logo Drosophila genes listed by biochemical function
Enzymes and cofactors exclusive of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling proteins

absent, small, or homeotic discs 1
histone methyl transferase that indirectly prevents gene silencing - provides a specific signal
for establishment of active transcription

Activator of SUMO 1
E1 SUMO-activating complex comprising the Aos1/Uba2 heterodimeric pair - required for SUMOylation - tumor suppressor regulating cell cycle, imaginal disc development, hematopoesis, and CNS development

Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain
regulates fatty acid metabolism - modifies the composition of fatty acids and membrane lipid - inhibits neuromuscular
junction growth - facilitates Rab11-dependent receptor recycling - regulates axonal transport of synaptic vesicles

Adenosine deaminase-related growth factor A
a secreted enzyme that converts extracellular adenosine into inosine - regulates adenosine levels - opposes the effects
of Hedgehog signaling within the hematopoietic progenitor cells - regulates energy allocation during immune response

alicorn
regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase - regulation of cellular energy homeostasis - maintainance
of integrity of mature neurons under conditions of increased activity - regulation of developmental and stress-induced autophagy

approximated
DHHC family protein, responsible for the palmitoylation of selected cytoplasmic proteins - acts by controlling the normal subcellular localization
and activity of Dachs in the Fat signaling pathway

armitage
RNA helicase involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing - mutations disrupt mRNA translational silencing
of oskar in the oocyte and silencing of Stellate in male germ cells

Argonaute 2
endonuclease - an essential component for siRNA-directed RNA interference (RNAi) response -
required for the unwinding of siRNA duplex and in consequence, assembly of siRNA into RISC

Argonaute 3
cleaves transposon derived piwi-interacting RNAs to form an adaptive system for transposon control

atlastin
dynamin-family transmembrane GTPase that drives endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion in a GTP-dependent fashion - self-associating protein
that is able to form trans-oligomeric complexes - required for normal growth of muscles and synapses at the neuromuscular junction

ATP synthase, subunit d
mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled proton transport - component of electron transport complex V- regulates aging and stress

auxilin
serine/threonine protein kinase - a J-domain-containing protein that cooperates with Hsc70 in the disassembly of clathrin coats from clathrin-coated vesicles
an integral component of the Notch signaling pathway, participating in the ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of Delta in the signal receiving cell

belle
helicase that unwinds RNA - translational repression - regulates expression of transgenes, essential for male germline stem cell maintenance and
division - suppresses the effects of ectopic Wg signaling, regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades - regulates
the temporal pattern of Notch signaling in Drosophila follicle cells, regulates chromosome segregation

bendless
ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that functions as a developmental switch that permits the transition from axonal growth and incipient synapse
formation to synaptic growth and maturation - required in the IMD immune response signaling pathway for IKK activation leading to NFkappaB activation

Bloom syndrome helicase
RecQ helicase - repairs replication fork damage and double-strand breaks in mitosis, promotes repair through non-crossover
mechanisms - dissolution of double Holliday junctions - promotes meiotic crossover patterning and homolog disjunction

brainiac
glycosyltransferase - directs glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - functions in oogenesis and EGF-R signaling -
helps maintain epithelial structures

Bre1
E3 ubiquitin ligase required for the monoubiquitination of histone H2B and, indirectly, for H3K4 methylation -
directs histone modification that is critical for the transcription of Notch target genes

brummer
lipid storage droplet-associated lypase - a key factor of energy homeostasis control - involved in storage-fat mobilization

capsuléen
protein arginine methyltransferase - together with its partner Valois Capsuléen is involved in protein localization in germ cells -
required for the localization of specific components of the nuage and pole plasm, and in particular of Tudor

cdc6
AAA-superfamily ATP helicase involved in initiation of DNA replication - involved in the formation of the prereplicative complex -
checkpoint protein involved in controlling the G2/M transition

