Pc), is a suppressor of position-effect variegation and an enhancer of both Polycomb and trithorax mutations. A homologous yeast protein, Epl1, is a subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex. Epl1 depletion causes cells to accumulate in G2/M and global loss of acetylated histones H4 and H2A. In relation to the Drosophila protein, mutation of Epl1 suppresses gene silencing by telomere position effect. Epl1 protein is found in the NuA4 complex and a novel highly active smaller complex named Piccolo NuA4 (picNuA4). The picNuA4 complex contains Esa1, Epl1, and Yng2 as subunits and strongly prefers chromatin over free histones as substrate. Epl1 conserved N-terminal domain bridges Esa1 and Yng2 together, stimulating Esa1 catalytic activity and enabling acetylation of chromatin substrates. A recombinant picNuA4 complex shows characteristics similar to the native complex, including strong chromatin preference. Cells expressing only the N-terminal half of Epl1 lack NuA4 HAT activity, but possess picNuA4 complex and activity. These results indicate that the essential aspect of Esa1 and Epl1 resides in picNuA4 function. It is proposed that picNuA4 represents a nontargeted histone H4/H2A acetyltransferase activity responsible for global acetylation, whereas the NuA4 complex is recruited to specific genomic loci to perturb locally the dynamic acetylation/deacetylation equilibrium (Boudreault, 2003).

The conserved histone variant H2A.Z functions in euchromatin to antagonize the spread of heterochromatin. The mechanism by which histone H2A is replaced by H2A.Z in the nucleosome is unknown. This study identified a complex containing 13 different polypeptides associated with a soluble pool of H2A.Z in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This complex was designated SWR1-Com in reference to the Swr1p subunit, a Swi2/Snf2-paralog. Swr1p and six other subunits were found only in SWR1-Com, whereas six other subunits were also found in the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase and/or the Ino80 chromatin remodeling complex. H2A.Z and SWR1 were essential for viability of cells lacking the EAF1 component of NuA4, pointing to a close functional connection between these two complexes. Strikingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of cells lacking Swr1p, the presumed ATPase of the complex, revealed a profound defect in the deposition of H2A.Z at euchromatic regions that flank the silent mating type cassette HMR and at 12 other chromosomal sites tested. Consistent with a specialized role for Swr1p in H2A.Z deposition, the majority of the genome-wide transcriptional defects seen in swr1Delta cells were also found in htz1Delta cells. These studies revealed a novel role for a member of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme family in determining the region-specific histone subunit composition of chromatin in vivo and controlling the epigenetic state of chromatin. Metazoan orthologs of Swr1p (Drosophila Domino; human SRCAP and p400) may have analogous functions (Kobor, 2004).

A Tip60/NuA4 complex in C. elegans

The class A, B and C synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes act redundantly to negatively regulate the expression of vulval cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. The class B and C synMuv proteins include homologs of proteins that modulate chromatin and influence transcription in other organisms similar to members of the Myb-MuvB/dREAM, NuRD and Tip60/NuA4 complexes. To determine how these chromatin-remodeling activities negatively regulate the vulval cell-fate decision, a suppressor of the synMuv phenotype was isolated and it was found that the suppressor gene encodes the C. elegans homolog of Drosophila melanogaster ISWI. The C. elegans ISW-1 protein likely acts as part of a Nucleosome Remodeling Factor (NURF) complex with NURF-1, a nematode ortholog of NURF301, to promote the synMuv phenotype. isw-1 and nurf-1 mutations suppress both the synMuv phenotype and the multivulva phenotype caused by overactivation of the Ras pathway. These data suggest that a NURF-like complex promotes the expression of vulval cell fates by antagonizing the transcriptional and chromatin-remodeling activities of complexes similar to Myb-MuvB/dREAM, NuRD and Tip60/NuA4. Because the phenotypes caused by a null mutation in the tumor-suppressor and class B synMuv gene lin-35 Rb and a gain-of-function mutation in let-60 Ras are suppressed by reduction of isw-1 function, NURF complex proteins might be effective targets for cancer therapy (Andersen, 2006; full text of article).

