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FGF receptor 1


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FGF receptor signaling pathway; Function of fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate (FRS)

The docking protein FRS2 is a major downstream effector that links fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and nerve growth factor receptors with the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. FRS2 also plays a pivotal role in FGF-induced recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). Tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2alpha leads to Grb2-mediated complex formation with the docking protein Gab1 and its tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in the recruitment and activation of PI3-kinase. Furthermore, Grb2 bound to tyrosine-phosphorylated FRS2 through its SH2 domain interacts primarily via its carboxyl-terminal SH3 domain with a proline-rich region in Gab1 and via its amino-terminal SH3 domain with the nucleotide exchange factor Sos1. Assembly of FRS2alpha:Grb2:Gab1 complex induced by FGF stimulation results in activation of PI3-kinase and downstream effector proteins such as the S/T kinase Akt, whose cellular localization and activity are regulated by products of PI3-kinase. These experiments reveal a unique mechanism for generation of signal diversity by growth factor-induced coordinated assembly of a multidocking protein complex that can activate the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade to induce cell proliferation and differentiation, and PI3-kinase to activate a mediator of a cell survival pathway (Ong, 2001).

The docking protein FRS2 alpha has been implicated as a mediator of signaling via fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). Targeted disruption of FRS2 alpha gene causes severe impairment in mouse development resulting in embryonal lethality at E7.0--E7.5. Experiments with FRS2 alpha-deficient fibroblasts demonstrate that FRS2 alpha plays a critical role in FGF-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase stimulation, phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activation, chemotactic response, and cell proliferation. Following FGF stimulation, tyrosine phosphorylated FRS2 alpha functions as a site for coordinated assembly of a multiprotein complex that includes Gab1 and the effector proteins that are recruited by this docking protein. Furthermore, different tyrosine phosphorylation sites on FRS2 alpha are responsible for mediating different FGF-induced biological responses. These experiments establish the central role of FRS2 alpha in signaling via FGFRs and demonstrate that FRS2 alpha mediates multiple FGFR-dependent signaling pathways critical for embryonic development (Hadari, 2001).

Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are a family of transmembrane tyrosine kinases involved in signaling via interactions with the family of fibroblast growth factors. Alternative splicing of the juxtamembrane region of FGFR1-3 leads to the inclusion or exclusion of two amino acids, valine and threonine, the VT site. The presence or absence of VT (VT+ or VT-, respectively) affects the signaling potential of the receptor. The VT+ receptor isoform is required for Erk2 phosphorylation, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. FRS2 is an adaptor protein that links FGFRs to the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. FRS2 interacts with a region of the juxtamembrane domain of FGFR1 that includes the alternatively spliced VT site. The interaction of FRS2 with murine Fgfr1 juxtamembrane domain was investigated. The alternatively spliced VT motif, at the juxtamembrane domain of Fgfr1 is required for FRS2 interaction with Fgfr1. Activation of signaling pathways from FRS2 is likely to be regulated by controlling the Fgfr1/FRS2 interaction through alternative splicing of the VT motif of Fgfr1 (Burgar, 2002).

The plasma membrane is not homogeneous but contains specific subcompartments characterized by their unique lipid and protein composition. Based on their enrichment in various signaling molecules, these membrane microdomains are recognized to be sites of localized signal transduction for a number of extracellular stimuli. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) induces a specific signaling response within a lipid raft membrane microdomain in human neuroblastoma cells characterized by the tyrosine phosphorylation of a p80 phosphoprotein. This protein is the signaling adaptor FRS2; it is localized exclusively to lipid rafts in vitro and in vivo. How the tyrosine phosphorylation and serine-threonine phosphorylation of FRS2 within lipid rafts affect the response of cells to FGF2 signaling was examined. The data suggest that activation of protein kinase C, Src family kinases, and MEK1/2 are involved in regulating serine-threonine phosphorylation of FRS2, which can indirectly affect FRS2 phosphotyrosine levels. Grb2 is recruited to lipid rafts during signaling events, and activation of MEK1/2 by different mechanisms within lipid rafts may lead to different cellular responses. This work suggests that compartmentalized signaling within lipid rafts may provide a level of specificity for growth factor signaling (Ridyard, 2003).