Ceramidase
enzyme that hydrolyzes ceramide to sphingosine, a critical structural components of cell membranes that act as second messengers
in diverse signal transduction cascades - maintains photoreceptor homeostasis - regulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis and trafficking

chameau
histone acetyltransferase - acts as antagonistic cofactor to the histone deacetylase Rpd3 to modulate JNK-dependent
transcription during pupal thorax metamorphosis and JNK-induced apoptosis - recruited by DJun and DFos

Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein
chromodomain protein in the SNF2-like family of ATPases - functions in assembly of active chromatin

courtless
ubiquitin conjugation enzyme - plays a role in protein degradation - mutation disrupts early steps
of courtship behavior in Drosophila males and the development of their sperm

cryptochrome
potential transcription factor - light response protein - cryptochrome/photolyase

cylindromatosis ortholog (H. sapiens)
deubiquitinating enzyme that deubiquitinates dTRAF2 and prevents dTRAF2 from ubiquitin-mediated
proteolytic degradation - involved in stress response - required for Eiger-triggered JNK activation and cell death

Death caspase-1
ICE/CED-3 protease involved in apoptosis

Death related ced-3/Nedd2-like protein
ICE/CED-3 protease involved in apoptosis

degringolade
SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase that acts as a negative regulator of the repressor Hairy and its corepressor Groucho
during embryonic segmentation and neurogenesis - acts as a regulator in sex determination by interfering
with the repressive activities of Deadpan and Groucho

Dicer-1
ribonuclease III family, double-stranded RNA domain binding domain, DEAD/DEAH box helicase, PAZ domain -
an enzyme involved in degrading RNA - involved in double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi)
and post-transcriptional gene regulation (PTGS)

Dicer-2
DEAD/DEAH box helicase - mutants are defective in processing small interfering RNAs

dodo
peptidylprolyl isomerase - facilitates the degradation of the transcription factor CF2, which regulates expression
of the rhomboid gene in follicle cells

domino
DNA helicase/adenosine triphosphatase - component of the Tip60 chromatin-remodeling complex
that acetylates nucleosomal phospho-H2Av and exchanges it with an unmodified H2Av

drosha
ribonuclease - acts on primary microRNA transcripts by cleaving it to excise the pre-microRNA polymer - physically interacts with Pasha,
a double-stranded RNA binding protein

Dynamin related protein 1
a Dynamin GTPase - regulates mitochondrial fission in normal cells including primary spermatocytes -
mediates mitochondrial fragmentation during programmed cell death

Dynein heavy chain 64C
a molecular motor

easter
required for establishment of embryonic polarity - serine protease, trypsin family - generates processed Späzle, which in turn acts as the Toll ligand

ebony
an β-alanyl-dopamine synthase regulating β-alanyl conjugation of dopamine and histamine, thus 'trapping' these biogenic amines
preventing their further function - regulates pigmentation, photoreceptor activity and behavioral rhythmicity

egghead
glycosyltransferase - required for glycosphingolipid sugar chain elongation - affects extracellular Gurken gradiant
by controlling Gurken planar transport in the extracellular space

eggless
SET domain hydroxymethyltransferase required for oogenesis - trimethylates histone H3 at its K9 residue

easily shocked
ethanolamine kinase - catalyzes the first step of the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine, one of the three major membrane phospholipids - a behavioral mutant
that belongs to a family of bang-sensitive paralytic mutants - required in mushroom body neuroblasts to allow a rapid rate of cell division at metamorphosis

effete
E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme - mediates anaphase-promoting complex degradation - controls germ-line stem cell maintenance
by targeting Cyclin A - regulates programmed cell death and neuronal process remodeling

eyes closed
a fly homolog of p47, a protein co-factor of the p97 ATPase involved in membrane fusion -
mutation results in a lethal failure of nuclear envelope assembly in early zygotic divisions
and results in defective photoreceptor morphogenesis

eyes absent (preferred name: clift)
transcriptional co-activator and protein tyrosine phosphatase - cell survival factor - functions in eye development -
also plays a role in the embryonic determination of somatic gonadal precursor (SGP) cell fate