Studies of Tip49a and Tip49b proteins, functional homologs of Drosophila Reptin

A novel nuclear protein with a molecular mass of 49 kDa (TIP49a) has been isolated from rat liver. The rat TIP49a showed structural resemblance to several bacterial RuvBs and also displayed Walker A and B motifs. The recombinant TIP49a was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. Biochemical investigations demonstrated that TIP49a possesses ATPase activity that is stimulated by single-stranded DNA but neither by double-stranded DNA nor by any forms of RNA polymers tested. Moreover, a UV cross-linking assay indicated TIP49a specifically interactes with ATP. Interestingly, DNA duplex is unwound by the recombinant TIP49a in the presence of ATP or dATP. Optimal concentrations of ATP and Mg2+ for the helicase activity were 1-2 mM and 0.25-1 mM, respectively. Displacement of the DNA strand occurred in the 3' to 5' direction with respect to the single-stranded DNA flanking the duplex. Western blot analysis revealed that TIP49a is abundantly expressed in testes and moderately in spleen, thymus, and lung. In mouse seminiferous tubules, the protein is restrictively observed in germ lineages from late pachytene spermatocytes to round spermatids. From these observations, it is proposed that TIP49a is a novel DNA helicase and may play a role in nuclear processes such as recombination and transcription (Makino, 1999)

Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2/CRE-BP1) is implicated in transcriptional control of stress-responsive genes. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified TBP-interacting protein 49b (TIP49b), a component of the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex, as a novel ATF2-interacting protein. TIP49b's association with ATF2 is phosphorylation dependent and requires amino acids 150 to 248 of ATF2 [ATF2(150-248)], which are implicated in intramolecular inhibition of ATF2 transcriptional activities. Forced expression of TIP49b efficiently attenuates ATF2 transcriptional activities under normal growth conditions as well as after UV treatment, ionizing irradiation, or activation of p38 kinase, all of which induced ATF2 phosphorylation and increased TIP49b-ATF2 association. Constitutive expression of ATF2(150-248) peptide outcompeted TIP49b interaction with ATF2 and alleviated the suppression of ATF2 transcriptional activities. Expression of ATF2(150-248) in fibroblasts or melanoma but not in ATF2-null cells caused a profound G(2)M arrest and increased degree of apoptosis following irradiation. The interaction between ATF2 and TIP49b constitutes a novel mechanism that serves to limit ATF2 transcriptional activities and highlights the central role of ATF2 in the control of the cell cycle and apoptosis in response to stress and DNA damage (Cho, 2001).

The mammalian Tip49a and Tip49b proteins belong to an evolutionarily conserved family of AAA+ ATPases. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, orthologs of Tip49a and Tip49b, called Rvb1 and Rvb2, respectively, are subunits of two distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, SWR1 and INO80. The mammalian Tip49a and Tip49b proteins are integral subunits of a chromatin remodeling complex bearing striking similarities to the S. cerevisiae SWR1 complex. A new mammalian Tip49a- and Tip49b-containing ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex has been identified, that includes orthologs of 8 of the 15 subunits of the S. cerevisiae INO80 chromatin remodeling complex as well as at least five additional subunits unique to the human INO80 (hINO80) complex. Similar to the yeast INO80 complex, the hINO80 complex exhibits DNA- and nucleosome-activated ATPase activity and catalyzes ATP-dependent nucleosome sliding (Jin, 2005).

Evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human, the paralogous DNA helicases Pontin (Pont) and Reptin (Rept) are simultaneously recruited in multi-protein chromatin complexes that function in different aspects of DNA metabolism (transcription, replication and repair). When assayed, the two proteins were found to be essential for viability and to play antagonistic roles, suggesting that the balance of Pont/Rept regulates epigenetic programmes critical for development. Consistent with this, the two helicases are provided in the same embryonic territories during Drosophila development. In Xenopus, while transcribed in the same regions early in embryogenesis, pont and rept adopt significantly different patterns afterwards. The two genes follow highly resembling transcription patterns in mouse embryos, with prominent expression in limb buds and branchial arches, organs undergoing mesenchymal-epithelial interactions and in motoneurones from cranial and spinal regions. Thus, simultaneous expression during development appears to constitute another feature of the evolutionary conservation of pont and rept genes (Chauvet, 2005).

TIP48 is a highly conserved eukaryotic AAA+ protein that is an essential cofactor for several complexes involved in chromatin acetylation and remodeling, transcriptional and developmental regulation and nucleolar organization and trafficking. TIP48 abundance in HeLa cells does not change during the cell cycle, nor does its distribution in various biochemical fractions. However, distinct changes in the subcellular localization of TIP48 during M phase were observed using immunofluorescence microscopy. These studies demonstrate that in interphase cells TIP48 is found mainly in the nucleus and exhibits a distinct localization in the nuclear periphery. As the cells enter mitosis, TIP48 is excluded from the condensing chromosomes but shows association with the mitotic apparatus. During anaphase, some TIP48 was detected in the centrosome colocalizing with tubulin but the strongest staining appeared in the mitotic equator associated with the midzone central spindle. Accumulation of TIP48 in the midzone and the midbody was observed in late telophase and cytokinesis. This redeployment of TIP48 during anaphase and cytokinesis is independent of microtubule assembly. The relocation of endogenous TIP48 to the midzone/midbody under physiological conditions suggests a novel and distinct function for TIP48 in mitosis and possible involvement in the exit of mitosis (Sigala, 2005).

TIP48 and TIP49 are two related and highly conserved eukaryotic AAA(+) proteins with an essential biological function and a critical role in major pathways that are closely linked to cancer. They are found together as components of several highly conserved chromatin-modifying complexes. Both proteins show sequence homology to bacterial RuvB but the nature and mechanism of their biochemical role remain unknown. Recombinant human TIP48 and TIP49 were assembled into a stable high molecular mass equimolar complex and tested for activity in vitro. TIP48/TIP49 complex formation resulted in synergistic increase in ATPase activity but ATP hydrolysis was not stimulated in the presence of single-stranded, double-stranded or four-way junction DNA and no DNA helicase or branch migration activity could be detected. Complexes with catalytic defects in either TIP48 or TIP49 had no ATPase activity showing that both proteins within the TIP48/TIP49 complex are required for ATP hydrolysis. The structure of the TIP48/TIP49 complex was examined by negative stain electron microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction at 20 Å resolution revealed that the TIP48/TIP49 complex consisted of two stacked hexameric rings with C6 symmetry. The top and bottom rings showed substantial structural differences. Interestingly, TIP48 formed oligomers in the presence of adenine nucleotides, while TIP49 did not. The results point to biochemical differences between TIP48 and TIP49, which may explain the structural differences between the two hexameric rings and could be significant for specialised functions that the proteins perform individually (Puri, 2007).

Reptin and Myc

The c-Myc transactivation domain was used to affinity purify tightly associated nuclear proteins. Two of these proteins were identified as TIP49 and a novel related protein called TIP48, both of which are highly conserved in evolution and contain ATPase/helicase motifs. TIP49 and TIP48 are complexed with c-Myc in vivo, and binding is dependent on a c-Myc domain essential for oncogenic activity. A missense mutation in the TIP49 ATPase motif acts as a dominant inhibitor of c-Myc oncogenic activity but does not inhibit normal cell growth, indicating that functional TIP49 protein is an essential mediator of c-Myc oncogenic transformation. The TIP49 and TIP48 ATPase/helicase proteins represent a novel class of cofactors recruited by transcriptional activation domains that function in diverse pathways (Wood, 2000).

