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David G. Capco, Editor
Cytoskeletal Mechanisms during Animal Development
Academic Press, Inc.
ISBN 0-12-153131-7





Contributors xi
Notice xiii
Introduction xv

Preface to Section 1

Section I

Cytoskeletal Mechanisms in Nonchordate Development

1) Cytoskeleton, Cellular Signals, and Cytoplasmic Localization in Chaetopterus Embryos
William R. Eckberg and Winston A. Anderson
I. Introduction 5
II. Cytoplasmic Localization 8
III. Cytoskeleton 16
IV. Cellular Signals Leading to Cytoskeletal Reorganization after Fertilization 25
V. Summary and Future Prospects 29
APPENDIX: Methods for Obtaining and Using Eggs and Embryos in Studies of the Cytoskeleton and Early Development 31
References 35

2) Cytoskeleton and Ctenophore Development
Evelyn Houliston, DaniËle CarrÈ, Patrick Chang, and Christian Sardet
I. Introduction to Ctenophores 41
II. Features of the Cytoplasm 46
III. Cell Biology of Early Developmental Events 47
IV. Concluding Remarks 56
APPENDIX: Methods 58
References 61

3) Sea Urchin Microtubules
Kathy A. Suprenant and Melissa A. Foltz Daggett
I. Introduction 65
II. Microtubule Organization 66
III. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Microtubule Components 69
IV. Regulation of Microtubule Assembly Dynamics 77
V. Role of Microtubules in Translational Regulation and Cytoplasmic Localization 79
VI. Prospects for the Future 83
APPENDIX: Methods 84
References 89

4) Actin-Membrane Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Early Sea Urchin Development
Edward M. Bonder and Douglas I. Fishkind
I. Introduction 101
II. Sea Urchin Egg Fertilization: Physiological Activation 102
III. Sea Urchin Egg Fertilization: Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics 104
IV. Sea Urchin Egg: Actin-Binding Proteins 107
V. Cortical Actin-Membrane Cytoskeletal Dynamics during Early Embryogenesis 115
VI. Concluding Remarks 123
APPENDIX: Sea Urchin Egg and Embryo Methods 123
References 131

5) RNA Localization and the Cytoskeleton in Drosophila Oocytes
Nancy Jo Pokrywka
I. Introduction 139
II. Oogenesis in Drosophila 140
III. Localization of Developmental Determinants 143
IV The Connection between the Cytoskeleton and Positional Information 150
V. Toward a General Model for RNA Localization in Drosophila? 153
VI. Conclusions 159
APPENDIX: Methods 160
References 164

6) Role of the Actin Cytoskeleton in Early Drosophlla Development
Kathryn G. Miller
I. Introduction and Overview 167
II. Studies of Actin-Binding Protein Function 175
III. Conclusions and Future Prospects 188
APPENDIX: Methods for Drosophila Embryo Fixation for Immunofluorescence 189
References 193

7) Role of the Cytoskeleton in the Generation of Spatial Patterns in Tubifex Eggs
Takashi Shimizu
I. Introduction 197
II. Early Development in Tubifex 198
III. Reorganization of Cortical F-Actin upon Activation 200
IV. Establishment of Bipolar Organization of Cortical F-Actin 202
V. Developmental Role of Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton 204
VI. Polar Cortical Actin Lattice during Early Cleavage 221
VII. Developmental Role of Subcortical Actin Cytoskeleton 223
VIII. Role of Centrosomes and Cortex in Generating Cleavage Patterns 225
IX. Concluding Remarks 229
APPENDIX: Methods 230
References 232

Preface to Section II 237

Section II
Cytoskeletal Mechanisms in Chordate Development

8) Development and Evolution of an Egg Cytoskeletal Domain in Ascidians
William R. Jeffery
I. Introduction 243
II. Ascidian Development 244
III. Control of Development 248
IV. The Myoplasmic Cytoskeletal Domain 249
V. Evolutionary Changes in Development 257
VI. Evolutionary Changes in the Myoplasmic Cytoskeletal Domain 260
VII. Role of the Myoplasmic Cytoskeletal Domain in Anural Development 264
VIII. Conclusions and Prospectus 267
APPENDIX: Methods for Studying the Ascidian Egg Cytoskeleton 270
References 273

9) Remodeling of the Specialized Intermediate Filament Network in Mammalian Eggs and Embryos during Development: Regulation by Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase M
G. Ian Gallicano and David C. Capco
I. Introduction 277
II. Specialized Organization of the Intermediate Filament Network (i.e., Cytoskeletal Sheets) 282
III. Functions of the Sheet in Development 297
IV. Regulation of the Sheets by Signal Transduction Mechanisms 302
V. Summary 306
APPENDIX: Methods 306
References 315

10) Mammalian Model Systems for Exploring Cytoskeletal Dynamics during Fertilization
Christopher S. Navara, Gwo-Jang Wu, Calvin Simerly, and Gerald Schatten
I. Introduction 321
II. Cytoskeletal Organization and Dynamics during Rodent Fertilization 322
III. Cytoskeletal Organization and Dynamics in Other Mammalian Species 327
IV. Summary and Implications 333
APPENDIX: Methods 338
References 339

11) Cytoskeleton in Teleost Eggs and Early Embryos: Contributions to Cytoarchitecture and Motile Events
Nathan H. Hart and Richard A. Fluck
I. Introduction 343
II. Actin, Myosin, and Spectrin Are Components of the Unfertilized Egg 344
III. Fertilization Triggers Changes in the Organization of Actin 348
IV. Ooplasmic Segregation 352
V. Epiboly and Gastrulation 362
VI. Conclusions and Future Directions 371
APPENDIX: Methods 372
References 374

12) Confocal Immunofluorescence Microscopy of Microtubules, Microtubule-Associated Proteins, and Microtubule-Organ izing Centers during Amphibian Oogenesis and Early Development
David L. Gard, Byeong Jik Cha, and Marianne M. Schroeder
I. Introduction 383
II. MT Organization during Amphibian Oogenesis and Early Development 385
III. Regulation of MT Assembly and Organization in Gocytes and Eggs: MTOCs and MAPs 405
IV. Concluding Remarks: Toward an Understanding of MT Assembly during Amphibian Oogenesis and Early Development 417
APPENDIX: Confocal Microscopy of MTs in Amphibian Oocytes, Eggs, and Early Embryos 419
References 424

13) Cortical Cytoskeleton of the Xenopus Oocyte, Egg, and Early Embryo Carolyn A. Larabell
I. Introduction 433
II. Cortical Cytoskeleton of the Meiotically Immature Oocyte 434
III. Cortical Cytoskeleton of the Unfertilized Egg 442
IV. Cortical Cytoskeleton during the First Cell Cycle 445
V. Conclusion 448
References 449

14) Intermediate Filament Organization, Reorganization, and Function in the Clawed Frog Xenopus
Michael W. Klymkowsky
I. Introduction 455
II. IF Proteins in Xenopus 456
III. IF Function in the Gocyte 463
IV. Maturation-Induced Disassembly of Keratin Filaments 464
V. Fertilization and the Reappearance of the Keratin Network 469
VI. Organization of the Embryonic Keratin Filament System 470
VII. Interactions between Adherence and Inductive Systems: The Plakoglobin Connection 472
VIII. The Appearance of Nonepithelial IFPs 475
IX. Desmin Organization and Function 476
APPENDIX: Methods 477
References 479

Index 487


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Developmental Biology
Published by Elsevier Science under Auspices of Society for Developmental Biology
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