fat facets
conserved Cys and His domains - ubiquitin-specific protease

female sterile (1) Yb (common alternative name: Yb)
tudor domain RNA helicase, post-transcriptional gene regulation - regulates transposon silencing via the piRNA pathway -
component of the Yb body, a site for Piwi-associated RNA biogenesis, regulates Piwi transport to the nucleus

four-jointed
transmembrane protein kinase that targets Fat and its transmembrane ligand Dachsous

gastrulation-defective
a protease involved in establishment of dorsal/ventral polarity - targets Snake

grappa
a histone methyltransferase that modifies the lysine 79 residue of histone H3 - necessary for the maintenance phase
of Bithorax complex expression - has characteristics of both polycomb- and trithorax-group genes

Guanylyl cyclase at 76C
cGMP production - receptor-type protein possessing a single transmembrane domain - required for Semaphorin-1a-Plexin A directed repulsive axon guidance

HDAC6
a microtubule-associated deacetylase - interacts with polyubiquitinated proteins to stimulate autophagy as a compensatory degradation system
when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is impaired

Histone deacetylase 3
chromatin component - deacetylates histone H4 - counteracts the overgrowth induced by InR, PI3K or S6K over-expression -
a target of the PI3K pathway - helps retain chromatin compaction and gene silencing in nuclear lamina-interacting multigenic chromatin domains

Helicase at 25E
DExH/D RNA helicase required in the nucleus for mRNA export - required in the cytoplasm for remodeling
the transacting factors that dictate mRNA cytoplasmic destination

Hen1
RNA methyltransferase - carries out methylation of small interfering RNAs, the final step in assembly of RISC occurring
after the Argonaute-bound siRNA duplex is converted to single-stranded RNA

HIF prolyl hydroxylase (alternative name: fatiga)
oxygen sensor - a specific prolyl-4-hydroxylases required for hydroxylation of key prolyl residues in the HIFα sequence -
Fe (II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase superfamily protein that uses O2 as a co-substrate for catalysis -
involved in tracheal development, oogenesis and drives cell growth downstream of Cyclin D

hiiragi
poly(A) polymerase involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNA

HMG Coenzyme A reductase (common alternative name: columbus)
catalyzes the biosynthesis of a mevalonate precursor for isoprenoids - functions in the hedgehog signaling pathway,
implicated in the production of a signal by the somatic gonadal precursor cells that attracts migrating germ cells

hyperplastic discs
a HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase that is likely to act by targeting Cubitus interruptus and an unknown activator
of hedgehog expression for proteolysis

Ice
a dowstream effector caspase - activated during spermatogenesis and necessary for the removal
of cytoplasm and the generation of functional sperm

inactivation no afterpotential E
diacylglycerol lipase involved in visual signal transduction and lipid metabolism

Inducer of meiosis 4
methyltransferase - internal modification of mRNA - regulates alternative splicing and Notch
signaling - regulates sex determination and dosage compensation - modulates neural functions

Inositol-requiring enzyme-1
protein kinase, endonuclease, a regulator of the unfolded protein response, leading to the activation of the
transcription factor Xbp1 - regulated Ire1-dependent decay - regulation of RNA splicing - photoreceptor differentiation and rhabdomere morphogenesis

katanin-60
AAA+ family enzyme that suppresses polymerization of microtubule plus-ends - regulates cell migration -
acts in mitosis to stimulates microtubule plus-end depolymerization and Pacman-based chromatid motility

Klp10A
mitotic kinesin required to depolymerize microtubules at their pole-associated minus ends thereby moving chromatids by means of poleward flux

Kinesin heavy chain
plus end directed vesicular transport motor protein

kismet
member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors -
facilitates an early step
in transcriptional elongation by Pol II

kuzbanian
metalloprotease functioning in notch pathway

lazaro
lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase that functions during phototransduction - along with rdgA
regulates amplification and response termination during phototransduction

lesswright (common alternative names: Ubc9 and Semushi)
SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme - stabilizes proteins against ubiquitinization and subsequent degradation -
regulates hematopoiesis - holds the Toll pathway in check