The c-Myc oncoprotein functions as a transcription factor that can transform normal cells into tumor cells, as well as playing a direct role in normal cell proliferation. The c-Myc protein transactivates cellular promoters by recruiting nuclear cofactors to chromosomal sites through an N-terminal transactivation domain. Four different c-Myc cofactors: TRRAP, hGCN5, TIP49, and TIP48 have been identified and functionally characterized. This study presents the identification and characterization of the actin-related protein BAF53 as a c-Myc-interacting nuclear cofactor that forms distinct nuclear complexes. In addition to the human SWI/SNF-related BAF complex, BAF53 forms a complex with TIP49 and TIP48 and a separate biochemically distinct complex containing TRRAP and a histone acetyltransferase which does not contain TIP60. Using deletion mutants of BAF53, it is shown that BAF53 is critical for c-Myc oncogenic activity. These results indicate that BAF53 plays a functional role in c-Myc-interacting nuclear complexes (Park, 2002).

The transcription factor MYC binds specific DNA sites in cellular chromatin and induces the acetylation of histones H3 and H4. However, the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that are responsible for these modifications have not yet been identified. MYC associates with TRRAP, a subunit of distinct macromolecular complexes that contain the HATs GCN5/PCAF or TIP60. Although the association of MYC with GCN5 has been shown, its interaction with TIP60 has never been analysed. This study shows that MYC associates with TIP60 and recruits it to chromatin in vivo with four other components of the TIP60 complex: TRRAP, p400, TIP48 and TIP49. Overexpression of enzymatically inactive TIP60 delays the MYC-induced acetylation of histone H4, and also reduces the level of MYC binding to chromatin. Thus, the TIP60 HAT complex is recruited to MYC-target genes and, probably with other other HATs, contributes to histone acetylation in response to mitogenic signals (Frank, 2003).

Pontin (Tip49) and Reptin (Tip48) are highly conserved components of multimeric protein complexes important for chromatin remodelling and transcription. They interact with many different proteins including TATA box binding protein (TBP), beta-catenin and c-Myc and thus, potentially modulate different pathways. As antagonistic regulators of Wnt-signalling, they control wing development in Drosophila and heart growth in zebrafish. This study shows that the Xenopus xPontin and xReptin in conjunction with c-Myc regulate cell proliferation in early development. Overexpression of xPontin or xReptin results in increased mitoses and bending of embryos, which is mimicked by c-Myc overexpression. Furthermore, the knockdown of either xPontin or xReptin resulted in embryonic lethality at late gastrula stage, which is abrogated by the injection of c-Myc-RNA. The N-termini of xPontin and xReptin, which mediate the mitogenic effect were mapped to contain c-Myc interaction domains. c-Myc protein promotes cell cycle progression either by transcriptional activation through the c-Myc/Max complex or by repression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (p21, p15) through c-Myc/Miz-1 interaction. Importantly, xPontin and xReptin exert their mitogenic effect through the c-Myc/Miz-1 pathway as dominant negative Miz-1 and wild-type c-Myc but not a c-Myc mutant deficient in Miz-1 binding could rescue embryonic lethality. Finally, promoter reporter studies revealed that xPontin and xReptin but not the N-terminal deletion mutants enhance p21 repression by c-Myc. It is concluded that xPontin and xReptin are essential genes regulating cell proliferation in early Xenopus embryogenesis through interaction with c-Myc. A novel function of xPontin and xReptin is proposed as co-repressors in the c-Myc/Miz-1 pathway (Etard, 2005).