Attenuation of growth factor signaling is essential for the regulation of developmental processes and tissue homeostasis in most organisms. The product of Cbl protooncogene is one such regulator, which functions as an ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates and promotes the degradation of a variety of cell signaling proteins. Grb2 bound to tyrosine-phosphorylated FRS2 alpha forms a ternary complex with Cbl by means of its Src homology 3 domains, resulting in the ubiquitination of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor and FRS2 alpha in response to FGF stimulation. These observations highlight the importance of FRS2 alpha in the assembly of both positive (i.e., Sos, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) and negative (i.e., Cbl) signaling proteins to mediate a balanced FGF signal transduction. However, the partial inhibition of FGF receptor down-regulation in FRS2 alpha-/- cells indicates that the attenuation of signaling by FGF receptor is regulated by redundant or multiple mechanisms (Wong, 2004).

Activation of signalling by fibroblast growth factor receptor leads to phosphorylation of the signalling attenuator human Sprouty 2 (hSpry2) on residue Y55. This event requires the presence of the signalling adaptor fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2). The phosphorylation of hSpry2 is therefore mediated by an intermediate kinase. Using a SRC family kinase-specific inhibitor and mutant cells, hSpry2 was shown to be a direct substrate for SRC family kinases, including SRC itself. Activation of SRC via fibroblast growth factor signalling is dependent upon FRS2 and fibroblast growth factor receptor kinase activity. SRC forms a complex with hSpry2 and this interaction is enhanced by hSpry2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of hSpry2 is required for hSpry2 to inhibit activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. These results show that recruitment of SRC to FRS2 leads to activation of signal attenuation pathways (Li, 2004).

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are upstream activators of the MAP kinase pathway and mitogens in a wide variety of cells. However, whether the MAP kinase pathway solely accounts for the induction of cell cycle or anti-apoptotic activity of the FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase is not clear. Cell cycle inducer Cks1 (See Drosophila Cyclin-dependent kinase subunit) that triggers ubiquitination and degradation of p27kip1 associates with the unphosphorylated form of FGFR substrate 2 (FRS2), an adaptor protein that is phosphorylated by FGFR kinases and recruits downstream signaling molecules. FGF-dependent activation of FGFR tyrosine kinases induces FRS2 phosphorylation, causes release of Cks1 from FRS2, and promotes degradation of p27kip1 in 3T3 cells. Since degradation of p27kip1 is a key regulatory step in activation of the cyclin E/A-Cdk complex during the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, the results suggest a novel mitogenic pathway whereby FGF and other growth factors that activate FRS2 directly activate cyclin-dependent kinases (Zhang, 2004).

Fibroblast growth factor signaling through PI 3-kinase and Akt/PKB is required for embryoid body differentiation

The role of FGF signaling in early epithelial differentiation was investigated in ES (embryonic stem) cell derived embryoid bodies. A dominant negative fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutation was created by stably introducing into ES cells an Fgfr2 cDNA, truncated in its enzymatic domains. These cells failed to differentiate into cystic embryoid bodies. No epithelial differentiation and cavitation morphogenesis could be observed in the mutant, although its rate of cell proliferation remained unchanged. This phenotype was associated with a significant decrease in the activation of Akt/PKB and PLCgamma-1, as compared to the wild type, while the activation of MAPK/Erk was less affected. Requirement for PI 3-kinase signaling in embryoid body differentiation was demonstrated by specific inhibitors. Akt/PKB activation was abrogated by wortmannin in short-term experiments. In long-term cultures Ly294002 inhibited the differentiation of ES cells into embryoid bodies. These data demonstrate that for early epithelial differentiation FGF signaling is required through the PI 3-kinase-Akt/ PKB pathway (Chen, 2000).

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FGF receptor 1 continued: Biological Overview | Regulation | Developmental Biology | Effects of Mutation | References

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