Lipin
phosphatidate phosphatase activity - transcriptional co-activator - downstream effector mediating effects of insulin and TORC1 signaling on lipid metabolism -
influences fat body development and function - affects cellular growth

little imaginal discs
trimethyl H3K4 demethylase - physically interacts with Myc to regulator Myc-induced cell growth

Matrix metalloproteinase 1 and Matrix metalloproteinase 2
enzymes required for several stereotyped motor axon pathfinding decisions and essential for axon fasciculation -
Mmp2 promotes dendrite reshaping through local degradation of the basement membrane - in trachea Mmp2 inhibits FGF
morphogenetic function - Mmp2 is essential for wing imaginal disc:trachea association and air sac tubulogenesis

metro
a MAGUK serving as a major binding partner of perisynaptic Dlg at larval neuromuscular junctions - stabilizes Dlg
in a complex with adaptor protein Lin-7 - controls NMJ expansion and proper establishment of synaptic boutons

MICAL
flavoprotein monooxygenase - large, multidomain protein expressed in axons - interacts with the neuronal Plexin A -
enzymatic function required for Semaphorin 1a/PlexA-mediated repulsive axon guidance

mind-bomb
E3 ubiquitin ligase - regulates endocytosis of Delta and Serrate

Minichromosome maintenance 5
AAA+ ATPase family - required in the Mcm complex for licensing and initiating origins of replication - it acts during elongation
as a helicase at the replication forks - acts in meiosis in maturation of double-strand breaks into crossovers

mummy
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine diphosphorylase - functions in apical extracellular matrix formation by producing
GlcNAc residues< needed for chitin synthesis and protein glycosylation - regulates cuticle production,
tracheal morphogenesis, and axon guidance

mutagen-sensitive 209 (preferred name: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen)
Polymerase-delta/epsilon processivity factor

myosin II (preferred name: zipper)
non-muscle myosin - motor protein - crucial functions in motility, cytokinesis, dorsal closure and cytoplasmic transport

Nedd2-like caspase
cysteine protease - a functional homolog of CED-3/caspase-9 - involved in programmed cell death

Nedd4
E3 ubiquitin ligase - negatively regulates the Notch signaling pathway and the genes comm and Amph - contributes to neuromuscular
synaptogenesis, transverse tubule formation in muscles, and muscle function - formation and actin-dependent patterning of the heart

Neprilysin 4
endopeptidase involved in the extra-cellular metabolism of signalling peptides - metallopeptidase - regulates
insulin-like peptide (ILP) expression and food intake - required in the mushroom body for middle-term and long-term memory>

neurotic (preferred name: O-fucosyltransferase 1)
modifies Notch by attaching fucose within EGF domains - positively required for Notch signaling,
essential for the physical interaction of Notch with its ligand Delta and for the ability of Fringe
to modulate this interaction

nicastrin
component of a proteolytic complex, along with Presenilin, that targets Notch and ß amyloid protein -
Zn-dependent exopeptidase

Nitric oxide synthase
Ca++/Calmodulin sensitive enzyme

non-stop
ubiquitin-specific protease expressed in glia - involved in development of laminal glia

no poles
E3 ubiquitin ligase required for the preservation of genomic integrity during early embryogenesis

no receptor potential A
phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C used in visual and odor signal transduction

Notum (common alternative name: wingful)
alpha/ß-hydrolase - Wingless antagonist - acts to induce cleavage of the Dlp glypican at the level of its GPI anchor leading to shedding of Dlp -
spatially regulated modification of Dlp by Notum employs the ligand binding activity of Dlp to promote or inhibit signaling in a context-dependent manner