Reptin and WNT signaling

Pontin and Reptin are nuclear beta-catenin interaction partners that antagonistically modulate beta-catenin transcriptional activity. Hint1/PKCI, a member of the evolutionary conserved family of histidine triad proteins, was characterised as a new interaction partner of Pontin and Reptin. Pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that Hint1/PKCI directly binds to Pontin and Reptin. The Hint1/PKCI-binding site was mapped to amino acids 214-295 and 218-289 in Pontin and Reptin, respectively. Conversely, Pontin and Reptin bind to the N-terminus of Hint1/PKCI. Moreover, by its interaction with Pontin and Reptin, Hint1/PKCI is associated with the LEF-1/TCF-beta-catenin transcription complex. In this context, Hint1/PKCI acts as a negative regulator of TCF-beta-catenin transcriptional activity in Wnt-transfected cells and in SW480 colon carcinoma cells as shown in reporter gene assays. Consistent with these observations, Hint1/PKCI represses expression of the endogenous target genes cyclin D1 and axin2 whereas knockdown of Hint1/PKCI by RNA interference increases their expression. Disruption of the Pontin/Reptin complex appears to mediate this modulatory effect of Hint1/PKCI on TCF-beta-catenin-mediated transcription. These data now provide a molecular mechanism to explain the tumor suppressor function of Hint1/PKCI recently suggested from the analysis of Hint1/PKCI knockout mice (Weiske, 2005).

While the biological roles of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in development and disease are well documented, understanding the molecular logic underlying the functionally distinct nuclear transcriptional programs mediating the diverse functions of beta-catenin remains a major challenge. This study reports an unexpected strategy for beta-catenin-dependent regulation of cell-lineage determination based on interactions between beta-catenin and a specific homeodomain factor, Prop1, rather than Lef/Tcfs. beta-catenin acts as a binary switch to simultaneously activate expression of the critical lineage-determining transcription factor, Pit1, and to repress the gene encoding the lineage-inhibiting transcription factor, Hesx1, acting via TLE/Reptin/HDAC1 corepressor complexes. The strategy of functionally distinct actions of a homeodomain factor in response to Wnt signaling is suggested to be prototypic of a widely used mechanism for generating diverse cell types from pluripotent precursor cells in response to common signaling pathways during organogenesis (Olson, 2006).

The multiprotein mammalian TRRAP/TIP60-containing histone acetyltransferase complex

It is well known that histone acetylases are important chromatin modifiers and that they play a central role in chromatin transcription. Evidence is presented for novel roles of histone acetylases. The TIP60 histone acetylase purifies as a multimeric protein complex. Besides histone acetylase activity on chromatin, the TIP60 complex possesses ATPase, DNA helicase, and structural DNA binding activities. Ectopic expression of mutated TIP60 lacking histone acetylase activity results in cells with defective double-strand DNA break repair. Importantly, the resulting cells lose their apoptotic competence, suggesting a defect in the cells' ability to signal the existence of DNA damage to the apoptotic machinery. These results indicate that the histone acetylase TIP60-containing complex plays a role in DNA repair and apoptosis (Ikura, 2000).

A new E1A binding protein complex has been identified that is essential for E1A-mediated transformation. Its core component is a SWI2/SNF2-related, 400 kDa protein (p400). Other components include the myc- and p/CAF-associated cofactor, TRRAP/PAF400, the DNA helicases TAP54alpha/beta, actin-like proteins, and the human homolog of the Drosophila Enhancer of Polycomb protein. An E1A mutant, defective in p400 binding, is also defective in transformation. Certain p400 fragments partially rescued this phenotype, underscoring the role of E1A-p400 complex formation in the E1A transforming process. Furthermore, E1A and c-myc each alter the subunit composition of p400 complexes, implying that physiological p400 complex formation contributes to transformation suppression (Fuchs, 2001).

The mammalian ATM/PI 3-kinase-related TRRAP protein has been found to be a component of a multi-protein histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex containing the HAT TIP60. In this report, a previously uncharacterized protein encoded by the FLJ10914 ORF has been identified which has been designated MRGBP, as a new component of the TRRAP/TIP60 HAT complex. In addition, through purification of MRGBP and its associated proteins from HeLa cell nuclear extracts, the thyroid receptor coactivating protein (TRCp120), DMAP1, and the related MRG15 and MRGX proteins have been identified as MRGBP-associating proteins, and biochemical evidence is presented that they are previously unrecognized components of the TRRAP/TIP60 HAT complex. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the structure and function of the mammalian TRRAP/TIP60 histone acetyltransferase complex (Cai, 2003).