Nucleolar protein at 60B
pseudouridylate synthase - enzymatically modifies ribosomal RNA -
required for maintenance of germ-line stem cells

nudel
serine protease - docking protein - dorsal group

Nucleosome assembly protein
Histone chaperone - chromatin assembly

O-fucosyltransferase 1 (alternative name: neurotic)
modifies Notch by attaching fucose within EGF domains - positively required for Notch signaling,
essential for the physical interaction of Notch with its ligand Delta and for the ability
of Fringe to modulate this interaction

okra
DNA helicase involved in DNA repair - required for meiosis

Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (common alternative name: gutfeeling)
modifies the activity of Ornithine decarboxylase - regulates the nuclear entry and overall levels
of Sex-lethal in early germ cells

pale
tyrosine hydroxylase - catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in catecholamine biosynthesis - mediates the oxidation of tyrosine to L-DOPA -
DOPA decarboxylase may then metabolize L-DOPA to dopamine

parkin
ubiquitin protein ligase - degrades proteins with aberrant conformations - mutants exhibit muscle degeneration,
male sterility, and defects in brain dopaminergic cells

pavarotti
a kinesin motor protein - required both to establish the structure of the telophase spindle to provide a framework
for assembly of the contractile ring and to mobilize mitotic regulator proteins

Pcaf (common alternative name: Gcn5)
a major histone H3 acetylase in Drosophila that plays a key role in the control of specific morphogenetic cascades
during developmental transitions

Peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase
an enzyme that targets neuropeptides

Peroxinectin-like
cyclooxygenase (Cox-like enzyme) - required for production of prostaglandins - regulation of actin cytoskeleton
during oogenesis - regulation of Fascin to control actin remodeling

persephone
trypsin-like serine protease - specific for fungal detection in a cascade activated by secreted fungal proteases and required
for the sensing of proteases elicited by bacteria in the hemolymph - acts downstream of pattern recognition receptors and upstream of Toll

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1
a master kinase that is crucial for the activation of AKT (PKB) and many kinases including PKC and S6K - contains pleckstrin homology (PH) domains
that interact with the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 second messenger - regulates cell growth - controls synaptic bouton size,
active zone number, and synaptic function - essential for neuronal differentiation

phyllopod
novel target of ras pathway - protein degradation cofactor

Pi4KIIα
Type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KII) produces the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, a key regulator
of membrane trafficking - critical for apical membrane transport events required for rhabdomere biogenesis

piRNA methyltransferase
RNA methyltransferase - carries out methylation of small interfering RNAs, the final step in assembly of RISC occurring
after the Argonaute-bound siRNA duplex is converted to single-stranded RNA

pipe
heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase

poly(A) polymerase (preferred name: hiiragi)
involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNA

Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase
enzyme that attaches ADP-ribose moiety to histone - promotes chromatin silencing by regulating the localization and function of SIR2

porcupine
O-acyltransferase activity - mediates lipidation of Wingless, which targets Wingless to secretory vesicles that deliver the ligand
to specialized microdomains at the cell surface where it can be packaged for secretion

pr-set
Set domain protein - methyltransferase that targets Histone H4 - helps maintain silent chromatin by a histone modification
that precludes neighboring acetylation of the H4 tail

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (common alternative name: Mutagen-sensitive 209)
Polymerase-delta/epsilon processivity factor

pch2
conserved AAA+ ATPase that participates in a double strand break independent meiotic prophase checkpoint

puffyeye
a ubiquitin-specific protease that regulates Myc levels and function - regulates both the ubiquitin ligase Archipelago and its cell cycle substrate Cyclin E

pumpless
glycine cleavage system H protein - involved in appetite control

Rad51-like (common alternative name: spindle A)
checkpoint protein essential for recombinational repair of double-stranded
DNA breaks (DSBs) in somatic cells and during meiosis in germ cells

rasp (common alternative name: Sightless)
acetyltransferase acting to acylate Hedgehog or to promote other modifications or trafficking events
necessary for Hedgehog function

recombination-defective
mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) family protein - facilitates repair synthesis during meiotic recombination

Reptin
member of AAA+ family of ATPases - DNA helicase - participates in epigenetic processes
leading to a repressive chromatin state as part of the TIP60 HAT complex

rhomboid-7
transmembrane mitochondrial protease required for spermatogenesis and muscle maturation

Rm62
DEAD box helicase - involved in generation of precursor-miRNA, double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing, heterochromatin formation,
resilencing of active transcription, maintenance of homeotic genes and antiviral immunity

scarface
belongs to a subgroup of serine protease homologues with an inactive catalytic site - functions extracellularly during dorsal closure
as an antagonist of the JNK pathway - regulates the polarized localization of laminin A during the development of epithelial polarity

scrawny
protein deubiquitinase required in germline, epithelial, and intestinal stem cells - acts to repress differentiation genes - deubiquitylates histone H2B
and functions in gene silencing - participates in a conserved pathway of chromatin regulation linking H2B ubiquitylation with H3K4me3 methylation

Separase
endopeptidase required for sister chromatid separation during mitosis

serpin-27A
protease inhibitor functioning in the immune response - regulates melanization cascade through specific inhibition
of the terminal protease (prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme)

Serpin77Ba
inhibits a protease cascade, involving the MP1 and MP2 proteases, that activates phenol oxidase, a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis -
Serpin77Ba inactivation and consequent tracheal melanization induces systemic expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin

Set1
Histone3 K4 methyltransferase - responsible for the generation of a chromatin structure at active promoters that ensures optimal
Pol II release into productive elongation

Set2
Histone 3 methyltransferase involved in dosage compensation, puparium formation and adult development

Seven in absentia
targets proteins to degradation - C3HC4 RING zinc-finger motif

shaggy (common alternative name: zeste white 3)
glycogen synthase kinase - segment polarity - functions in the Wingless signaling pathway

shutdown
immunophilin - FK506-binding protein domain and a tetratricopeptide repeat - essential for the normal function of the germline stem cells - a conserved cochaperone that collaborates with Hsp90 during piRNA biogenesis, potentially at the loading step of RNAs into Piwi proteins

sightless (preferred name: Rasp)
acetyltransferase acting to acylate Hedgehog or to promote other modifications or trafficking events
necessary for Hedgehog function

Sirtuin 1 (common alternative name: Sir2)
histone deacetylase required for euchromatic and heterochromatic silencing - interacts genetically and
physically with members of the Hairy/Deadpan/E(Spl) family of bHLH euchromatic repressors

smallminded
AAA-protein family - ATPase

Smurf1 (preferred name: lethal with a checkpoint kinase)
ubiquitin-protein ligase that regulates Decapentaplegic pathway signaling by targeting Mothers
against Dpp for degradation

spastin
AAA (ATPase Associated with diverse cellular Activities) family member - regulates microtubule stability -
mutants show defects in synaptic growth and neurotransmission

Stellate
ß subunit of Casein kinase II - a normally inactive gene which, when active, leads to male sterility - a target of
post-transcriptional gene regulation

stem cell tumor (also known as rhomboid-2)
Rhomboid-related transmembrane protein - serine-type protease - activates the oocyte-specific Gurken ligand and
thereby participate in defining posterior cell fates in the early follicular epithelium

stunted
ε-subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase - required for normal spindle orientation during embryonic divisions -
a circulating insulinotropic peptide produced by fat cells - modulates physiological insulin levels in response to nutrients

Suppressor of variegation 3-3
homolog of the human LSD1 amine oxidase - demethylates H3K4me2 and H3K4me1 and facilitates subsequent H3K9 methylation by SU(VAR)3-9 -
dictates the distinction between euchromatic and heterochromatic domains during early embryogenesis

Suppressor of variegation 3-9
involved in gene silencing - a modifier of position effect variegation - methylates histone H3 thus providing a mark
for the association of HP1 to heterochromatin