The multiprotein mammalian TRRAP/TIP60-containing histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex performs critical functions in a variety of cellular processes including transcriptional activation, double strand DNA break repair, and apoptosis. The TRRAP/TIP60 complex has been isolated from HeLa cells. Analysis of proteins present in preparations of the TRRAP/TIP60 complex led to the identification of several new subunits, as well as several potential subunits including the YL1 protein. Evidence is presented that the YL1 protein is a previously unrecognized subunit of the TRRAP/TIP60 HAT complex. In addition, evidence is presented that YL1 is also a component of a novel mammalian multiprotein complex that includes the SNF2-related helicase SRCAP and resembles the recently described Saccharomyces cerevisiae SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex. Taken together, these findings identify the YL1 protein as a new subunit of the TRRAP/TIP60 HAT complex, and they suggest that YL1 plays multiple roles in chromatin modification and remodeling in cells (Cai, 2005).

Mutation of zebrafish Reptin

Organ size is precisely regulated during development, but the control mechanisms remain obscure. A mutation in zebrafish, liebeskummer (lik), was isolated that causes development of hyperplastic embryonic hearts. lik encodes Reptin, a component of a DNA-stimulated ATPase complex. The mutation activates ATPase activity of Reptin complexes and causes a cell-autonomous proliferation of cardiomyocytes to begin well after progenitors have fashioned the primitive heart tube. With regard to heart growth, beta-catenin and Pontin, a DNA-stimulated ATPase that is often part of complexes with Reptin, are in the same genetic pathways. Pontin reduction phenocopies the cardiac hyperplasia of the lik mutation. Thus, the Reptin/Pontin ratio serves to regulate heart growth during development, at least in part via the beta-catenin pathway (Rottbauer, 2002).

Reptin and cancer

Defining the molecular strategies that integrate diverse signalling pathways in the expression of specific gene programmes that are critical in homeostasis and disease remains a central issue in biology. This is particularly pertinent in cancer biology because downregulation of tumour metastasis suppressor genes is a common occurrence, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well established. This study reports that the downregulation of a metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, in prostate cancer cells involves the inhibitory actions of beta-catenin, along with a reptin chromatin remodelling complex. This inhibitory function of beta-catenin-reptin requires both increased beta-catenin expression and recruitment of histone deacetylase activity. The coordinated actions of beta-catenin-reptin components that mediate the repressive state serve to antagonize a Tip60 coactivator complex that is required for activation; the balance of these opposing complexes controls the expression of KAI1 and metastatic potential. The molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonistic regulation of beta-catenin-reptin and the Tip60 coactivator complexes for the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, are likely to be prototypic of a selective downregulation strategy for many genes, including a subset of NF-kappaB target genes (Kim, 2005).

Defining the functional modules within transcriptional regulatory factors that govern switching between repression and activation events is a central issue in biology. A beta-catenin-reptin chromatin remodelling complex plays a dynamic role in regulating a metastasis suppressor gene KAI1, which is capable of inhibiting the progression of tumour metastasis. This study identifies signalling factors that confer repressive function on reptin and hence repress the expression of KAI1. Biochemical purification of a reptin-containing complex has revealed the presence of specific desumoylating enzymes that reverse the sumoylation of reptin that underlies its function as a repressor. Desumoylation of reptin alters the repressive function of reptin and its association with HDAC1. Furthermore, the sumoylation status of reptin modulates the invasive activity of cancer cells with metastatic potential. These data clearly define a functional model and provide a novel link for SUMO modification in cancer metastasis (Kim, 2006).

reptin: Biological Overview | Regulation | Developmental Biology | Effects of Mutation | References

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