Tafazzin
an enzyme in the cardiolipin remodeling pathway that catalyzes the incorporation of an acyl group into lipid acceptors -
modifies lipid composition of mitochondrial inner membranes - regulates spermatogenesis - serves as a Drosophila model for Barth syndrom

tan
hydrolase - abdominal pigmentation - hydrolysis of N-β-alanyl dopamine to dopamine during cuticular melanization -
hydrolysis of carcinine to histamine in the metabolism of photoreceptor neurotransmitter

Ter94 (common alternative name: Valosin Containing Protein or VCP)
AAA family ATPase, CDC48 subfamily - modulation of proteolytic degradation - Hedgehog pathway -Wingless pathway - dendritic pruning -
motor neuron degeneration - ER stress response - maintenance of paternal chromosome integrity in the Drosophila zygote

Tip60
histone acetyltransferase that regulates general metabolism, axon growth and dendritic targeting and sleep-wake cycle -
regulates acetylation of histone H2A and promotes the generation of silent chromatin

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases
metalloprotease inhibitor expressed in muscle - neuromuscular junction - limits BMP trans-synaptic
signaling and the downstream synapse-to-nucleus signal transduction

Topoisomerase 2
ATP-dependent homodimeric enzyme that transiently cleaves double stranded DNA, passes a second DNA double helix
through the break and then reseals the break - plays a role in homolog association in meiosis - modulates insulator function

tout-velu
acetylglucosaminyltransferase - involved in heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis -
affects diffusion of Wingless, Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic

trithorax
histone methyltransferase activity (H3-K4 specific), zinc finger - trithorax group

twin
degrades mRNA poly(A) tails - CCR4 componenet of an enzyme complex catalyzing mRNA deadenylation

twine
cdc25 phosphatase - dephosphorylation of cdc2 by Twine controls entry into meiosis in both males and females

Tyramine β hydroxylase
an enzyme that converts tyramine to octopamine, a neurotransmitter that is the insect equivalent of norepinephrine - octopamine modulates
several physiological functions and behaviors including sleep, aggression and ovulation

Tyrosine decarboxylase 1 and Tyrosine decarboxylase 2
catalyze directly the biosynthesis of the neuromodulator tyramine and indirectly the biosynthesis of octopamine -
Tdc1 acts to synthesize tyramine, a potent diuretic factor in the Malpighian tubule - Tdc2 is required neurally for egg deposition

Ubiquitin activating enzyme 1
Ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E1, activates and transfers ubiquitin to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, tumor suppressor

Ubiquitin protein ligase E3A
Ubiquitination - protein degradation - model for Angelman syndrome - neuromuscular junction -
regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, the formation of terminal dendritic branches, and dopamine/serotonin synthesis

Utx
H3K27me3 demethylase - Notch antagonist - suppressor of Rbf-dependent tumors

Vacuolar H+ ATPase subunit 68-2
acidification of the endosomal compartment - required in signal-receiving cells for Notch signaling downstream of ligand activation - promotes degradation of Notch

vihar
E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme - contributes to the spatiotemporal control of Cyclin B degradation
that occurs first during mitosis at the spindle poles

wispy
poly(A) polymerase acting on specific mRNA targets during late oogenesis and early embryogenesis - required at the final stage
of oogenesis for metaphase during meiosis I arrest - interacts with Orb genetically and physically in an ovarian complex.

wunen and wunen-2
lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases - somatic Wun and Wun2 provide a repulsive environment for germ cell migration
by depleting an extracellular, attractive substrate - in germ cells Wun2 competes with somatic Wun and Wun2
for a common lipid phosphate substrate, which is required by germ cells to produce a survival signal

XNP
DEAD-like helicases superfamily - complements HIRA in recognizing exposed DNA and serving as a binding platform
for the efficient recruitment of H3.3 predeposition complexes to chromatin gaps

zipper
Myosin II or non-muscle myosin

zucchini
nuclease that functions in germline RNAi processes, required in dorso-ventral patterning pathway, required early during oogenesis
for the translational silencing of osk mRNA and at later stages for proper expression of the Grk protein
- regulates telomere-specific transposable elements

Drosophila genes listed by biochemical function

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